“How to Date a Black girl, Brown girl, Halfie or White girl” written by Junot Diaz

“How to Date a Black girl, Brown girl, Halfie or White girl” written by Junot Diaz

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A block with mass m =7.1 kg is hung from a vertical spring. When the mass hangs in equilibrium, the spring stretches x = 0.23 m. While at this equilibrium position, the mass is then given an initial push downward at v = 4.4 m/s. The block oscillates on the spring without friction. 1) What is the spring constant of the spring? N/m You currently have 1 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 9 more submissions for this question. 2) What is the oscillation frequency? Hz You currently have 2 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 8 more submissions for this question. 3) After t = 0.37 s what is the speed of the block? m/s You currently have 1 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 9 more submissions for this question. 4) What is the magnitude of the maximum acceleration of the block? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 5) At t = 0.37 s what is the magnitude of the net force on the block? N You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 6) Where is the potential energy of the system the greatest? At the highest point of the oscillation. At the new equilibrium position of the oscillation. At the lowest point of the oscillation. You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. (Survey Question) 7) Below is some space to write notes on this problem A 5.2-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface is attached to one end of a horizontal spring that has a force constantk = 717 N/m. The spring is stretched 7.9 cm from equilibrium and released. 1) (a) What is the frequency of the motion? Hz You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 2) (b) What is the period of the motion? s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 3) (c) What is the amplitude of the motion? cm You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 4) (d) What is the maximum speed of the motion? m/s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 5) (e) What is the maximum acceleration of the motion? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 6) (f) When does the object first reach its equilibrium position? s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 7) (h) What is its acceleration at this time? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 1) An 86 kg person steps into a car of mass 2437 kg, causing it to sink 2.35 cm on its springs. Assuming no damping, with what frequency will the car and passenger vibrate on the springs? Hz You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 1) A 0.117-kg block is suspended from a spring. When a small pebble of mass 30 g is placed on the block, the spring stretches an additional 5.1 cm. With the pebble on the block, the block oscillates with an amplitude of 12 cm. Find the maximum amplitude of oscillation at which the pebble will remain in contact with the block. Block and Spring SHM ________________________________________ At t = 0 a block with mass M = 5 kg moves with a velocity v = 2 m/s at position xo = -.33 m from the equilibrium position of the spring. The block is attached to a massless spring of spring constant k = 61.2 N/m and slides on a frictionless surface. At what time will the block next pass x = 0, the place where the spring is unstretched? t1 = seconds You currently have 1 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 9 more submissions for this question. A simple pendulum with mass m = 1.9 kg and length L = 2.39 m hangs from the ceiling. It is pulled back to an small angle of θ = 9.9° from the vertical and released at t = 0. 1) What is the period of oscillation? s You currently have 2 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 8 more submissions for this question. 2) What is the magnitude of the force on the pendulum bob perpendicular to the string at t=0? N You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 3) What is the maximum speed of the pendulum? m/s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 4) What is the angular displacement at t = 3.5 s? (give the answer as a negative angle if the angle is to the left of the vertical) ° You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 5) What is the magnitude of the tangential acceleration as the pendulum passes through the equilibrium position? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 6) What is the magnitude of the radial acceleration as the pendulum passes through the equilibrium position? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 7) Which of the following would change the frequency of oscillation of this simple pendulum? increasing the mass decreasing the initial angular displacement increasing the length hanging the pendulum in an elevator accelerating downward You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. (Survey Question) 8) Below is some space to write notes on this problem 1) If the period of a 74-cm-long simple pendulum is 1.72 s, what is the value of g at the location of the pendulum? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. Torsion Pendulum • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 A torsion pendulum is made from a disk of mass m = 6.6 kg and radius R = 0.66 m. A force of F = 44.8 N exerted on the edge of the disk rotates the disk 1/4 of a revolution from equilibrium. 1) What is the torsion constant of this pendulum? N-m/rad You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 2) What is the minimum torque needed to rotate the pendulum a full revolution from equilibrium? N-m You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 3) What is the angular frequency of oscillation of this torsion pendulum? rad/s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 4) Which of the following would change the period of oscillation of this torsion pendulum? increasing the mass decreasing the initial angular displacement replacing the disk with a sphere of equal mass and radius hanging the pendulum in an elevator accelerating downward You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. (Survey Question) 5) Below is some space to write notes on this problem You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. Physical Pendulum ________________________________________ A rigid rod of length L= 1 m and mass M = 2.5 kg is attached to a pivot mounted d = 0.17 m from one end. The rod can rotate in the vertical plane, and is influenced by gravity. What is the period for small oscillations of the pendulum shown? T = seconds A circular hoop of radius 57 cm is hung on a narrow horizontal rod and allowed to swing in the plane of the hoop. What is the period of its oscillation, assuming that the amplitude is small? s 1) You are given a wooden rod 68 cm long and asked to drill a small diameter hole in it so that when pivoted about the the hole the period of the pendulum will be a minimum. How far from the center should you drill the hole? cm

A block with mass m =7.1 kg is hung from a vertical spring. When the mass hangs in equilibrium, the spring stretches x = 0.23 m. While at this equilibrium position, the mass is then given an initial push downward at v = 4.4 m/s. The block oscillates on the spring without friction. 1) What is the spring constant of the spring? N/m You currently have 1 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 9 more submissions for this question. 2) What is the oscillation frequency? Hz You currently have 2 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 8 more submissions for this question. 3) After t = 0.37 s what is the speed of the block? m/s You currently have 1 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 9 more submissions for this question. 4) What is the magnitude of the maximum acceleration of the block? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 5) At t = 0.37 s what is the magnitude of the net force on the block? N You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 6) Where is the potential energy of the system the greatest? At the highest point of the oscillation. At the new equilibrium position of the oscillation. At the lowest point of the oscillation. You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. (Survey Question) 7) Below is some space to write notes on this problem A 5.2-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface is attached to one end of a horizontal spring that has a force constantk = 717 N/m. The spring is stretched 7.9 cm from equilibrium and released. 1) (a) What is the frequency of the motion? Hz You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 2) (b) What is the period of the motion? s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 3) (c) What is the amplitude of the motion? cm You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 4) (d) What is the maximum speed of the motion? m/s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 5) (e) What is the maximum acceleration of the motion? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 6) (f) When does the object first reach its equilibrium position? s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 7) (h) What is its acceleration at this time? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 1) An 86 kg person steps into a car of mass 2437 kg, causing it to sink 2.35 cm on its springs. Assuming no damping, with what frequency will the car and passenger vibrate on the springs? Hz You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 1) A 0.117-kg block is suspended from a spring. When a small pebble of mass 30 g is placed on the block, the spring stretches an additional 5.1 cm. With the pebble on the block, the block oscillates with an amplitude of 12 cm. Find the maximum amplitude of oscillation at which the pebble will remain in contact with the block. Block and Spring SHM ________________________________________ At t = 0 a block with mass M = 5 kg moves with a velocity v = 2 m/s at position xo = -.33 m from the equilibrium position of the spring. The block is attached to a massless spring of spring constant k = 61.2 N/m and slides on a frictionless surface. At what time will the block next pass x = 0, the place where the spring is unstretched? t1 = seconds You currently have 1 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 9 more submissions for this question. A simple pendulum with mass m = 1.9 kg and length L = 2.39 m hangs from the ceiling. It is pulled back to an small angle of θ = 9.9° from the vertical and released at t = 0. 1) What is the period of oscillation? s You currently have 2 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 8 more submissions for this question. 2) What is the magnitude of the force on the pendulum bob perpendicular to the string at t=0? N You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 3) What is the maximum speed of the pendulum? m/s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 4) What is the angular displacement at t = 3.5 s? (give the answer as a negative angle if the angle is to the left of the vertical) ° You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 5) What is the magnitude of the tangential acceleration as the pendulum passes through the equilibrium position? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 6) What is the magnitude of the radial acceleration as the pendulum passes through the equilibrium position? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 7) Which of the following would change the frequency of oscillation of this simple pendulum? increasing the mass decreasing the initial angular displacement increasing the length hanging the pendulum in an elevator accelerating downward You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. (Survey Question) 8) Below is some space to write notes on this problem 1) If the period of a 74-cm-long simple pendulum is 1.72 s, what is the value of g at the location of the pendulum? m/s2 You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. Torsion Pendulum • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 A torsion pendulum is made from a disk of mass m = 6.6 kg and radius R = 0.66 m. A force of F = 44.8 N exerted on the edge of the disk rotates the disk 1/4 of a revolution from equilibrium. 1) What is the torsion constant of this pendulum? N-m/rad You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 2) What is the minimum torque needed to rotate the pendulum a full revolution from equilibrium? N-m You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 3) What is the angular frequency of oscillation of this torsion pendulum? rad/s You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. 4) Which of the following would change the period of oscillation of this torsion pendulum? increasing the mass decreasing the initial angular displacement replacing the disk with a sphere of equal mass and radius hanging the pendulum in an elevator accelerating downward You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. (Survey Question) 5) Below is some space to write notes on this problem You currently have 0 submissions for this question. Only 10 submission are allowed. You can make 10 more submissions for this question. Physical Pendulum ________________________________________ A rigid rod of length L= 1 m and mass M = 2.5 kg is attached to a pivot mounted d = 0.17 m from one end. The rod can rotate in the vertical plane, and is influenced by gravity. What is the period for small oscillations of the pendulum shown? T = seconds A circular hoop of radius 57 cm is hung on a narrow horizontal rod and allowed to swing in the plane of the hoop. What is the period of its oscillation, assuming that the amplitude is small? s 1) You are given a wooden rod 68 cm long and asked to drill a small diameter hole in it so that when pivoted about the the hole the period of the pendulum will be a minimum. How far from the center should you drill the hole? cm

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Chapter 13 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 16, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy A Matter of Some Gravity Learning Goal: To understand Newton’s law of gravitation and the distinction between inertial and gravitational masses. In this problem, you will practice using Newton’s law of gravitation. According to that law, the magnitude of the gravitational force between two small particles of masses and , separated by a distance , is given by , where is the universal gravitational constant, whose numerical value (in SI units) is . This formula applies not only to small particles, but also to spherical objects. In fact, the gravitational force between two uniform spheres is the same as if we concentrated all the mass of each sphere at its center. Thus, by modeling the Earth and the Moon as uniform spheres, you can use the particle approximation when calculating the force of gravity between them. Be careful in using Newton’s law to choose the correct value for . To calculate the force of gravitational attraction between two uniform spheres, the distance in the equation for Newton’s law of gravitation is the distance between the centers of the spheres. For instance, if a small object such as an elephant is located on the surface of the Earth, the radius of the Earth would be used in the equation. Note that the force of gravity acting on an object located near the surface of a planet is often called weight. Also note that in situations involving satellites, you are often given the altitude of the satellite, that is, the distance from the satellite to the surface of the planet; this is not the distance to be used in the formula for the law of gravitation. There is a potentially confusing issue involving mass. Mass is defined as a measure of an object’s inertia, that is, its ability to resist acceleration. Newton’s second law demonstrates the relationship between mass, acceleration, and the net force acting on an object: . We can now refer to this measure of inertia more precisely as the inertial mass. On the other hand, the masses of the particles that appear in the expression for the law of gravity seem to have nothing to do with inertia: Rather, they serve as a measure of the strength of gravitational interactions. It would be reasonable to call such a property gravitational mass. Does this mean that every object has two different masses? Generally speaking, yes. However, the good news is that according to the latest, highly precise, measurements, the inertial and the gravitational mass of an object are, in fact, equal to each other; it is an established consensus among physicists that there is only one mass after all, which is a measure of both the object’s inertia and its ability to engage in gravitational interactions. Note that this consensus, like everything else in science, is open to possible amendments in the future. In this problem, you will answer several questions that require the use of Newton’s law of gravitation. Part A Two particles are separated by a certain distance. The force of gravitational interaction between them is . Now the separation between the particles is tripled. Find the new force of gravitational Fg m1 m2 r Fg = G m1m2 r2 G 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg2 r r rEarth F  = m net a F0 interaction . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: Part B A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . Then the satellite moves to a different orbit, so that its altitude is tripled. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . Express your answer in terms of . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . Then the satellite is brought back to the surface of the planet. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: F1 F0 F1 = F0 F2 F0 F2 = F0 F4 F0 Typesetting math: 81% Part D Two satellites revolve around the Earth. Satellite A has mass and has an orbit of radius . Satellite B has mass and an orbit of unknown radius . The forces of gravitational attraction between each satellite and the Earth is the same. Find . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: Part E An adult elephant has a mass of about 5.0 tons. An adult elephant shrew has a mass of about 50 grams. How far from the center of the Earth should an elephant be placed so that its weight equals that of the elephant shrew on the surface of the Earth? The radius of the Earth is 6400 . ( .) Express your answer in kilometers. ANSWER: The table below gives the masses of the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. Name Mass (kg) Earth Moon Sun F4 = m r 6m rb rb r rb = r km 1 ton = 103 kg r = km 5.97 × 1024 7.35 × 1022 1.99 × 1030 Typesetting math: 81% The average distance between the Earth and the Moon is . The average distance between the Earth and the Sun is . Use this information to answer the following questions. Part F Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the new moon (when the moon is located directly between the Earth and the Sun). Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part G Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the full moon (when the Earth is located directly between the moon and the sun). Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. ANSWER: ± Understanding Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Learning Goal: To understand Newton’s law of universal gravitation and be able to apply it in two-object situations and (collinear) three-object situations; to distinguish between the use of and . 3.84 × 108 m 1.50 × 1011 m Fnet Fnet = N Fnet Fnet = N Typesetting math: 81% G g In the late 1600s, Isaac Newton proposed a rule to quantify the attractive force known as gravity between objects that have mass, such as those shown in the figure. Newton’s law of universal gravitation describes the magnitude of the attractive gravitational force between two objects with masses and as , where is the distance between the centers of the two objects and is the gravitational constant. The gravitational force is attractive, so in the figure it pulls to the right on (toward ) and toward the left on (toward ). The gravitational force acting on is equal in size to, but exactly opposite in direction from, the gravitational force acting on , as required by Newton’s third law. The magnitude of both forces is calculated with the equation given above. The gravitational constant has the value and should not be confused with the magnitude of the gravitational free-fall acceleration constant, denoted by , which equals 9.80 near the surface of the earth. The size of in SI units is tiny. This means that gravitational forces are sizeable only in the vicinity of very massive objects, such as the earth. You are in fact gravitationally attracted toward all the objects around you, such as the computer you are using, but the size of that force is too small to be noticed without extremely sensitive equipment. Consider the earth following its nearly circular orbit (dashed curve) about the sun. The earth has mass and the sun has mass . They are separated, center to center, by . Part A What is the size of the gravitational force acting on the earth due to the sun? Express your answer in newtons. F  g m1 m2 Fg = G( ) m1m2 r2 r G m1 m2 m2 m1 m1 m2 G G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2/kg2 g m/s2 G mearth = 5.98 × 1024 kg msun = 1.99 × 1030 kg r = 93 million miles = 150 million km Typesetting math: 81% You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F N Typesetting math: 81% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Understanding Mass and Weight Learning Goal: To understand the distinction between mass and weight and to be able to calculate the weight of an object from its mass and Newton’s law of gravitation. The concepts of mass and weight are often confused. In fact, in everyday conversations, the word “weight” often replaces “mass,” as in “My weight is seventy-five kilograms” or “I need to lose some weight.” Of course, mass and weight are related; however, they are also very different. Mass, as you recall, is a measure of an object’s inertia (ability to resist acceleration). Newton’s 2nd law demonstrates the relationship among an object’s mass, its acceleration, and the net force acting on it: . Mass is an intrinsic property of an object and is independent of the object’s location. Weight, in contrast, is defined as the force due to gravity acting on the object. That force depends on the strength of the gravitational field of the planet: , where is the weight of an object, is the mass of that object, and is the local acceleration due to gravity (in other words, the strength of the gravitational field at the location of the object). Weight, unlike mass, is not an intrinsic property of the object; it is determined by both the object and its location. Part A Which of the following quantities represent mass? Check all that apply. ANSWER: Fnet = ma w = mg w m g 12.0 lbs 0.34 g 120 kg 1600 kN 0.34 m 411 cm 899 MN Typesetting math: 81% Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Using the universal law of gravity, we can find the weight of an object feeling the gravitational pull of a nearby planet. We can write an expression , where is the weight of the object, is the gravitational constant, is the mass of that object, is mass of the planet, and is the distance from the center of the planet to the object. If the object is on the surface of the planet, is simply the radius of the planet. Part C The gravitational field on the surface of the earth is stronger than that on the surface of the moon. If a rock is transported from the moon to the earth, which properties of the rock change? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E If acceleration due to gravity on the earth is , which formula gives the acceleration due to gravity on Loput? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: w = GmM/r2 w G m M r r mass only weight only both mass and weight neither mass nor weight g Typesetting math: 81% Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± Weight on a Neutron Star Neutron stars, such as the one at the center of the Crab Nebula, have about the same mass as our sun but a much smaller diameter. g 1.7 5.6 g 1.72 5.6 g 1.72 5.62 g 5.6 1.7 g 5.62 1.72 g 5.6 1.72 Typesetting math: 81% Part A If you weigh 655 on the earth, what would be your weight on the surface of a neutron star that has the same mass as our sun and a diameter of 19.0 ? Take the mass of the sun to be = 1.99×1030 , the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , and the acceleration due to gravity at the earth’s surface to be = 9.810 . Express your weight in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: ± Escape Velocity Learning Goal: To introduce you to the concept of escape velocity for a rocket. The escape velocity is defined to be the minimum speed with which an object of mass must move to escape from the gravitational attraction of a much larger body, such as a planet of total mass . The escape velocity is a function of the distance of the object from the center of the planet , but unless otherwise specified this distance is taken to be the radius of the planet because it addresses the question “How fast does my rocket have to go to escape from the surface of the planet?” Part A The key to making a concise mathematical definition of escape velocity is to consider the energy. If an object is launched at its escape velocity, what is the total mechanical energy of the object at a very large (i.e., infinite) distance from the planet? Follow the usual convention and take the gravitational potential energy to be zero at very large distances. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: N km ms kg G N m2/kg2 g m/s2 wstar wstar = N m M R Etotal Typesetting math: 81% Consider the motion of an object between a point close to the planet and a point very very far from the planet. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part B Angular momentum about the center of the planet is conserved. ANSWER: Part C Total mechanical energy is conserved. ANSWER: Part D Kinetic energy is conserved. ANSWER: Etotal = true false true false Typesetting math: 81% Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). A Satellite in a Circular Orbit Consider a satellite of mass that orbits a planet of mass in a circle a distance from the center of the planet. The satellite’s mass is negligible compared with that of the planet. Indicate whether each of the statements in this problem is true or false. Part A The information given is sufficient to uniquely specify the speed, potential energy, and angular momentum of the satellite. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: true false m1 m2 r true false Typesetting math: 81% Part B The total mechanical energy of the satellite is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C The linear momentum vector of the satellite is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D The angular momentum of the satellite about the center of the planet is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: true false true false Typesetting math: 81% Part E The equations that express the conservation laws of total mechanical energy and linear momentum are sufficient to solve for the speed necessary to maintain a circular orbit at without using . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: At the Galaxy’s Core Astronomers have observed a small, massive object at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. A ring of material orbits this massive object; the ring has a diameter of about 15 light years and an orbital speed of about 200 . Part A Determine the mass of the massive object at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Take the distance of one light year to be . Express your answer in kilograms. You did not open hints for this part. true false R F = ma true false km/s M 9.461 × 1015 m Typesetting math: 81% ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Properties of Circular Orbits Learning Goal: To teach you how to find the parameters characterizing an object in a circular orbit around a much heavier body like the earth. M = kg Typesetting math: 81% The motivation for Isaac Newton to discover his laws of motion was to explain the properties of planetary orbits that were observed by Tycho Brahe and analyzed by Johannes Kepler. A good starting point for understanding this (as well as the speed of the space shuttle and the height of geostationary satellites) is the simplest orbit–a circular one. This problem concerns the properties of circular orbits for a satellite orbiting a planet of mass . For all parts of this problem, where appropriate, use for the universal gravitational constant. Part A Find the orbital speed for a satellite in a circular orbit of radius . Express the orbital speed in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find the kinetic energy of a satellite with mass in a circular orbit with radius . Express your answer in terms of \texttip{m}{m}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{G}{G}, and \texttip{R}{R}. ANSWER: Part C M G v R G M R v = K m R \texttip{K}{K} = Typesetting math: 81% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D Find the orbital period \texttip{T}{T}. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{G}{G}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{R}{R}, and \texttip{\pi }{pi}. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F Find \texttip{L}{L}, the magnitude of the angular momentum of the satellite with respect to the center of the planet. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{m}{m}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{G}{G}, and \texttip{R}{R}. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: \texttip{T}{T} = Typesetting math: 81% Part G The quantities \texttip{v}{v}, \texttip{K}{K}, \texttip{U}{U}, and \texttip{L}{L} all represent physical quantities characterizing the orbit that depend on radius \texttip{R}{R}. Indicate the exponent (power) of the radial dependence of the absolute value of each. Express your answer as a comma-separated list of exponents corresponding to \texttip{v}{v}, \texttip{K}{K}, \texttip{U}{U}, and \texttip{L}{L}, in that order. For example, -1,-1/2,-0.5,-3/2 would mean v \propto R^{-1}, K \propto R^{-1/2}, and so forth. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. \texttip{L}{L} = Typesetting math: 81%

Chapter 13 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 16, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy A Matter of Some Gravity Learning Goal: To understand Newton’s law of gravitation and the distinction between inertial and gravitational masses. In this problem, you will practice using Newton’s law of gravitation. According to that law, the magnitude of the gravitational force between two small particles of masses and , separated by a distance , is given by , where is the universal gravitational constant, whose numerical value (in SI units) is . This formula applies not only to small particles, but also to spherical objects. In fact, the gravitational force between two uniform spheres is the same as if we concentrated all the mass of each sphere at its center. Thus, by modeling the Earth and the Moon as uniform spheres, you can use the particle approximation when calculating the force of gravity between them. Be careful in using Newton’s law to choose the correct value for . To calculate the force of gravitational attraction between two uniform spheres, the distance in the equation for Newton’s law of gravitation is the distance between the centers of the spheres. For instance, if a small object such as an elephant is located on the surface of the Earth, the radius of the Earth would be used in the equation. Note that the force of gravity acting on an object located near the surface of a planet is often called weight. Also note that in situations involving satellites, you are often given the altitude of the satellite, that is, the distance from the satellite to the surface of the planet; this is not the distance to be used in the formula for the law of gravitation. There is a potentially confusing issue involving mass. Mass is defined as a measure of an object’s inertia, that is, its ability to resist acceleration. Newton’s second law demonstrates the relationship between mass, acceleration, and the net force acting on an object: . We can now refer to this measure of inertia more precisely as the inertial mass. On the other hand, the masses of the particles that appear in the expression for the law of gravity seem to have nothing to do with inertia: Rather, they serve as a measure of the strength of gravitational interactions. It would be reasonable to call such a property gravitational mass. Does this mean that every object has two different masses? Generally speaking, yes. However, the good news is that according to the latest, highly precise, measurements, the inertial and the gravitational mass of an object are, in fact, equal to each other; it is an established consensus among physicists that there is only one mass after all, which is a measure of both the object’s inertia and its ability to engage in gravitational interactions. Note that this consensus, like everything else in science, is open to possible amendments in the future. In this problem, you will answer several questions that require the use of Newton’s law of gravitation. Part A Two particles are separated by a certain distance. The force of gravitational interaction between them is . Now the separation between the particles is tripled. Find the new force of gravitational Fg m1 m2 r Fg = G m1m2 r2 G 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg2 r r rEarth F  = m net a F0 interaction . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: Part B A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . Then the satellite moves to a different orbit, so that its altitude is tripled. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . Express your answer in terms of . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . Then the satellite is brought back to the surface of the planet. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: F1 F0 F1 = F0 F2 F0 F2 = F0 F4 F0 Typesetting math: 81% Part D Two satellites revolve around the Earth. Satellite A has mass and has an orbit of radius . Satellite B has mass and an orbit of unknown radius . The forces of gravitational attraction between each satellite and the Earth is the same. Find . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: Part E An adult elephant has a mass of about 5.0 tons. An adult elephant shrew has a mass of about 50 grams. How far from the center of the Earth should an elephant be placed so that its weight equals that of the elephant shrew on the surface of the Earth? The radius of the Earth is 6400 . ( .) Express your answer in kilometers. ANSWER: The table below gives the masses of the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. Name Mass (kg) Earth Moon Sun F4 = m r 6m rb rb r rb = r km 1 ton = 103 kg r = km 5.97 × 1024 7.35 × 1022 1.99 × 1030 Typesetting math: 81% The average distance between the Earth and the Moon is . The average distance between the Earth and the Sun is . Use this information to answer the following questions. Part F Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the new moon (when the moon is located directly between the Earth and the Sun). Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part G Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the full moon (when the Earth is located directly between the moon and the sun). Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. ANSWER: ± Understanding Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Learning Goal: To understand Newton’s law of universal gravitation and be able to apply it in two-object situations and (collinear) three-object situations; to distinguish between the use of and . 3.84 × 108 m 1.50 × 1011 m Fnet Fnet = N Fnet Fnet = N Typesetting math: 81% G g In the late 1600s, Isaac Newton proposed a rule to quantify the attractive force known as gravity between objects that have mass, such as those shown in the figure. Newton’s law of universal gravitation describes the magnitude of the attractive gravitational force between two objects with masses and as , where is the distance between the centers of the two objects and is the gravitational constant. The gravitational force is attractive, so in the figure it pulls to the right on (toward ) and toward the left on (toward ). The gravitational force acting on is equal in size to, but exactly opposite in direction from, the gravitational force acting on , as required by Newton’s third law. The magnitude of both forces is calculated with the equation given above. The gravitational constant has the value and should not be confused with the magnitude of the gravitational free-fall acceleration constant, denoted by , which equals 9.80 near the surface of the earth. The size of in SI units is tiny. This means that gravitational forces are sizeable only in the vicinity of very massive objects, such as the earth. You are in fact gravitationally attracted toward all the objects around you, such as the computer you are using, but the size of that force is too small to be noticed without extremely sensitive equipment. Consider the earth following its nearly circular orbit (dashed curve) about the sun. The earth has mass and the sun has mass . They are separated, center to center, by . Part A What is the size of the gravitational force acting on the earth due to the sun? Express your answer in newtons. F  g m1 m2 Fg = G( ) m1m2 r2 r G m1 m2 m2 m1 m1 m2 G G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2/kg2 g m/s2 G mearth = 5.98 × 1024 kg msun = 1.99 × 1030 kg r = 93 million miles = 150 million km Typesetting math: 81% You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F N Typesetting math: 81% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Understanding Mass and Weight Learning Goal: To understand the distinction between mass and weight and to be able to calculate the weight of an object from its mass and Newton’s law of gravitation. The concepts of mass and weight are often confused. In fact, in everyday conversations, the word “weight” often replaces “mass,” as in “My weight is seventy-five kilograms” or “I need to lose some weight.” Of course, mass and weight are related; however, they are also very different. Mass, as you recall, is a measure of an object’s inertia (ability to resist acceleration). Newton’s 2nd law demonstrates the relationship among an object’s mass, its acceleration, and the net force acting on it: . Mass is an intrinsic property of an object and is independent of the object’s location. Weight, in contrast, is defined as the force due to gravity acting on the object. That force depends on the strength of the gravitational field of the planet: , where is the weight of an object, is the mass of that object, and is the local acceleration due to gravity (in other words, the strength of the gravitational field at the location of the object). Weight, unlike mass, is not an intrinsic property of the object; it is determined by both the object and its location. Part A Which of the following quantities represent mass? Check all that apply. ANSWER: Fnet = ma w = mg w m g 12.0 lbs 0.34 g 120 kg 1600 kN 0.34 m 411 cm 899 MN Typesetting math: 81% Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Using the universal law of gravity, we can find the weight of an object feeling the gravitational pull of a nearby planet. We can write an expression , where is the weight of the object, is the gravitational constant, is the mass of that object, is mass of the planet, and is the distance from the center of the planet to the object. If the object is on the surface of the planet, is simply the radius of the planet. Part C The gravitational field on the surface of the earth is stronger than that on the surface of the moon. If a rock is transported from the moon to the earth, which properties of the rock change? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E If acceleration due to gravity on the earth is , which formula gives the acceleration due to gravity on Loput? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: w = GmM/r2 w G m M r r mass only weight only both mass and weight neither mass nor weight g Typesetting math: 81% Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± Weight on a Neutron Star Neutron stars, such as the one at the center of the Crab Nebula, have about the same mass as our sun but a much smaller diameter. g 1.7 5.6 g 1.72 5.6 g 1.72 5.62 g 5.6 1.7 g 5.62 1.72 g 5.6 1.72 Typesetting math: 81% Part A If you weigh 655 on the earth, what would be your weight on the surface of a neutron star that has the same mass as our sun and a diameter of 19.0 ? Take the mass of the sun to be = 1.99×1030 , the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , and the acceleration due to gravity at the earth’s surface to be = 9.810 . Express your weight in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: ± Escape Velocity Learning Goal: To introduce you to the concept of escape velocity for a rocket. The escape velocity is defined to be the minimum speed with which an object of mass must move to escape from the gravitational attraction of a much larger body, such as a planet of total mass . The escape velocity is a function of the distance of the object from the center of the planet , but unless otherwise specified this distance is taken to be the radius of the planet because it addresses the question “How fast does my rocket have to go to escape from the surface of the planet?” Part A The key to making a concise mathematical definition of escape velocity is to consider the energy. If an object is launched at its escape velocity, what is the total mechanical energy of the object at a very large (i.e., infinite) distance from the planet? Follow the usual convention and take the gravitational potential energy to be zero at very large distances. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: N km ms kg G N m2/kg2 g m/s2 wstar wstar = N m M R Etotal Typesetting math: 81% Consider the motion of an object between a point close to the planet and a point very very far from the planet. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part B Angular momentum about the center of the planet is conserved. ANSWER: Part C Total mechanical energy is conserved. ANSWER: Part D Kinetic energy is conserved. ANSWER: Etotal = true false true false Typesetting math: 81% Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). A Satellite in a Circular Orbit Consider a satellite of mass that orbits a planet of mass in a circle a distance from the center of the planet. The satellite’s mass is negligible compared with that of the planet. Indicate whether each of the statements in this problem is true or false. Part A The information given is sufficient to uniquely specify the speed, potential energy, and angular momentum of the satellite. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: true false m1 m2 r true false Typesetting math: 81% Part B The total mechanical energy of the satellite is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C The linear momentum vector of the satellite is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D The angular momentum of the satellite about the center of the planet is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: true false true false Typesetting math: 81% Part E The equations that express the conservation laws of total mechanical energy and linear momentum are sufficient to solve for the speed necessary to maintain a circular orbit at without using . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: At the Galaxy’s Core Astronomers have observed a small, massive object at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. A ring of material orbits this massive object; the ring has a diameter of about 15 light years and an orbital speed of about 200 . Part A Determine the mass of the massive object at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Take the distance of one light year to be . Express your answer in kilograms. You did not open hints for this part. true false R F = ma true false km/s M 9.461 × 1015 m Typesetting math: 81% ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Properties of Circular Orbits Learning Goal: To teach you how to find the parameters characterizing an object in a circular orbit around a much heavier body like the earth. M = kg Typesetting math: 81% The motivation for Isaac Newton to discover his laws of motion was to explain the properties of planetary orbits that were observed by Tycho Brahe and analyzed by Johannes Kepler. A good starting point for understanding this (as well as the speed of the space shuttle and the height of geostationary satellites) is the simplest orbit–a circular one. This problem concerns the properties of circular orbits for a satellite orbiting a planet of mass . For all parts of this problem, where appropriate, use for the universal gravitational constant. Part A Find the orbital speed for a satellite in a circular orbit of radius . Express the orbital speed in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find the kinetic energy of a satellite with mass in a circular orbit with radius . Express your answer in terms of \texttip{m}{m}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{G}{G}, and \texttip{R}{R}. ANSWER: Part C M G v R G M R v = K m R \texttip{K}{K} = Typesetting math: 81% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D Find the orbital period \texttip{T}{T}. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{G}{G}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{R}{R}, and \texttip{\pi }{pi}. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F Find \texttip{L}{L}, the magnitude of the angular momentum of the satellite with respect to the center of the planet. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{m}{m}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{G}{G}, and \texttip{R}{R}. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: \texttip{T}{T} = Typesetting math: 81% Part G The quantities \texttip{v}{v}, \texttip{K}{K}, \texttip{U}{U}, and \texttip{L}{L} all represent physical quantities characterizing the orbit that depend on radius \texttip{R}{R}. Indicate the exponent (power) of the radial dependence of the absolute value of each. Express your answer as a comma-separated list of exponents corresponding to \texttip{v}{v}, \texttip{K}{K}, \texttip{U}{U}, and \texttip{L}{L}, in that order. For example, -1,-1/2,-0.5,-3/2 would mean v \propto R^{-1}, K \propto R^{-1/2}, and so forth. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. \texttip{L}{L} = Typesetting math: 81%

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Question 10 (1 point) In contrast to Freud’s theory, object relations theorists Question 10 options: focus on internal drives and conflicts. are interested in the intellectual and emotional development of the infant. are interested in an infant’s relationship with his or her parents. do not believe that children develop unconscious representations of significant objects in their environment. ________________________________________ Question 11 (1 point) The psychologists who developed the frustration aggression hypothesis used or adapted each of the following concepts from Freudian theory except one. Which one? Question 11 options: displacement sublimation catharsis reinforcement Question 12 (1 point) Although he changed his mind during his career, which of the following did Freud eventually decide was the cause of human aggression? Question 12 options: a death instinct frustration projection unresolved Oedipal conflicts Question 13 (1 point) Freud wrote about all of the following types of anxiety except one. Which one? Question 13 options: reality anxiety neurotic anxiety moral anxiety performance anxiety Question 14 (1 point) Which of the following is true about neurotic anxiety, as conceived by Freud? Question 14 options: It is experienced when id impulses are close to breaking into consciousness. It prevents the ego from utilizing defense mechanisms. It is created when id impulses violate society’s moral code. People experiencing neurotic anxiety usually are aware of what is making them anxious. Question 15 (1 point) One explanation for why aggression leads to more aggression is that it is reinforced by the cathartic release of tension. Question 15 options: True False ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) A man is said to have one personality trait that dominates his personality. Allport would identify this personality trait as a Question 1 options: 1) common trait. 2) central trait. 3) cardinal trait. 4) secondary trait. Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is true about the trait approach to personality? Question 2 options: 1) Trait researchers generally are not interested in understanding and predicting the behavior of a single individual. 2) It is not easy to make comparisons across people with the trait approach. 3) The trait approach has been responsible for generating a number of useful approaches to psychotherapy. 4) Trait theorists place a greater emphasis on discovering the mechanisms underlying behavior than do theorists from other approaches to personality. Question 3 (1 point) Many researchers fail to produce strong links between personality traits and behavior. Epstein has argued that the reason for this failure is because Question 3 options: 1) researchers don’t perform the correct statistical analysis. 2) researchers don’t measure personality traits correctly. 3) researchers don’t measure behavior correctly. 4) none of the above Question 4 (1 point) Which theorist had a strong influence on Henry Murray’s theorizing about personality? Question 4 options: 1) Gordon Allport 2) Alfred Adler 3) Sigmund Freud 4) Carl Jung Question 5 (1 point) Sometimes test makers include the same test questions more than once on the test. This is done to detect which potential problem? Question 5 options: 1) faking good 2) faking bad 3) carelessness and sabotage 4) social desirability

Question 10 (1 point) In contrast to Freud’s theory, object relations theorists Question 10 options: focus on internal drives and conflicts. are interested in the intellectual and emotional development of the infant. are interested in an infant’s relationship with his or her parents. do not believe that children develop unconscious representations of significant objects in their environment. ________________________________________ Question 11 (1 point) The psychologists who developed the frustration aggression hypothesis used or adapted each of the following concepts from Freudian theory except one. Which one? Question 11 options: displacement sublimation catharsis reinforcement Question 12 (1 point) Although he changed his mind during his career, which of the following did Freud eventually decide was the cause of human aggression? Question 12 options: a death instinct frustration projection unresolved Oedipal conflicts Question 13 (1 point) Freud wrote about all of the following types of anxiety except one. Which one? Question 13 options: reality anxiety neurotic anxiety moral anxiety performance anxiety Question 14 (1 point) Which of the following is true about neurotic anxiety, as conceived by Freud? Question 14 options: It is experienced when id impulses are close to breaking into consciousness. It prevents the ego from utilizing defense mechanisms. It is created when id impulses violate society’s moral code. People experiencing neurotic anxiety usually are aware of what is making them anxious. Question 15 (1 point) One explanation for why aggression leads to more aggression is that it is reinforced by the cathartic release of tension. Question 15 options: True False ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) A man is said to have one personality trait that dominates his personality. Allport would identify this personality trait as a Question 1 options: 1) common trait. 2) central trait. 3) cardinal trait. 4) secondary trait. Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is true about the trait approach to personality? Question 2 options: 1) Trait researchers generally are not interested in understanding and predicting the behavior of a single individual. 2) It is not easy to make comparisons across people with the trait approach. 3) The trait approach has been responsible for generating a number of useful approaches to psychotherapy. 4) Trait theorists place a greater emphasis on discovering the mechanisms underlying behavior than do theorists from other approaches to personality. Question 3 (1 point) Many researchers fail to produce strong links between personality traits and behavior. Epstein has argued that the reason for this failure is because Question 3 options: 1) researchers don’t perform the correct statistical analysis. 2) researchers don’t measure personality traits correctly. 3) researchers don’t measure behavior correctly. 4) none of the above Question 4 (1 point) Which theorist had a strong influence on Henry Murray’s theorizing about personality? Question 4 options: 1) Gordon Allport 2) Alfred Adler 3) Sigmund Freud 4) Carl Jung Question 5 (1 point) Sometimes test makers include the same test questions more than once on the test. This is done to detect which potential problem? Question 5 options: 1) faking good 2) faking bad 3) carelessness and sabotage 4) social desirability

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6. What is meant by the threshold service level of a least-cost system?

6. What is meant by the threshold service level of a least-cost system?

What is meant by the threshold service level of a … Read More...
1A. You administer an IV with 3 liters of 50 mM NaCl to a person whose osmolarity is 300 mOsM and whose total body water is 30 L. Fill in the table below: 3 L of 50 mM NaCl Total body ECF ICF Solute (osmoles) Volume (L) Concentration (OsM) 1B. The same person from the previous problem instead is given 1 liter of an IV contained 250 mOsM NaCl and 50 mOsM urea. Com Total body ECF ICF Solute Volume Concentration 2. You isolate intact mitochondria as described in class and equilibrate them in a buffered solution at pH 9, containing 0.1 M KCl and ADP plus Pi but without succinate. You then collect them by centrifugation, and quickly resuspend them in a new buffer at pH 7, without KCl , but with valinomycin (a K+ ionophore). Note: the K+ rushing out will create a huge positive charge differential. a. Describe what happens to proton concentrations in the intermembrane space and the matrix at each step of the study. b. What do you predict will be the result on oxygen consumption and the production of ATP?   3. A negatively charged nutrient (equivalent charge of one electron) is actively transported from the outside to the inside of a cell membrane; i.e. a cell captures energy from the hydrolysis of ATP in order to bring a molecule from the outside of the cell, where it is present at a low concentration, to the inside of the cell, where it is present at higher concentration. If the molecular species to be transported is present at a concentration of 34.5 nM on the outside of the cell, the potential on the outside of the cell is +75 mV, the potential on the inside of the cell is -35 mV, and the efficiency at which energy from the hydrolysis of ATP is captured for this active transport process is 59%, what is the maximum concentration of the transported species that may be achieved inside the cell?   4. . ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi G0 = -7.3 kcal/mol In a chemical system that has two different solute concentrations, the Gibbs free energy that is available to do work is: ΔG = RT ln [C1/C2], where R and T are the gas constant (2 cal/mol K) and temperature (Kelvin). C1 and C2 refer to the concentrations (e.g. molarities, M) of a solute on different sides of a membrane. (a) For a one unit difference in pH across a cellular membrane, what is the energy (in kcal/mol) that is available to do chemical work? (b) This gradient is to be used to drive the reaction synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi. A concentration gradient of any solute has potential energy. When the solute is charged, a voltage is also established across the membrane, which also adds to the total potential energy. What fraction of the energy needed to drive the reaction is provided by the voltage across the membrane?

1A. You administer an IV with 3 liters of 50 mM NaCl to a person whose osmolarity is 300 mOsM and whose total body water is 30 L. Fill in the table below: 3 L of 50 mM NaCl Total body ECF ICF Solute (osmoles) Volume (L) Concentration (OsM) 1B. The same person from the previous problem instead is given 1 liter of an IV contained 250 mOsM NaCl and 50 mOsM urea. Com Total body ECF ICF Solute Volume Concentration 2. You isolate intact mitochondria as described in class and equilibrate them in a buffered solution at pH 9, containing 0.1 M KCl and ADP plus Pi but without succinate. You then collect them by centrifugation, and quickly resuspend them in a new buffer at pH 7, without KCl , but with valinomycin (a K+ ionophore). Note: the K+ rushing out will create a huge positive charge differential. a. Describe what happens to proton concentrations in the intermembrane space and the matrix at each step of the study. b. What do you predict will be the result on oxygen consumption and the production of ATP?   3. A negatively charged nutrient (equivalent charge of one electron) is actively transported from the outside to the inside of a cell membrane; i.e. a cell captures energy from the hydrolysis of ATP in order to bring a molecule from the outside of the cell, where it is present at a low concentration, to the inside of the cell, where it is present at higher concentration. If the molecular species to be transported is present at a concentration of 34.5 nM on the outside of the cell, the potential on the outside of the cell is +75 mV, the potential on the inside of the cell is -35 mV, and the efficiency at which energy from the hydrolysis of ATP is captured for this active transport process is 59%, what is the maximum concentration of the transported species that may be achieved inside the cell?   4. . ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi G0 = -7.3 kcal/mol In a chemical system that has two different solute concentrations, the Gibbs free energy that is available to do work is: ΔG = RT ln [C1/C2], where R and T are the gas constant (2 cal/mol K) and temperature (Kelvin). C1 and C2 refer to the concentrations (e.g. molarities, M) of a solute on different sides of a membrane. (a) For a one unit difference in pH across a cellular membrane, what is the energy (in kcal/mol) that is available to do chemical work? (b) This gradient is to be used to drive the reaction synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi. A concentration gradient of any solute has potential energy. When the solute is charged, a voltage is also established across the membrane, which also adds to the total potential energy. What fraction of the energy needed to drive the reaction is provided by the voltage across the membrane?

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From the perspective of expectancy value theory, your belief about how likely it is that a behavior will attain a certain goal is called your ________. behavior potential expectancy reinforcement value general self-efficacy

From the perspective of expectancy value theory, your belief about how likely it is that a behavior will attain a certain goal is called your ________. behavior potential expectancy reinforcement value general self-efficacy

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GLG 110: Dangerous World Assignment #2: Landslides Part 1: Disasters in the News On March 22nd 2014, a large landslide occurred near Oso, Washington. As of July 23rd, 2014, all remains had been recovered and the death toll stood at 43 people. Lots of information about the landslide can be found on the American Geophysical Union’s Landslide blog. Read about the landslide here (don’t worry, each entry is quite short): http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/23/oso-landslide-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/24/oso-landslip-useful-resources/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/25/the-steelhead-landslide-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/28/oso-mechanisms-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/04/02/steelhead-landslide-in-washington/ Answer the following questions: 1) Describe the factors that led to this landslide: What type of material was involved- how cohesive/prone to failure is it? Was the cause primarily due to a change in slope, a change in friction/cohesion, or addition of mass? What was this cause? 2) Was the cause of this slide natural, man-made, or a combination of both? 3) Discuss the hazard assessment/mitigation efforts in effect before the slide. What evidence in the surrounding geology/geography suggests an existing landslide hazard? Was anything being to done to reduce the risk of a damaging landslide? For questions 4 & 5, use the photo of the Oso Landslide below: 4) What type of slide do you think this is (rotational or translational)? What visual evidence in the photo above supports your choice? 5) On the image above and using diagrams from the lecture and your textbook, label the different parts of the slide. Terms you can include, but are not limited to, are: scarp, original surface, toe, head, foot. 6) When the failed material entered the river, it created another type of mass movement; what is this mass movement and why did it make the slide more damaging? Part 2: A little physics (it is a science class after all) We discussed in class how whether or not a slope will fail is based on the balance of gravitational vs. frictional forces using the following diagram and equations: For simplicity, we will ignore FR, the force of the base of the slope supporting the upper slope. In the case shown above, for the slope to be stable, the frictional resistance force, Ff, must be larger than the gravitational force acting down the slope, Fll: Fll < Ff 7) For a slope with angle θ = 30o and coefficient of friction μ = 0.6, is the slope stable? Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 8) For a slope with θ = 15o, for what values of μ will the slope be unstable? In other words, at what value of μ does, Fll = Ff, such that any decrease in μ will result in a slope failure? Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 9) For a slope where the cohesion of the vegetation and soil leads to a coefficient of friction of μ = 0.75, above what slope angle θ will the slope fail? Note: please answer in degrees, not radians. Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 10) Describe why the mass of a potential slide, in the slope force balance used above, does not affect whether or not the slope will fail.

GLG 110: Dangerous World Assignment #2: Landslides Part 1: Disasters in the News On March 22nd 2014, a large landslide occurred near Oso, Washington. As of July 23rd, 2014, all remains had been recovered and the death toll stood at 43 people. Lots of information about the landslide can be found on the American Geophysical Union’s Landslide blog. Read about the landslide here (don’t worry, each entry is quite short): http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/23/oso-landslide-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/24/oso-landslip-useful-resources/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/25/the-steelhead-landslide-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/03/28/oso-mechanisms-1/ http://blogs.agu.org/landslideblog/2014/04/02/steelhead-landslide-in-washington/ Answer the following questions: 1) Describe the factors that led to this landslide: What type of material was involved- how cohesive/prone to failure is it? Was the cause primarily due to a change in slope, a change in friction/cohesion, or addition of mass? What was this cause? 2) Was the cause of this slide natural, man-made, or a combination of both? 3) Discuss the hazard assessment/mitigation efforts in effect before the slide. What evidence in the surrounding geology/geography suggests an existing landslide hazard? Was anything being to done to reduce the risk of a damaging landslide? For questions 4 & 5, use the photo of the Oso Landslide below: 4) What type of slide do you think this is (rotational or translational)? What visual evidence in the photo above supports your choice? 5) On the image above and using diagrams from the lecture and your textbook, label the different parts of the slide. Terms you can include, but are not limited to, are: scarp, original surface, toe, head, foot. 6) When the failed material entered the river, it created another type of mass movement; what is this mass movement and why did it make the slide more damaging? Part 2: A little physics (it is a science class after all) We discussed in class how whether or not a slope will fail is based on the balance of gravitational vs. frictional forces using the following diagram and equations: For simplicity, we will ignore FR, the force of the base of the slope supporting the upper slope. In the case shown above, for the slope to be stable, the frictional resistance force, Ff, must be larger than the gravitational force acting down the slope, Fll: Fll < Ff 7) For a slope with angle θ = 30o and coefficient of friction μ = 0.6, is the slope stable? Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 8) For a slope with θ = 15o, for what values of μ will the slope be unstable? In other words, at what value of μ does, Fll = Ff, such that any decrease in μ will result in a slope failure? Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 9) For a slope where the cohesion of the vegetation and soil leads to a coefficient of friction of μ = 0.75, above what slope angle θ will the slope fail? Note: please answer in degrees, not radians. Please show your work, partial credit will be given. Please put a box around your answer. 10) Describe why the mass of a potential slide, in the slope force balance used above, does not affect whether or not the slope will fail.

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