1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs … Read More...
Before brain surgery, Elliott was a good father and held a responsible job. After removal of portions of his frontal lobe, what prediction about Elliott’s personality is likely to come true? He will experience visual hallucinations. He will experience auditory hallucinations. His emotional reactions and decision-making abilities will be impaired. He will be even more driven and focused on his work.

Before brain surgery, Elliott was a good father and held a responsible job. After removal of portions of his frontal lobe, what prediction about Elliott’s personality is likely to come true? He will experience visual hallucinations. He will experience auditory hallucinations. His emotional reactions and decision-making abilities will be impaired. He will be even more driven and focused on his work.

Before brain surgery, Elliott was a good father and held … Read More...
Name Car Fuel Economy Objectives: 1. Collect data from a reliable source 2. Create a chart of important values 3. Determine what type of graph best fits the available data (exponential, linear, logarithmic, polynomial… etc) 4. Create a plot using the correct values and determine which variable goes on which axis 5. Fit a line to the graph and show equation 6. Use the equation to predict a future value 7. Use the equation editor to display equations Your task: You want to determine whether the curb weight of the vehicle has any impact on the Highway MPG of the vehicle. In order to do this, go to a reliable source and select 10 of your favorite cars. It can be from any make, model or year and be different across the board. As a matter of fact, the more variety you have in the make, model and year the better. (Please follow the correct homework heading format and please record your answers in blue color on this sheet) General note: Whenever you create a graph, label the X-axis and the Y-axis. Give the graph an appropriate title and include units for the axes. Use the Equation Editor to type answers as equations. 1. On Excel, create a table by recording the make, model and year of the vehicle, the curb weight, and the highway MPG (Miles per gallon). Do this for all 10 cars. 2. Create/insert a scatter plot of the Curb weight (X-axis) vs. Highway MPG (Y-axis). 3. Select the data points by right clicking on the data point and select to add a linear trendline for the 10 cars you currently have. Make it a solid green line (format the line). 4. Select to display the equation on the chart. What is the equation? _______________________________ 5. Using your equation, predict the MPG of a Uhaul that has a curb weight of 12,600lbs (type in curb weight as x). What is that MPG (y)? ___________________________. Record the Uhaul’s curb weight and predicted MPG on the excel sheet. Label clearly with the equation used. Does that answer make sense? Why or why not? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. According to the Uhaul website, a typical truck will get about 10 MPG. Create another scatter plot (do not delete the original one) that shows the same data, but is fitted with an exponential trendline (dashed red line). 7. Select to display the equation on the chart. What is the equation? ________________________________ 8. Using your equation, predict the MPG of a Uhaul that has a curb weight of 12,600lbs. What is that MPG? ___________________________. Record the Uhaul’s curb weight and predicted MPG on the excel sheet. Label clearly with the equation used. Does that answer make sense? Why or why not? Is this prediction better or worse than the first equation? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Now create a third scatter plot of curb weight and highway MPG. Add both a linear and exponential trendline. Make the linear trendline a solid green line and the exponential trendline a dashed red line (just like the two previous graphs). 10. Include a legend for the third graph. 11. Organize the excel sheet to make it look professional. 12. Please upload both this document with all of your answers and the Excel sheet that you created in the assignment on eCampus.

Name Car Fuel Economy Objectives: 1. Collect data from a reliable source 2. Create a chart of important values 3. Determine what type of graph best fits the available data (exponential, linear, logarithmic, polynomial… etc) 4. Create a plot using the correct values and determine which variable goes on which axis 5. Fit a line to the graph and show equation 6. Use the equation to predict a future value 7. Use the equation editor to display equations Your task: You want to determine whether the curb weight of the vehicle has any impact on the Highway MPG of the vehicle. In order to do this, go to a reliable source and select 10 of your favorite cars. It can be from any make, model or year and be different across the board. As a matter of fact, the more variety you have in the make, model and year the better. (Please follow the correct homework heading format and please record your answers in blue color on this sheet) General note: Whenever you create a graph, label the X-axis and the Y-axis. Give the graph an appropriate title and include units for the axes. Use the Equation Editor to type answers as equations. 1. On Excel, create a table by recording the make, model and year of the vehicle, the curb weight, and the highway MPG (Miles per gallon). Do this for all 10 cars. 2. Create/insert a scatter plot of the Curb weight (X-axis) vs. Highway MPG (Y-axis). 3. Select the data points by right clicking on the data point and select to add a linear trendline for the 10 cars you currently have. Make it a solid green line (format the line). 4. Select to display the equation on the chart. What is the equation? _______________________________ 5. Using your equation, predict the MPG of a Uhaul that has a curb weight of 12,600lbs (type in curb weight as x). What is that MPG (y)? ___________________________. Record the Uhaul’s curb weight and predicted MPG on the excel sheet. Label clearly with the equation used. Does that answer make sense? Why or why not? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. According to the Uhaul website, a typical truck will get about 10 MPG. Create another scatter plot (do not delete the original one) that shows the same data, but is fitted with an exponential trendline (dashed red line). 7. Select to display the equation on the chart. What is the equation? ________________________________ 8. Using your equation, predict the MPG of a Uhaul that has a curb weight of 12,600lbs. What is that MPG? ___________________________. Record the Uhaul’s curb weight and predicted MPG on the excel sheet. Label clearly with the equation used. Does that answer make sense? Why or why not? Is this prediction better or worse than the first equation? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Now create a third scatter plot of curb weight and highway MPG. Add both a linear and exponential trendline. Make the linear trendline a solid green line and the exponential trendline a dashed red line (just like the two previous graphs). 10. Include a legend for the third graph. 11. Organize the excel sheet to make it look professional. 12. Please upload both this document with all of your answers and the Excel sheet that you created in the assignment on eCampus.

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BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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Sarah predicts that 15 percent of all the birds she spots while bird watching will be robins. At the end of the day, she records that 10 out of the 25 birds she spotted were robins. How does Sarah’s prediction compare with the actual results?

Sarah predicts that 15 percent of all the birds she spots while bird watching will be robins. At the end of the day, she records that 10 out of the 25 birds she spotted were robins. How does Sarah’s prediction compare with the actual results?

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BLY 101L – Take Home Assignment (20 pts. TOTAL) Due: Start of class time – Monday, June 30, 2014 OR Tuesday, July 1, 2014 1. Calculate the % of disks floating (%DF) for each time point and both Control and Treatment groups. (5 pts.) • refer to the class notes re: how to do this… 2. Neatly graph experimental results. (5 pts.) • graph paper • Microsoft Excel • refer to the class notes re: how to do this… 3. What was the overarching QUESTION addressed by the lab exercise? (1 pt.) 4. State “null” (H0) and “alternative” (HA) HYPOTHESES. (2 pts.) 5. State your PREDICTION in “If…., then…” format, based upon your knowledge of PS and as written in your lab guide. (1 pt.) 6. Applying what you’ve learned about photosynthesis… • Undoubtedly, you have heard mention of the effect of increasing concentrations of certain gasses (one of which is CO2) in Earth’s atmosphere, and its relevance to Climate Change. Sometime around two decades ago or so, plant scientists began to earnestly think about CO2 level and its effects on plant physiology and growth. Based upon your knowledge of photosynthesis and what you’ve learned from this week’s lab experiment… Formulate testable hypotheses (H0, HA) AND a prediction for this scenario. (3 pts.) • As a follow-on to the previous question and in the context of the experiment you performed in class…Aside from affecting “aesthetics” and habitat for fuzzy wuzzy animals, why are plant and conservation scientists worried about the effects of “clear cutting” (i.e., cutting down forests for development or other agricultural and industrial uses) in combination with rising CO2 levels? (NOTE: O2 HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE ANSWER TO THIS QUESTION…; 3 pts.) You MUST hand in the following: o Data table o Line graph of experimental results (plot both data sets on the SAME set of axes; see lecture notes) o Neatly typed answers to questions 3-6 REMEMBER: Images, written text AND/OR ideas are intellectual property and/or copyrighted! If you consult/borrow any published material (e.g., internet webpage text, published paper or report, your textbook, etc.) to construct answers to the questions above, you MUST CITE THE SOURCE FROM WHICH YOU COPIED THE IMAGES, TEXT or IDEAS. See below… Scientific Paper Chase, J. 2010. Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science 328: 1388-1391. Book Stein, B.A., Kutner, L.S., and Adams, J.S. 2000. Precious Heritage, The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. Webpage NOAA, National Atmospheric and Oceanographic Administration. Accessed 01/05/12. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml#tracks_us.

BLY 101L – Take Home Assignment (20 pts. TOTAL) Due: Start of class time – Monday, June 30, 2014 OR Tuesday, July 1, 2014 1. Calculate the % of disks floating (%DF) for each time point and both Control and Treatment groups. (5 pts.) • refer to the class notes re: how to do this… 2. Neatly graph experimental results. (5 pts.) • graph paper • Microsoft Excel • refer to the class notes re: how to do this… 3. What was the overarching QUESTION addressed by the lab exercise? (1 pt.) 4. State “null” (H0) and “alternative” (HA) HYPOTHESES. (2 pts.) 5. State your PREDICTION in “If…., then…” format, based upon your knowledge of PS and as written in your lab guide. (1 pt.) 6. Applying what you’ve learned about photosynthesis… • Undoubtedly, you have heard mention of the effect of increasing concentrations of certain gasses (one of which is CO2) in Earth’s atmosphere, and its relevance to Climate Change. Sometime around two decades ago or so, plant scientists began to earnestly think about CO2 level and its effects on plant physiology and growth. Based upon your knowledge of photosynthesis and what you’ve learned from this week’s lab experiment… Formulate testable hypotheses (H0, HA) AND a prediction for this scenario. (3 pts.) • As a follow-on to the previous question and in the context of the experiment you performed in class…Aside from affecting “aesthetics” and habitat for fuzzy wuzzy animals, why are plant and conservation scientists worried about the effects of “clear cutting” (i.e., cutting down forests for development or other agricultural and industrial uses) in combination with rising CO2 levels? (NOTE: O2 HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE ANSWER TO THIS QUESTION…; 3 pts.) You MUST hand in the following: o Data table o Line graph of experimental results (plot both data sets on the SAME set of axes; see lecture notes) o Neatly typed answers to questions 3-6 REMEMBER: Images, written text AND/OR ideas are intellectual property and/or copyrighted! If you consult/borrow any published material (e.g., internet webpage text, published paper or report, your textbook, etc.) to construct answers to the questions above, you MUST CITE THE SOURCE FROM WHICH YOU COPIED THE IMAGES, TEXT or IDEAS. See below… Scientific Paper Chase, J. 2010. Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science 328: 1388-1391. Book Stein, B.A., Kutner, L.S., and Adams, J.S. 2000. Precious Heritage, The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. Webpage NOAA, National Atmospheric and Oceanographic Administration. Accessed 01/05/12. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml#tracks_us.

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“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

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2. Career development process is complex and rapidly evolving and new theories are continually developing presenting challenges to traditional understandings. Discuss why an understanding of career development processes is critical to management, employee and organizational success.

2. Career development process is complex and rapidly evolving and new theories are continually developing presenting challenges to traditional understandings. Discuss why an understanding of career development processes is critical to management, employee and organizational success.

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