NAME: _____________________________________________ (print) INTRODUCTORY SURVEYING – MINING ENGINEERING 2400 Second Midterm Exam October 24, 2014 Work all four problems in the space provided. Solutions must be neat and logically presented for full credit. 1. (25 pts) Put an “X” over the letter corresponding to correct answers for the following multiple choice questions. A theodolite is used to estimate a distance using stadia. The stadia factor is 100, the stadia constant is zero, the zenith angle is 90°, the upper reading is 10.20, the rod reading is 7.75 and the lower reading is 5.30. The best estimate for horizontal distance is: (a) 1020 ft; (b) 490 ft; (c) 245 ft; (d) if none of the preceding – provide your answer . From B the azimuth to A is 233° 15′ 30″. The angle right to C is 215° 05′ 15″. The azimuth of C to B is: (a)88°20’45”; (b) 268°20’45”; (c) 250°10’30”; (d) if none of the preceding – provide your answer. A five-level station is described as C3.5/34.1 C4.8/25.0 C6.7/0.0 C9.2/25.0 C10.8/33.6. How wide is the road? (a) 50.0 ft, (b) 67.7 ft, (c) 25.0 ft, (e) if none of the preceding – provide your answer . An engineer used a total station to complete a closed traverse at a construction site. The sum of LAT and sum of DEP were determined to be 0.04 and 0.07 respectively. The total horizontal distance measured 2510.00 ft. What is the corresponding precision? (a) 1/63000; (b) 1/36000; (c) 1/31000; (d) if none of the preceding-provide your answer. The interior angles of a closed six sided traverse measure: 34° 28′ 20″ 185° 37′ 00″ 110° 59′ 20″ 195° 10′ 40″ 81° 40′ 20″ 112° 05′ 20″ In adjusting this traverse, the adjusted value for the first angle is: (a) 34° 28′ 20″; (b) 34° 28′ 10″; ( c) 34° 28′ 30″; (d) if none of the preceding – provide your answer . 2. (15 pts) Given the position of points A and B, determine the azimuth of A to B to the nearest second. Point A 5470.00N 4710.00E Point B 5130.00N 5350.00E 3. (25 pts) The volume of a fill between station 24+00 and 26+00 on a 50-foot wide road is to be determined by the prismoidal method. The three level sections are given by: Stn. 24+00 F10.0 F12.0 F8.0 52.0 0.0 65.0 Stn. 25+00 F8.0 F10.0 F10.0 55.0 0.0 52.0 Stn. 26+00 F12.0 F8.0 F15.0 61.0 0.0 55.0 Determine the volume to the nearest 100 cubic feet. (All fill dimensions are in feet.) (Hint: The area at Stn. 25 is 760 sq ft and the area at Stn. 26 is 801.5 sq ft.) 4. (35 points) The following information was obtained from an angle-right traverse conducted on the surface with a total station (conventional practice for HI and HS, i.e. HS is above the target of interest and, therefore, indicated as negative in the notes): BS IS FS Angle Rt. Zenith Angle SD HI HS A B C 261°12’20” 97° 25’20” 355.33 4.99 -0.33 261°11’40” 262° 34’20” The position of B is N5000.00, E5000.00, El 5000.00. The azimuth of A to B is 49°18’30”. Determine the coordinates and elevation of C. Show and identify all intermediate calculations.

NAME: _____________________________________________ (print) INTRODUCTORY SURVEYING – MINING ENGINEERING 2400 Second Midterm Exam October 24, 2014 Work all four problems in the space provided. Solutions must be neat and logically presented for full credit. 1. (25 pts) Put an “X” over the letter corresponding to correct answers for the following multiple choice questions. A theodolite is used to estimate a distance using stadia. The stadia factor is 100, the stadia constant is zero, the zenith angle is 90°, the upper reading is 10.20, the rod reading is 7.75 and the lower reading is 5.30. The best estimate for horizontal distance is: (a) 1020 ft; (b) 490 ft; (c) 245 ft; (d) if none of the preceding – provide your answer . From B the azimuth to A is 233° 15′ 30″. The angle right to C is 215° 05′ 15″. The azimuth of C to B is: (a)88°20’45”; (b) 268°20’45”; (c) 250°10’30”; (d) if none of the preceding – provide your answer. A five-level station is described as C3.5/34.1 C4.8/25.0 C6.7/0.0 C9.2/25.0 C10.8/33.6. How wide is the road? (a) 50.0 ft, (b) 67.7 ft, (c) 25.0 ft, (e) if none of the preceding – provide your answer . An engineer used a total station to complete a closed traverse at a construction site. The sum of LAT and sum of DEP were determined to be 0.04 and 0.07 respectively. The total horizontal distance measured 2510.00 ft. What is the corresponding precision? (a) 1/63000; (b) 1/36000; (c) 1/31000; (d) if none of the preceding-provide your answer. The interior angles of a closed six sided traverse measure: 34° 28′ 20″ 185° 37′ 00″ 110° 59′ 20″ 195° 10′ 40″ 81° 40′ 20″ 112° 05′ 20″ In adjusting this traverse, the adjusted value for the first angle is: (a) 34° 28′ 20″; (b) 34° 28′ 10″; ( c) 34° 28′ 30″; (d) if none of the preceding – provide your answer . 2. (15 pts) Given the position of points A and B, determine the azimuth of A to B to the nearest second. Point A 5470.00N 4710.00E Point B 5130.00N 5350.00E 3. (25 pts) The volume of a fill between station 24+00 and 26+00 on a 50-foot wide road is to be determined by the prismoidal method. The three level sections are given by: Stn. 24+00 F10.0 F12.0 F8.0 52.0 0.0 65.0 Stn. 25+00 F8.0 F10.0 F10.0 55.0 0.0 52.0 Stn. 26+00 F12.0 F8.0 F15.0 61.0 0.0 55.0 Determine the volume to the nearest 100 cubic feet. (All fill dimensions are in feet.) (Hint: The area at Stn. 25 is 760 sq ft and the area at Stn. 26 is 801.5 sq ft.) 4. (35 points) The following information was obtained from an angle-right traverse conducted on the surface with a total station (conventional practice for HI and HS, i.e. HS is above the target of interest and, therefore, indicated as negative in the notes): BS IS FS Angle Rt. Zenith Angle SD HI HS A B C 261°12’20” 97° 25’20” 355.33 4.99 -0.33 261°11’40” 262° 34’20” The position of B is N5000.00, E5000.00, El 5000.00. The azimuth of A to B is 49°18’30”. Determine the coordinates and elevation of C. Show and identify all intermediate calculations.

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Question 12 (1 point) Research finds that happiness with one’s relationship is related to having a partner who is Question 12 options: masculine or androgynous. feminine or androgynous. masculine if a male, feminine if a female. masculine if you are masculine, feminine if you are feminine. Question 13 (1 point) In the original learned helplessness model, people were said to experience learned helplessness when they Question 13 options: encounter obstacles they cannot overcome. encounter aversive events. generalize their inability to control one aversive event to a situation they might be able to control. give up trying after they realize they can’t do anything about an aversive situation. Question 14 (1 point) Researchers investigating the observational learning of gender role behaviors find that boys imitate male models instead of female models Question 14 options: as soon as they develop an identity as a male. after they noticed that a certain behavior is performed more by one gender than the other. more often than girls imitate female models. but that the opposite is not found for girls. Question 15 (1 point) The androgyny model of gender-type divides people into how many different groups? Question 15 options: two four six eight ________________________________________ . ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) The cognitive approach has been criticized in which of the following ways? Question 1 options: It does not fit well with current trends in psychology. The research has given it little support. It is too specific and needs more abstraction. It is not needed to explain individual differences in behavior. Question 2 (1 point) All of the following techniques are methods used by Kelly in psychotherapy except one. Which one? Question 2 options: asking people about their personal constructs asking people to describe their ideal self asking people to define their personal constructs forcing people to attend to their process of construing the world Question 3 (1 point) One study the self-schema presented students with 40 questions for which they pressed Yes or No. The researchers found that participants were more likely to remember the information when WA.the words had the ability to generate emotions. Question 3 options: participants were asked about a rhyme. a self-referent question was difficult to answer. the question was processed about the participants themselves. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following was advocated by George Kelly? Question 4 options: People are largely controlled by the environmental stimuli they encounter. People are motivated to make sense out of all the stimuli that impinge on them. People are happier when they accept that life is full of unexpected turns and surprises. Most of what determines our behavior is not readily accessible to consciousness. Question 5 (1 point) Participants in one study were divided into those with and without a well developed “independence” schema. Later participants were asked about their own level of independence. Compared to aschematics, participants with a strong independence schema Question 5 options: took longer to answer because they had more information to process. took longer to answer because it was more important to them to give a correct answer. took less time to answer. took the same amount of time to answer, but were more confident of their answers.

Question 12 (1 point) Research finds that happiness with one’s relationship is related to having a partner who is Question 12 options: masculine or androgynous. feminine or androgynous. masculine if a male, feminine if a female. masculine if you are masculine, feminine if you are feminine. Question 13 (1 point) In the original learned helplessness model, people were said to experience learned helplessness when they Question 13 options: encounter obstacles they cannot overcome. encounter aversive events. generalize their inability to control one aversive event to a situation they might be able to control. give up trying after they realize they can’t do anything about an aversive situation. Question 14 (1 point) Researchers investigating the observational learning of gender role behaviors find that boys imitate male models instead of female models Question 14 options: as soon as they develop an identity as a male. after they noticed that a certain behavior is performed more by one gender than the other. more often than girls imitate female models. but that the opposite is not found for girls. Question 15 (1 point) The androgyny model of gender-type divides people into how many different groups? Question 15 options: two four six eight ________________________________________ . ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) The cognitive approach has been criticized in which of the following ways? Question 1 options: It does not fit well with current trends in psychology. The research has given it little support. It is too specific and needs more abstraction. It is not needed to explain individual differences in behavior. Question 2 (1 point) All of the following techniques are methods used by Kelly in psychotherapy except one. Which one? Question 2 options: asking people about their personal constructs asking people to describe their ideal self asking people to define their personal constructs forcing people to attend to their process of construing the world Question 3 (1 point) One study the self-schema presented students with 40 questions for which they pressed Yes or No. The researchers found that participants were more likely to remember the information when WA.the words had the ability to generate emotions. Question 3 options: participants were asked about a rhyme. a self-referent question was difficult to answer. the question was processed about the participants themselves. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following was advocated by George Kelly? Question 4 options: People are largely controlled by the environmental stimuli they encounter. People are motivated to make sense out of all the stimuli that impinge on them. People are happier when they accept that life is full of unexpected turns and surprises. Most of what determines our behavior is not readily accessible to consciousness. Question 5 (1 point) Participants in one study were divided into those with and without a well developed “independence” schema. Later participants were asked about their own level of independence. Compared to aschematics, participants with a strong independence schema Question 5 options: took longer to answer because they had more information to process. took longer to answer because it was more important to them to give a correct answer. took less time to answer. took the same amount of time to answer, but were more confident of their answers.

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MCE 260 Fall 2015 Homework 4, due September 22, 2015. PRESENT CLEARLY HOW YOU DEVELOPED THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS Each problem is worth up to 5 points. Points are given as follows: 5 points: Work was complete and presented clearly, the answer is correct 4 points: Work was complete, but not clearly presented or some errors in calculation 3 points: Some errors or omissions in methods or presentation 2 points: Major errors or omissions in methods or presentation 1 point: Problem was understood but incorrect approach was used DO SOMETHING WITH LINKAGES 1. (5 points) Fig 4-16b shows a Stephenson 6-bar linkage. Assume that the linkage is driven by a constant speed motor on the fixed pivot of link 7. Draw this linkage schematically (dimensions are not important). The link numbering and vector loops are already defined in Fig 4-16b. Add symbols for the angles θ2… θ8 and the lengths L2… L8 to the Figure. 2. (5 points) There are two vector loops (1-2-3-4, and 4-5-6-7-8). Write the vector loop equations as separate X and Y equations for each loop. 3. (5 points) Identify the unknowns that must be solved for doing position analysis. Make sure that the number of unknowns is the same as the number of equations. Hint: “links” 3 and 5 are both on the (rigid) coupler, so there is a simple relationship between the two angles. 4. (5 points) Write the vector loop equations for the inverted crank-slider (Fig. 4-13). Identify the two unknowns that must be solved when it is driven by the slider joint, which means that length b is a known input (as in the hydraulic excavator). Write expressions for the elements of the 2×2 Jacobian matrix. 5. (5 points) Modify the Matlab code fbpos1vec.m to solve the position analysis problem for this system. You may choose the dimensions and the input (probably best to make this similar to Fig 4-13). Show the lines of Matlab code that you changed (and no other lines) and show the values for the two unknowns that you solved. Page 1 of 1

MCE 260 Fall 2015 Homework 4, due September 22, 2015. PRESENT CLEARLY HOW YOU DEVELOPED THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS Each problem is worth up to 5 points. Points are given as follows: 5 points: Work was complete and presented clearly, the answer is correct 4 points: Work was complete, but not clearly presented or some errors in calculation 3 points: Some errors or omissions in methods or presentation 2 points: Major errors or omissions in methods or presentation 1 point: Problem was understood but incorrect approach was used DO SOMETHING WITH LINKAGES 1. (5 points) Fig 4-16b shows a Stephenson 6-bar linkage. Assume that the linkage is driven by a constant speed motor on the fixed pivot of link 7. Draw this linkage schematically (dimensions are not important). The link numbering and vector loops are already defined in Fig 4-16b. Add symbols for the angles θ2… θ8 and the lengths L2… L8 to the Figure. 2. (5 points) There are two vector loops (1-2-3-4, and 4-5-6-7-8). Write the vector loop equations as separate X and Y equations for each loop. 3. (5 points) Identify the unknowns that must be solved for doing position analysis. Make sure that the number of unknowns is the same as the number of equations. Hint: “links” 3 and 5 are both on the (rigid) coupler, so there is a simple relationship between the two angles. 4. (5 points) Write the vector loop equations for the inverted crank-slider (Fig. 4-13). Identify the two unknowns that must be solved when it is driven by the slider joint, which means that length b is a known input (as in the hydraulic excavator). Write expressions for the elements of the 2×2 Jacobian matrix. 5. (5 points) Modify the Matlab code fbpos1vec.m to solve the position analysis problem for this system. You may choose the dimensions and the input (probably best to make this similar to Fig 4-13). Show the lines of Matlab code that you changed (and no other lines) and show the values for the two unknowns that you solved. Page 1 of 1

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Homework 1 Create a Solution for a Decision-making Process. Scenario: You’re a manager for Super Joe’s Cars that operates car dealerships throughout Kansas. SJ’s just recently acquired/merged local dealerships and now needs to ‘normalize’ their employee salaries. SJ’s now employs 30 employees that are each labeled as one of the following: Sales Representative , Senior Sales Representative, and Sales Executive. Due to different dealerships paying different salaries, these salaries are all different. SJ’s merger was a success, and has $100,000 to distribute raises to employees in order to realign them and have them close as possible to the industry average. Top management would like you to design a solution that will distribute this money to employees, with the top priority of moving as many employees as possible closer to the industry average. They have provided you with the data below (yes, it’s limited data) in order to do this. They also request that each employee gets a raise of some sort. Problem: What’s the ‘best’ way to allocate these dollars to your employees? Task: Use the data to create a SPREADSHEET that distributes the $100,000 to current employees. It should be well presented (FORMAT), and automate the process – so if the $100,000 is changed, the spreadsheet updates automatically (FORMULAS). This spreadsheet should also show other important information such as: Total salaries, current average salary per rank, new salary per rank, current deviation from the industry average, new deviation from industry average (DATA). **MUST BE DONE IN MICROSOFT EXCEL!! Shane’s Tips and Tricks: Identify your goal. In this case, you are essentially coming up with a solution to ‘who gets the raise’. There are many ways to create the solution, just choose what you feel is the best way. Identify numbers! Use $ and % signs, etc. USE FORMULAS. It’s pointless to create a spreadsheet that doesn’t calculate. A good spreadsheet allows users to change the data points and test different scenarios. If you have trouble, check out Atomic Learning on the FHSU website to view tutorials if needed. Make it pretty! Your spreadsheet should be clean, concise, and formatted nicely. Ideally, I could copy your spreadsheet and present it to others without modification. Highlight important information so it can easily be found. Use an assumption table. Your formulas should not contain numbers, but instead references to cells. An assumption table holds key information that will be used in multiple areas. You should be able to make one formula, ‘pull it down or across’, and it will work for all items. Typically when you use a number from the assumption table, you want it to be an absolute reference (meaning it doesn’t change when the formula is dragged across multiple rows). To do this, simply hit the F4 key. An assumption table can be located anywhere in the spreadsheet, but should be separate from spreadsheet data. How you are graded: Refer to the rubric with the assignment for more information on how you will be graded. Data Company Sales Employee Ranks Industry Average Salary Sales Representative $50,000 Senior Sales Representative $60,000 Sales Executive $75,000 Sales Representatives Salary Davidson Kaye 55,000 Corovic,Jose 43,000 Lane, Brandon 62,000 Wei, Guang 35,000 Drew, Richard 50,000 Adams, James 33,000 Spenser, William 51,000 Ray, Tony 41,000 Ryan, Mark 38,000 Warrem, Jason 53,000 Senior Sales Representatives Salary Ashley, Jane 53,000 Corning,Sandra 46,000 Scott, Rex 56,000 Duong,Linda 52,000 Bosa, Victor 37,000 UTran,Diem Thi 45,000 Dixon, James T 53,000 Goston, Sayeh 48,000 Jordan, Matthew 38,000 Menstell,Lori Lee 65,000 Sales Executives Salary Ching, Kam Hoong 57,000 Collins,Giovanni 75,000 Dixon,Eleonor 65,000 Lee,Brandon 60,000 Lunden,Haley 55,000 Rikki, Nicole 75,000 Scott, Bryan 67,000 Angel, Kathy 88,000 Quigly, James 59,000 Pham,Mary 80,000

Homework 1 Create a Solution for a Decision-making Process. Scenario: You’re a manager for Super Joe’s Cars that operates car dealerships throughout Kansas. SJ’s just recently acquired/merged local dealerships and now needs to ‘normalize’ their employee salaries. SJ’s now employs 30 employees that are each labeled as one of the following: Sales Representative , Senior Sales Representative, and Sales Executive. Due to different dealerships paying different salaries, these salaries are all different. SJ’s merger was a success, and has $100,000 to distribute raises to employees in order to realign them and have them close as possible to the industry average. Top management would like you to design a solution that will distribute this money to employees, with the top priority of moving as many employees as possible closer to the industry average. They have provided you with the data below (yes, it’s limited data) in order to do this. They also request that each employee gets a raise of some sort. Problem: What’s the ‘best’ way to allocate these dollars to your employees? Task: Use the data to create a SPREADSHEET that distributes the $100,000 to current employees. It should be well presented (FORMAT), and automate the process – so if the $100,000 is changed, the spreadsheet updates automatically (FORMULAS). This spreadsheet should also show other important information such as: Total salaries, current average salary per rank, new salary per rank, current deviation from the industry average, new deviation from industry average (DATA). **MUST BE DONE IN MICROSOFT EXCEL!! Shane’s Tips and Tricks: Identify your goal. In this case, you are essentially coming up with a solution to ‘who gets the raise’. There are many ways to create the solution, just choose what you feel is the best way. Identify numbers! Use $ and % signs, etc. USE FORMULAS. It’s pointless to create a spreadsheet that doesn’t calculate. A good spreadsheet allows users to change the data points and test different scenarios. If you have trouble, check out Atomic Learning on the FHSU website to view tutorials if needed. Make it pretty! Your spreadsheet should be clean, concise, and formatted nicely. Ideally, I could copy your spreadsheet and present it to others without modification. Highlight important information so it can easily be found. Use an assumption table. Your formulas should not contain numbers, but instead references to cells. An assumption table holds key information that will be used in multiple areas. You should be able to make one formula, ‘pull it down or across’, and it will work for all items. Typically when you use a number from the assumption table, you want it to be an absolute reference (meaning it doesn’t change when the formula is dragged across multiple rows). To do this, simply hit the F4 key. An assumption table can be located anywhere in the spreadsheet, but should be separate from spreadsheet data. How you are graded: Refer to the rubric with the assignment for more information on how you will be graded. Data Company Sales Employee Ranks Industry Average Salary Sales Representative $50,000 Senior Sales Representative $60,000 Sales Executive $75,000 Sales Representatives Salary Davidson Kaye 55,000 Corovic,Jose 43,000 Lane, Brandon 62,000 Wei, Guang 35,000 Drew, Richard 50,000 Adams, James 33,000 Spenser, William 51,000 Ray, Tony 41,000 Ryan, Mark 38,000 Warrem, Jason 53,000 Senior Sales Representatives Salary Ashley, Jane 53,000 Corning,Sandra 46,000 Scott, Rex 56,000 Duong,Linda 52,000 Bosa, Victor 37,000 UTran,Diem Thi 45,000 Dixon, James T 53,000 Goston, Sayeh 48,000 Jordan, Matthew 38,000 Menstell,Lori Lee 65,000 Sales Executives Salary Ching, Kam Hoong 57,000 Collins,Giovanni 75,000 Dixon,Eleonor 65,000 Lee,Brandon 60,000 Lunden,Haley 55,000 Rikki, Nicole 75,000 Scott, Bryan 67,000 Angel, Kathy 88,000 Quigly, James 59,000 Pham,Mary 80,000

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Faculty of Science Technology and Engineering Department of Physics Senior Laboratory Current balance Objectives When a steady electric current flows perpendicularly across a uniform magnetic field it experiences a force. This experiment aims to investigate this effect, and to determine the direction of the force relative to the current and magnetic field. You will design and perform a series of experiments to show how the magnitude of the force depends upon the current and the length of the conductor that is in the field. Task You are provided with a current balance apparatus (Figure 1), power supply and a magnet. This current balance consists of five loops of conducting wire supported on a pivoted aluminium frame. Current may be made to flow in one or up to five of the loops at a time in either direction. If the end of the loop is situated in a perpendicular magnetic field, when the current is switched on, the magnetic force on the current will unbalance the apparatus. By moving the sliding weights to rebalance it, the magnitude of this magnetic force may be measured. A scale is etched on one arm of the balance, so that the distance moved by the slider can be measured. The circuitry of the balance cannot cope currents greater than 5 Amps, so please do not exceed this level of current. Figure 1: Schematic diagram of current balance apparatus and circuitry. Start by familiarising yourself with the apparatus. Use the two sliding weights to balance the apparatus, then apply a magnetic field to either end of the loop. Pass a current through just one of the conducting loops and observe the direction of the resulting magnetic force, relative to the direction of the current and the applied field. Change the magnitude and direction of the current, observe qualitatively the effect this has on the magnetic force. Having familiarised yourself with the apparatus, you should design and perform a series of quantitative experiments aiming to: (1) determine how the size of the magnetic force is dependant on the size of the current flowing in the conductor. (2) determine how the size of the force is dependant on the length of the conductor which is in the field. (3) measure the value (in Tesla) of the field of the magnet provided. For each of these, the balance should be set up with the magnet positioned at the end of the arm that has the distance scale, and orientated so that the magnetic force will be directed upwards when a current is passed through the conductor. The sliding weight on this arm should be positioned at the zero-mark. The weight on the opposite arm should be adjusted to balance the apparatus in the absence of a current. When a current is applied, you should re-balance the apparatus by moving the weight on the scaled arm outwards, while keeping the opposite weight fixed in position. The distance moved by the weight is directly proportional to the force applied by the magnetic field to the end of the balance. In your report, make sure you discuss why this is the case. Use the position of the sliding weight to quantify the magnetic force as a function of the current applied to the conductor, and of the number of conducting loops through which the current flows. For tasks (1) and (2) you can use the position of the sliding weight as a measure of the force. Look up the relationship that relates the force to the applied field, current and length of conductor in the field. Is this consistent with your data? To complete task (3) you need to determine the magnitude (in Newtons) of the magnetic force from the measurement of the position of the sliding weight. To do this, what other information do you need to know? When you have determined a value for the field, you can measure the field directly using the laboratory’s Gaussmeter for comparison.

Faculty of Science Technology and Engineering Department of Physics Senior Laboratory Current balance Objectives When a steady electric current flows perpendicularly across a uniform magnetic field it experiences a force. This experiment aims to investigate this effect, and to determine the direction of the force relative to the current and magnetic field. You will design and perform a series of experiments to show how the magnitude of the force depends upon the current and the length of the conductor that is in the field. Task You are provided with a current balance apparatus (Figure 1), power supply and a magnet. This current balance consists of five loops of conducting wire supported on a pivoted aluminium frame. Current may be made to flow in one or up to five of the loops at a time in either direction. If the end of the loop is situated in a perpendicular magnetic field, when the current is switched on, the magnetic force on the current will unbalance the apparatus. By moving the sliding weights to rebalance it, the magnitude of this magnetic force may be measured. A scale is etched on one arm of the balance, so that the distance moved by the slider can be measured. The circuitry of the balance cannot cope currents greater than 5 Amps, so please do not exceed this level of current. Figure 1: Schematic diagram of current balance apparatus and circuitry. Start by familiarising yourself with the apparatus. Use the two sliding weights to balance the apparatus, then apply a magnetic field to either end of the loop. Pass a current through just one of the conducting loops and observe the direction of the resulting magnetic force, relative to the direction of the current and the applied field. Change the magnitude and direction of the current, observe qualitatively the effect this has on the magnetic force. Having familiarised yourself with the apparatus, you should design and perform a series of quantitative experiments aiming to: (1) determine how the size of the magnetic force is dependant on the size of the current flowing in the conductor. (2) determine how the size of the force is dependant on the length of the conductor which is in the field. (3) measure the value (in Tesla) of the field of the magnet provided. For each of these, the balance should be set up with the magnet positioned at the end of the arm that has the distance scale, and orientated so that the magnetic force will be directed upwards when a current is passed through the conductor. The sliding weight on this arm should be positioned at the zero-mark. The weight on the opposite arm should be adjusted to balance the apparatus in the absence of a current. When a current is applied, you should re-balance the apparatus by moving the weight on the scaled arm outwards, while keeping the opposite weight fixed in position. The distance moved by the weight is directly proportional to the force applied by the magnetic field to the end of the balance. In your report, make sure you discuss why this is the case. Use the position of the sliding weight to quantify the magnetic force as a function of the current applied to the conductor, and of the number of conducting loops through which the current flows. For tasks (1) and (2) you can use the position of the sliding weight as a measure of the force. Look up the relationship that relates the force to the applied field, current and length of conductor in the field. Is this consistent with your data? To complete task (3) you need to determine the magnitude (in Newtons) of the magnetic force from the measurement of the position of the sliding weight. To do this, what other information do you need to know? When you have determined a value for the field, you can measure the field directly using the laboratory’s Gaussmeter for comparison.

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Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/death-sentences-and-executions-2013>. D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/07/economist-explains-16>. Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/05/us-murder-rate-track-be-lowest-century>. Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://lawstreetmedia.com/blogs/crime/safest-and-most-dangerous-states-2014/#slideshow>. Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/04/17/remarkable-declines-in-global-poverty-but-major-challenges-remain>. Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304066504576345553135009870>.

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. . Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. .

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be … Read More...
Explain the term “Stress Relaxation” and discuss its significance in the design of polymer components.

Explain the term “Stress Relaxation” and discuss its significance in the design of polymer components.

Reduction in stress in a material subjected to continued constant … Read More...