EXPERIMENT 6 FET CHARACTERISTIC CURVES ________________________________________ Bring a diskette to save your data. ________________________________________ OBJECT: The objective of this lab is to investigate the DC characteristics and operation of a field effect transistor (FET). The FET recommended to be used in this lab is 2N5486 n-channel FET. • Gathering data for the DC characteristics ________________________________________ APPARATUS: Dual DC Power Supply, Voltmeter, and 1k resistors, 2N5486 N-Channel FET. ________________________________________ THEORY: A JFET (Junction Field Effect Transistor) is a three terminal device (drain, source, and gate) similar to the BJT. The difference between them is that the JFET is a voltage controlled constant current device, whereas BJT is a current controlled current source device. Whereas for BJT the relationship between an output parameter, iC, and an input parameter, iB, is given by a constant , the relationship in JFET between an output parameter, iD, and an input parameter, vGS, is more complex. PROCEDURE: Measuring ID versus VDS (Output Characteristics) 1. Build the circuit shown below. 2. Obtain the output characteristics i.e. ID versus VDS. a. Set VGS = 0. Vary the voltage across drain (VDS) from 0 to 8 V with steps of 1 V and measure the corresponding drain current (ID). b. Repeat the procedure for different values of VGS. (0V, -0.5V, -1V, -1.5V, -2V, -2.5V, -3.0V, -3.5V, -4.0V). 3. Record the values in Table 1 and plot the graph ID vs. VGS. VGS 0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5` -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0 VDS ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID 0 0 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0mA 1 0 0.7 mA 0.7 mA 0.66 mA 0.6 mA 0.6 mA 0.5 0.1mA 0mA 2 0 1.5 mA 1.3 mA 1.3mA 1.2 mA 1.1 mA 0.7 0.1mA 0mA 3 0 2.1 mA 2.6 mA 1.9 mA 1.8 mA 1.5 mA 0.8 mA 0.1mA 0mA 4 0 2.7 mA 2.6 mA 2.5 mA 2.4 mA 1.7 mA 0.8 mA 0.1mA 0mA 5 0 3.4 mA 3.3 mA 3.1 mA 2.8 mA 1.8 mA 0.9 mA 0.1mA 0mA 6 0 4.1 mA 3.4 mA 3.7 mA 3.2 mA 1.9 mA 0.9 mA 0.1mA 0mA 7 0 4.7 mA 4.5 mA 4.2 mA 3.4 mA 1.9 mA 0.9 mA 0.1mA 0mA 8 0 5.3 mA 5.1 mA 6.6 mA 3.5 mA 2.0 mA 0.9 mA 0.1mA 0mA Table 1. vds=0:8; id=[0 6.2e-3 9.7e-3 11.3e-3 11.9e-3 12.2e-3 12.3e-3 12.3e-3 12.32e-3]; plot(vds,id);grid on;hold on id2=[0 5.23e-3 8.05e-3 9.15e-3 9.57e-3 9.77e-3 9.88e-3 9.9e-3 9.92e-3]; plot(vds,id2);grid on;hold on id3=[0 4.29e-3 6.41e-3 7.17e-3 7.46e-3 7.60e-3 7.67e-3 7.73e-3 7.76e-3]; plot(vds,id3);grid on;hold on ________________________________________ Measuring ID versus VGS (Transconductance Characteristics) 1. For the same circuit, obtain the transconductance characteristics. i.e. ID versus VGS. a. Set a particular value of voltage for VDS, i.e. 5V. Start with a gate voltage VGS of 0 V, and measure the corresponding drain current (ID). b. Then decrease VGS in steps of 0.5 V until VGS is -4V. c. At each step record the drain current. VDS = 5 V VGS ID 0 3.42 mA -0.5 3.36 mA -1.00 3.27 mA -1.50 3.12 mA -2.00 2.79 mA -2.50 1.84 mA -3.00 0.71 mA -3.50 0.11 mA -4.00 0 mA Table 2. 2. Plot the graph with ID versus VGS using Excel, MATLAB, or some other program. Discussion Questions—Make sure you answer the following questions in your discussion. Use all of the data obtained to answer the following questions: 1. Discuss the output and transconductance curves obtained in lab? Are they what you expected? 2. Are the output characteristics spaced evenly? Should they be? 3. What are the applications of a JFET?

EXPERIMENT 6 FET CHARACTERISTIC CURVES ________________________________________ Bring a diskette to save your data. ________________________________________ OBJECT: The objective of this lab is to investigate the DC characteristics and operation of a field effect transistor (FET). The FET recommended to be used in this lab is 2N5486 n-channel FET. • Gathering data for the DC characteristics ________________________________________ APPARATUS: Dual DC Power Supply, Voltmeter, and 1k resistors, 2N5486 N-Channel FET. ________________________________________ THEORY: A JFET (Junction Field Effect Transistor) is a three terminal device (drain, source, and gate) similar to the BJT. The difference between them is that the JFET is a voltage controlled constant current device, whereas BJT is a current controlled current source device. Whereas for BJT the relationship between an output parameter, iC, and an input parameter, iB, is given by a constant , the relationship in JFET between an output parameter, iD, and an input parameter, vGS, is more complex. PROCEDURE: Measuring ID versus VDS (Output Characteristics) 1. Build the circuit shown below. 2. Obtain the output characteristics i.e. ID versus VDS. a. Set VGS = 0. Vary the voltage across drain (VDS) from 0 to 8 V with steps of 1 V and measure the corresponding drain current (ID). b. Repeat the procedure for different values of VGS. (0V, -0.5V, -1V, -1.5V, -2V, -2.5V, -3.0V, -3.5V, -4.0V). 3. Record the values in Table 1 and plot the graph ID vs. VGS. VGS 0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5` -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0 VDS ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID ID 0 0 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0.002mA 0mA 1 0 0.7 mA 0.7 mA 0.66 mA 0.6 mA 0.6 mA 0.5 0.1mA 0mA 2 0 1.5 mA 1.3 mA 1.3mA 1.2 mA 1.1 mA 0.7 0.1mA 0mA 3 0 2.1 mA 2.6 mA 1.9 mA 1.8 mA 1.5 mA 0.8 mA 0.1mA 0mA 4 0 2.7 mA 2.6 mA 2.5 mA 2.4 mA 1.7 mA 0.8 mA 0.1mA 0mA 5 0 3.4 mA 3.3 mA 3.1 mA 2.8 mA 1.8 mA 0.9 mA 0.1mA 0mA 6 0 4.1 mA 3.4 mA 3.7 mA 3.2 mA 1.9 mA 0.9 mA 0.1mA 0mA 7 0 4.7 mA 4.5 mA 4.2 mA 3.4 mA 1.9 mA 0.9 mA 0.1mA 0mA 8 0 5.3 mA 5.1 mA 6.6 mA 3.5 mA 2.0 mA 0.9 mA 0.1mA 0mA Table 1. vds=0:8; id=[0 6.2e-3 9.7e-3 11.3e-3 11.9e-3 12.2e-3 12.3e-3 12.3e-3 12.32e-3]; plot(vds,id);grid on;hold on id2=[0 5.23e-3 8.05e-3 9.15e-3 9.57e-3 9.77e-3 9.88e-3 9.9e-3 9.92e-3]; plot(vds,id2);grid on;hold on id3=[0 4.29e-3 6.41e-3 7.17e-3 7.46e-3 7.60e-3 7.67e-3 7.73e-3 7.76e-3]; plot(vds,id3);grid on;hold on ________________________________________ Measuring ID versus VGS (Transconductance Characteristics) 1. For the same circuit, obtain the transconductance characteristics. i.e. ID versus VGS. a. Set a particular value of voltage for VDS, i.e. 5V. Start with a gate voltage VGS of 0 V, and measure the corresponding drain current (ID). b. Then decrease VGS in steps of 0.5 V until VGS is -4V. c. At each step record the drain current. VDS = 5 V VGS ID 0 3.42 mA -0.5 3.36 mA -1.00 3.27 mA -1.50 3.12 mA -2.00 2.79 mA -2.50 1.84 mA -3.00 0.71 mA -3.50 0.11 mA -4.00 0 mA Table 2. 2. Plot the graph with ID versus VGS using Excel, MATLAB, or some other program. Discussion Questions—Make sure you answer the following questions in your discussion. Use all of the data obtained to answer the following questions: 1. Discuss the output and transconductance curves obtained in lab? Are they what you expected? 2. Are the output characteristics spaced evenly? Should they be? 3. What are the applications of a JFET?

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The diagram 3 forces F1, F2, F3 act on the body. The magnitude and direction of forces F1 and F2 are known and indicated . Also the resultant force R= F1+F2+F3 is know and indicated. Using force decomposition procedure in the Cartesian coordinate system find the magnitude of the force F3 and the angle between line of action of this force and the x direction.

The diagram 3 forces F1, F2, F3 act on the body. The magnitude and direction of forces F1 and F2 are known and indicated . Also the resultant force R= F1+F2+F3 is know and indicated. Using force decomposition procedure in the Cartesian coordinate system find the magnitude of the force F3 and the angle between line of action of this force and the x direction.

Stage1.2 Telescope Activity (due at Stage 1) Brief Overview of Activity: Research a major astronomical observatory. Required Items: the internet, your textbook, pencil & paper. ________________________________________ Procedure: Research one of the observatories mentioned in our textbook and answer the questions below. What is the name and location of the Observatory?What type of telescope is used?What is the size of its mirror or radio dish?What specific wavelengths of light can be studied by this device?Why would these wavelengths of light be useful to astronomers?

Stage1.2 Telescope Activity (due at Stage 1) Brief Overview of Activity: Research a major astronomical observatory. Required Items: the internet, your textbook, pencil & paper. ________________________________________ Procedure: Research one of the observatories mentioned in our textbook and answer the questions below. What is the name and location of the Observatory?What type of telescope is used?What is the size of its mirror or radio dish?What specific wavelengths of light can be studied by this device?Why would these wavelengths of light be useful to astronomers?

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Which of the following is not true about hysterectomy? Question 41 options: There is no risk of having to repeat the procedure in months or years. There is growing concern that it can be overused as a treatment for DUB. In 50% of hysterectomies performed to treat DUB, there is no cancer present. There is no change in sexual function or sex drive after hysterectomy.

Which of the following is not true about hysterectomy? Question 41 options: There is no risk of having to repeat the procedure in months or years. There is growing concern that it can be overused as a treatment for DUB. In 50% of hysterectomies performed to treat DUB, there is no cancer present. There is no change in sexual function or sex drive after hysterectomy.

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COMM 1311: Written Communication Assignment 5 Argumentation Essay (Chapter 10, pp. 218-232, Arlov) Purpose of Assignment • The purpose of this assignment is to enable the student to write an essay with a compelling argumentation that shows critical thinking. A persuasive essay is a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. Objectives • The student will be able to correctly structure an essay and bring forward a compelling thesis and argument. • The student will understand the creativity of the writing process and use his own ideas. • The student will be able to craft a compelling essay and show critical thinking. • The student will show that he is able to argue both sides of a topic and is willing to acknowledge a different opinion. Instructions 1. Establish a subject Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about but it has to be approved by the instructor. 2. Present a clear thesis and identify the controversy Your thesis should inform readers of your purpose and how you will proceed in your argumentation. 3. Follow an organizational pattern and provide support The body paragraphs of the essay should provide specific support. These supports may include personal experience, statistics, facts, or experts’ opinions. They may be garnered from scientific journals, magazines, books, newspapers, textbooks, studies, or interviews. Select only the facts that are relevant. 4. Consider differing opinions A persuasive essay may be strengthened by acknowledging conflict viewpoints and discussing them. 4. Draw a conclusion Restate your position in different words from the introduction. Do not introduce new material in the conclusion. You may want to conclude by encouraging some specific call to action. Requirements The essay topic must meet the approval of the instructor: • Have a complete cover page • have at least 500 words • use full sentences (and no bullet points) • must have page numbers • must have a reference page Example writing (not a complete essay): Boxing: Countdown to Injury A left hook smashes into the fighter’s jaw. A following right slams his head the opposite direction. An uppercut to the jaw snaps his head back, momentarily stopping the blood flow to his brain. The boxer drops, hitting the mat with a thud. His brain bounces off his skull for the second time in a matter of seconds. Is this what we should call a sport? Because of injuries, neurological damage, and ring deaths, the rules of professional boxing should be changed. Boxing has always been a brutal sport. The ancient Greeks used gloves studded with metal spikes, which slashed the face and body and split skulls. Although gloves are no longer spiked, boxers today sustain injuries ranging from cuts and bruises to broken bones. It is not uncommon to see a boxer leave the ring with a cut on his face, an eye swollen shut, and a nose enlarged and bloody. Often, healing in is incomplete because these areas receive the same blows again and again in other matches. In fact, repeated blows almost cost Sugar Ray Leonard his sight when his retina detached in his left eye. Besides superficial injuries, boxers suffer short-term neurological damage as a result of staggering blows to the head. A knockout punch, for example, is often delivered with such force that the brain smashes against the skull, tearing nerve fibers and blood vessels, resulting in a concussion. Even a blow to the neck can close the carotid artery, the main artery to the brain, whereby oxygen and blood to the brain are disrupted, resulting in dizziness and confusion. Later, the boxers often have no memory of the moments before or after a knockout blow. Submission Criteria Due Date: Sunday, December 6, 2015. Late assignments will receive an automatic ZERO grade. Where to deliver hard copies: In class Assessment Criteria CRITERIA Assessment Rubric Argumentation Essay SCORES Introduction Introduces the issue and its importance, says what your essay will cover 2 Organization The sound structure of the essay 1 Expression Sentences, phrases, metaphors, verbs etc. The strength of the language used 4 Conclusion Restate the issue, summarizes the strength of the arguments in the essays, gives your opinion about which essay is the strongest with supporting reasons 1 Mechanics Followed guidelines, professional format, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization are correct, use of headings, no bullet points 2 TOTAL 10% Plagiarism, copying from the internet or any other sources without citation will result in an automatic ZERO grade and a procedure of Academic Misconduct will filed against you. The complete essay has to be created and written by you alone. Prior assignments CAN NOT be used.

COMM 1311: Written Communication Assignment 5 Argumentation Essay (Chapter 10, pp. 218-232, Arlov) Purpose of Assignment • The purpose of this assignment is to enable the student to write an essay with a compelling argumentation that shows critical thinking. A persuasive essay is a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. Objectives • The student will be able to correctly structure an essay and bring forward a compelling thesis and argument. • The student will understand the creativity of the writing process and use his own ideas. • The student will be able to craft a compelling essay and show critical thinking. • The student will show that he is able to argue both sides of a topic and is willing to acknowledge a different opinion. Instructions 1. Establish a subject Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about but it has to be approved by the instructor. 2. Present a clear thesis and identify the controversy Your thesis should inform readers of your purpose and how you will proceed in your argumentation. 3. Follow an organizational pattern and provide support The body paragraphs of the essay should provide specific support. These supports may include personal experience, statistics, facts, or experts’ opinions. They may be garnered from scientific journals, magazines, books, newspapers, textbooks, studies, or interviews. Select only the facts that are relevant. 4. Consider differing opinions A persuasive essay may be strengthened by acknowledging conflict viewpoints and discussing them. 4. Draw a conclusion Restate your position in different words from the introduction. Do not introduce new material in the conclusion. You may want to conclude by encouraging some specific call to action. Requirements The essay topic must meet the approval of the instructor: • Have a complete cover page • have at least 500 words • use full sentences (and no bullet points) • must have page numbers • must have a reference page Example writing (not a complete essay): Boxing: Countdown to Injury A left hook smashes into the fighter’s jaw. A following right slams his head the opposite direction. An uppercut to the jaw snaps his head back, momentarily stopping the blood flow to his brain. The boxer drops, hitting the mat with a thud. His brain bounces off his skull for the second time in a matter of seconds. Is this what we should call a sport? Because of injuries, neurological damage, and ring deaths, the rules of professional boxing should be changed. Boxing has always been a brutal sport. The ancient Greeks used gloves studded with metal spikes, which slashed the face and body and split skulls. Although gloves are no longer spiked, boxers today sustain injuries ranging from cuts and bruises to broken bones. It is not uncommon to see a boxer leave the ring with a cut on his face, an eye swollen shut, and a nose enlarged and bloody. Often, healing in is incomplete because these areas receive the same blows again and again in other matches. In fact, repeated blows almost cost Sugar Ray Leonard his sight when his retina detached in his left eye. Besides superficial injuries, boxers suffer short-term neurological damage as a result of staggering blows to the head. A knockout punch, for example, is often delivered with such force that the brain smashes against the skull, tearing nerve fibers and blood vessels, resulting in a concussion. Even a blow to the neck can close the carotid artery, the main artery to the brain, whereby oxygen and blood to the brain are disrupted, resulting in dizziness and confusion. Later, the boxers often have no memory of the moments before or after a knockout blow. Submission Criteria Due Date: Sunday, December 6, 2015. Late assignments will receive an automatic ZERO grade. Where to deliver hard copies: In class Assessment Criteria CRITERIA Assessment Rubric Argumentation Essay SCORES Introduction Introduces the issue and its importance, says what your essay will cover 2 Organization The sound structure of the essay 1 Expression Sentences, phrases, metaphors, verbs etc. The strength of the language used 4 Conclusion Restate the issue, summarizes the strength of the arguments in the essays, gives your opinion about which essay is the strongest with supporting reasons 1 Mechanics Followed guidelines, professional format, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization are correct, use of headings, no bullet points 2 TOTAL 10% Plagiarism, copying from the internet or any other sources without citation will result in an automatic ZERO grade and a procedure of Academic Misconduct will filed against you. The complete essay has to be created and written by you alone. Prior assignments CAN NOT be used.

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The third task : Tutorial Topic 5 – IT and Information Systems Search business magazines and other sources of information for recent articles that discuss the use of information technology in delivering significant business benefits to an organisation. Use other sources to find additional information about the organisation. For the tutorial, prepare a brief report on your findings, and identify the application area(s) in the organisation that IT has supported. HOW TO DO THIS: 1. Identify an organisation big enough to have material published about it. 2. Write short introduction/description of the organisation 3. Identify business magazines that publish articles about IT 4. Other sources of information could be the organisations website 5. Or the company that is selling the information technology 6. Brief report – what is a report? what is the writing style of a report? Examples of information sourses: 1. http://www.infoworld.com/about 2. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/learning/management_thinking/articles/?subject=ebusiness 3. http://www.computerworlduk.com/it-business/ 4. http://www.businessweek.com/reports 5. http://www.informationweek.com/ 6. http://www.webroot.com/us/en/business/resources/articles/ or search for Business IT articles

The third task : Tutorial Topic 5 – IT and Information Systems Search business magazines and other sources of information for recent articles that discuss the use of information technology in delivering significant business benefits to an organisation. Use other sources to find additional information about the organisation. For the tutorial, prepare a brief report on your findings, and identify the application area(s) in the organisation that IT has supported. HOW TO DO THIS: 1. Identify an organisation big enough to have material published about it. 2. Write short introduction/description of the organisation 3. Identify business magazines that publish articles about IT 4. Other sources of information could be the organisations website 5. Or the company that is selling the information technology 6. Brief report – what is a report? what is the writing style of a report? Examples of information sourses: 1. http://www.infoworld.com/about 2. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/learning/management_thinking/articles/?subject=ebusiness 3. http://www.computerworlduk.com/it-business/ 4. http://www.businessweek.com/reports 5. http://www.informationweek.com/ 6. http://www.webroot.com/us/en/business/resources/articles/ or search for Business IT articles

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There are fewer male employees in your company. If you want to be sure these male employees are equally represented in your study, what sampling procedure should you use? Please describe in detail what you would do

There are fewer male employees in your company. If you want to be sure these male employees are equally represented in your study, what sampling procedure should you use? Please describe in detail what you would do

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Question 3 (1 point) In Rotter’s model, the behavior that is most likely to be performed in a given situation is Question 3 options: the one that has been reinforced. the one with the strongest behavior potential. the one for which a model has been reinforced. the one most consistent with the person’s self concept. Question 4 (1 point) Marlene’s desk becomes so messy that on occasion she cannot find an important paper she is looking for. After several incidents in which she suffered the consequences of not finding a paper she needed (such as a homework assignment), she learned to organize and straighten her desk. Marlene learned this new behavior through which operant conditioning procedure? Question 4 options: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment extinction Question 5 (1 point) Colleen is trying to decide which of two events to enter in the school track meet. She thinks she would have a better chance of winning in the 100 meter race, but decides to enter the 10,000 meter race instead. According to Rotter’s theory, Question 5 options: her generalized expectancies determined this decision. the reinforcement value of winning the 10,000 meter race is greater than the reinforcement value of winning the 100 meter race. the decision illustrates that the behavior potential does not always determine behavior. she must have been reinforced for winning the 10,000 meter race in the past. Page 1 of 3 ________________________________________ . Question 6 (1 point) A woman complains to her therapist that lately she hasn’t “felt like herself.” The therapist plans to use a behavior modification treatment by altering the rewards and punishments in the woman’s environment. What is likely to be the first step the therapist takes in setting up this treatment? Question 6 options: Define the woman’s problem in terms of observable behaviors. Interview people the woman knows to determine the extent of the problem. Obtain baseline data for how often and when the problem occurs. Determine what in the woman’s past has been responsible for causing this problem. Question 7 (1 point) According to Bandura, we learn many behaviors by observing models. Whether or not we perform these behaviors depends on Question 7 options: our expectations for rewards and punishments. the reinforcement value of the rewards. generalized expectancies. whether we are children or adults. Question 8 (1 point) According to Bandura, people are most likely to change their behavior when they believe Question 8 options: the therapist has the ability to change them. following the treatment program can lead to the desired outcome. they are capable of engaging in the behaviors needed to bring about the desired outcome. they have chosen the type of treatment themselves. Question 9 (1 point) From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as Question 9 options: the law of operant conditioning. the law of effect. the law of consequences. the law of association. Question 10 (1 point) Edward Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from boxes to obtain a piece of fish. He derived from these observations the “law of effect.” This was an early statement of Question 10 options: classical conditioning. operant conditioning. shaping. stimulus generalization. ________________________________________ . Question 11 (1 point) According to the behaviorist position, why don’t classically conditioned phobias extinguish after the pairing is removed? Question 11 options: People expect that the feared object will continue to hurt them. The fear and associated behaviors, such as running away from the feared object, often are reinforced. The fear of the original object generalizes to additional objects. The feared object has lost all of its reinforcement value. Question 12 (1 point) John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less often than he used to. This is an example of Question 12 options: positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. punishment. extinction. Question 13 (1 point) According to Bandura, behavior modification procedures Question 13 options: are most effective when used in conjunction with other types of treatments. provide people with a method to change themselves once they have decided to do so. are not as effective as behavior therapists claim. are no more effective than providing clients with no treatment. Question 14 (1 point) The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is Question 14 options: the combination of environmental circumstances and unconscious impulses. a function of how we feel about conditions in the environment. the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in. the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways. Question 15 (1 point) A woman shows no interest in socializing with other people. How might a behaviorist explain this behavior? Question 15 options: The woman does not believe that she can interact effectively with other people. The woman has not been reinforced enough for engaging in social behavior. The woman experiences anxiety in social situations and uses her asocial style as a defense against this anxiety. The woman is either high in social anxiety or low in sociability.

Question 3 (1 point) In Rotter’s model, the behavior that is most likely to be performed in a given situation is Question 3 options: the one that has been reinforced. the one with the strongest behavior potential. the one for which a model has been reinforced. the one most consistent with the person’s self concept. Question 4 (1 point) Marlene’s desk becomes so messy that on occasion she cannot find an important paper she is looking for. After several incidents in which she suffered the consequences of not finding a paper she needed (such as a homework assignment), she learned to organize and straighten her desk. Marlene learned this new behavior through which operant conditioning procedure? Question 4 options: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment extinction Question 5 (1 point) Colleen is trying to decide which of two events to enter in the school track meet. She thinks she would have a better chance of winning in the 100 meter race, but decides to enter the 10,000 meter race instead. According to Rotter’s theory, Question 5 options: her generalized expectancies determined this decision. the reinforcement value of winning the 10,000 meter race is greater than the reinforcement value of winning the 100 meter race. the decision illustrates that the behavior potential does not always determine behavior. she must have been reinforced for winning the 10,000 meter race in the past. Page 1 of 3 ________________________________________ . Question 6 (1 point) A woman complains to her therapist that lately she hasn’t “felt like herself.” The therapist plans to use a behavior modification treatment by altering the rewards and punishments in the woman’s environment. What is likely to be the first step the therapist takes in setting up this treatment? Question 6 options: Define the woman’s problem in terms of observable behaviors. Interview people the woman knows to determine the extent of the problem. Obtain baseline data for how often and when the problem occurs. Determine what in the woman’s past has been responsible for causing this problem. Question 7 (1 point) According to Bandura, we learn many behaviors by observing models. Whether or not we perform these behaviors depends on Question 7 options: our expectations for rewards and punishments. the reinforcement value of the rewards. generalized expectancies. whether we are children or adults. Question 8 (1 point) According to Bandura, people are most likely to change their behavior when they believe Question 8 options: the therapist has the ability to change them. following the treatment program can lead to the desired outcome. they are capable of engaging in the behaviors needed to bring about the desired outcome. they have chosen the type of treatment themselves. Question 9 (1 point) From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as Question 9 options: the law of operant conditioning. the law of effect. the law of consequences. the law of association. Question 10 (1 point) Edward Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from boxes to obtain a piece of fish. He derived from these observations the “law of effect.” This was an early statement of Question 10 options: classical conditioning. operant conditioning. shaping. stimulus generalization. ________________________________________ . Question 11 (1 point) According to the behaviorist position, why don’t classically conditioned phobias extinguish after the pairing is removed? Question 11 options: People expect that the feared object will continue to hurt them. The fear and associated behaviors, such as running away from the feared object, often are reinforced. The fear of the original object generalizes to additional objects. The feared object has lost all of its reinforcement value. Question 12 (1 point) John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less often than he used to. This is an example of Question 12 options: positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. punishment. extinction. Question 13 (1 point) According to Bandura, behavior modification procedures Question 13 options: are most effective when used in conjunction with other types of treatments. provide people with a method to change themselves once they have decided to do so. are not as effective as behavior therapists claim. are no more effective than providing clients with no treatment. Question 14 (1 point) The behavioral approach to personality postulates that personality is Question 14 options: the combination of environmental circumstances and unconscious impulses. a function of how we feel about conditions in the environment. the consistent patterns of behavior we engage in. the result of inherited predispositions to behave in certain ways. Question 15 (1 point) A woman shows no interest in socializing with other people. How might a behaviorist explain this behavior? Question 15 options: The woman does not believe that she can interact effectively with other people. The woman has not been reinforced enough for engaging in social behavior. The woman experiences anxiety in social situations and uses her asocial style as a defense against this anxiety. The woman is either high in social anxiety or low in sociability.

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8. Discuss the marketing and supply chain risks and benefits related to product complexity?

8. Discuss the marketing and supply chain risks and benefits related to product complexity?

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