All of the uses listed below are uses for transgenic bacteria, except Select one: Bioremediation, when bacteria are used to clean up spills of oil or other toxic substances. The production of organic chemicals such as phenylalanine used in the production of aspartame. The production of chemicals toxic to insects that can be used to protect plants from insects. The production of plants like the pomato, it has a starchy root like the potato and also produces tomatoes on the stem portion of the plant. The production of human growth hormones.

All of the uses listed below are uses for transgenic bacteria, except Select one: Bioremediation, when bacteria are used to clean up spills of oil or other toxic substances. The production of organic chemicals such as phenylalanine used in the production of aspartame. The production of chemicals toxic to insects that can be used to protect plants from insects. The production of plants like the pomato, it has a starchy root like the potato and also produces tomatoes on the stem portion of the plant. The production of human growth hormones.

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Chapter 04 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A The cells of all plants have _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Which of the following is a difference between cellular respiration and anaerobic respiration? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Which of the following are found in the cells of a dog but not in the bacteria that are found on a dog’s fur? ANSWER: chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions chloroplasts and mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions mitochondria but not chloroplasts and use proteins to power their functions chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use proteins to power their functions Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide. Only anaerobic respiration produces water. Only cellular respiration breaks down carbohydrates. Only cellular respiration uses oxygen to break down carbohydrates. membrane-enclosed nucleus, chloroplasts, and cytoplasm mitochondria, nuclei, and cytoplasm membrane-enclosed nucleus and mitochondria mitochondria and chloroplasts Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A The products of photosynthesis are the materials that react in the process of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Tissues within an organism’s body are different from each other because the cells in each tissue _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A An egg and a sperm are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 6 chemosynthesis cellular respiration osmosis anaerobic respiration are produced by different combinations of eggs and sperm activate different portions of the identical DNA remove the DNA that they do not need have different types of DNA gametes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a zygote zygotes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a gamete zygotes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a gamete gametes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a zygote Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A The growth of a population of sparrows accelerates with each generation. The chances of dying are about the same for these sparrows, regardless of age. This population of sparrows therefore demonstrates _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A A population will grow the fastest when total fertility rates are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A population will not change in size if the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A exponential growth and a type III survivorship curve exponential growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type I survivorship curve low and generation times are long high and generation times are short high and generation times are long low and generation times are short birth rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the immigration rate and the death rate equals the emigration rate death rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the death rate and the immigration rate equals the emigration rate Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM As a population increases to near its carrying capacity, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The various activities that define an organism’s role in an ecosystem are that organism’s _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Largemouth bass and rainbow trout are stocked in a small, deep 10-acre pond. The bass are most active in 20-30 °C water, and the rainbow trout prefer water at about 6-22 °C. We expect to find few places in this pond where the two species interact because they have different _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The evolutionary concept of fitness is most closely associated with _____. birth rates decline, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth increases birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates increase, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines range of tolerance habitat ecological niche fitness generation times ranges of tolerance growth rates carrying capacities Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A The ultimate source of new inherited traits in a population is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A Studies of human birth weight and infant health reveal that babies who are heavier than 10 pounds or lighter than 6 pounds have decreased survival rates. This pattern of survival is an example of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A From an evolutionary perspective, the most important property that defines a species is _____. ANSWER: feeding reproduction carrying capacity mutations adaptation survivorship natural selection mutation disruptive selection directional selection bimodal selection stabilizing selection Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A In Missouri, the marbled salamander breeds in the late fall (October-December). In the same region, the closely related spotted salamander breeds in early spring (February-March). Thus, these species are kept separate because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A Which one of the following correctly lists the levels of classification from specific to general? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In a phylogenetic tree, all of the species in one family will _____. ANSWER: the ability of a species to extend the its range its type of natural selection its dietary habits reproductive isolation behavioral isolation structural isolation temporal isolation geographic isolation genus, species, order, family, class, phylum, kingdom species, genus, class, family, order, phylum, kingdom species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. have the same scientific name have identical ecological niches be scattered throughout the tree be clustered together in the tree Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM

Chapter 04 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A The cells of all plants have _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Which of the following is a difference between cellular respiration and anaerobic respiration? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Which of the following are found in the cells of a dog but not in the bacteria that are found on a dog’s fur? ANSWER: chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions chloroplasts and mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions mitochondria but not chloroplasts and use proteins to power their functions chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use proteins to power their functions Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide. Only anaerobic respiration produces water. Only cellular respiration breaks down carbohydrates. Only cellular respiration uses oxygen to break down carbohydrates. membrane-enclosed nucleus, chloroplasts, and cytoplasm mitochondria, nuclei, and cytoplasm membrane-enclosed nucleus and mitochondria mitochondria and chloroplasts Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A The products of photosynthesis are the materials that react in the process of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Tissues within an organism’s body are different from each other because the cells in each tissue _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A An egg and a sperm are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 6 chemosynthesis cellular respiration osmosis anaerobic respiration are produced by different combinations of eggs and sperm activate different portions of the identical DNA remove the DNA that they do not need have different types of DNA gametes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a zygote zygotes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a gamete zygotes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a gamete gametes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a zygote Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A The growth of a population of sparrows accelerates with each generation. The chances of dying are about the same for these sparrows, regardless of age. This population of sparrows therefore demonstrates _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A A population will grow the fastest when total fertility rates are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A population will not change in size if the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A exponential growth and a type III survivorship curve exponential growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type I survivorship curve low and generation times are long high and generation times are short high and generation times are long low and generation times are short birth rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the immigration rate and the death rate equals the emigration rate death rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the death rate and the immigration rate equals the emigration rate Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM As a population increases to near its carrying capacity, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The various activities that define an organism’s role in an ecosystem are that organism’s _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Largemouth bass and rainbow trout are stocked in a small, deep 10-acre pond. The bass are most active in 20-30 °C water, and the rainbow trout prefer water at about 6-22 °C. We expect to find few places in this pond where the two species interact because they have different _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The evolutionary concept of fitness is most closely associated with _____. birth rates decline, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth increases birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates increase, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines range of tolerance habitat ecological niche fitness generation times ranges of tolerance growth rates carrying capacities Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A The ultimate source of new inherited traits in a population is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A Studies of human birth weight and infant health reveal that babies who are heavier than 10 pounds or lighter than 6 pounds have decreased survival rates. This pattern of survival is an example of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A From an evolutionary perspective, the most important property that defines a species is _____. ANSWER: feeding reproduction carrying capacity mutations adaptation survivorship natural selection mutation disruptive selection directional selection bimodal selection stabilizing selection Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A In Missouri, the marbled salamander breeds in the late fall (October-December). In the same region, the closely related spotted salamander breeds in early spring (February-March). Thus, these species are kept separate because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A Which one of the following correctly lists the levels of classification from specific to general? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In a phylogenetic tree, all of the species in one family will _____. ANSWER: the ability of a species to extend the its range its type of natural selection its dietary habits reproductive isolation behavioral isolation structural isolation temporal isolation geographic isolation genus, species, order, family, class, phylum, kingdom species, genus, class, family, order, phylum, kingdom species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. have the same scientific name have identical ecological niches be scattered throughout the tree be clustered together in the tree Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM

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Lab 5 Math 551 Fall 2015 Goal: In this assignment we will look at two fractals, namely the Sierpinski fractal and the Barnsley Fern. During the lab session, your lab instructor will teach you the necessary MATLAB code to complete the assignment, which will be discussed in the lab on Thursday October 8th or Friday October 9th in the lab (CW 144 or CW 145). What you have to submit: An m- le containing all of the commands necessary to perform all the tasks described below. Submit this le on Canvas. Click: \Assignments”, click \MATLAB Project 5″, click \Submit Assignment”, then upload your .m le and click \Submit Assignment” again. Due date: Friday October 16, 5pm. No late submission will be accepted. TASKS A fractal can be de ned as a self-similar detailed pattern repeating itself. Some of the most well know fractals (the Mandelbrot set and Julia set) can be viewed here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ The Sierpinski Fractal The program srnpnski(m,dist,n) gets its name from the mathematician W. Sierpinski. The only parameter that must be speci ed is m which determines the number of vertices that will be part of a regular polygon. For larger m it produces a graph which is similar to a snow ake. The program starts with a randomly chosen seed position given by the internal variable s. At each stage one of the vertices is chosen at random and a new point is produced which is dist away from the old point to the vertex. The value of dist should be between 0 and 1. The default value is 0.5. This process is repeated n times. The default value of n is 1500. 1. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on s rpns k i (m, di s t , n) %This c r e a t e s a snowf lake from m v e r t i c e s us ing n i t e r a t i o n s . i f nargin <3, n=1500; end i f nargin <2, d i s t =0.5; end c l f a x i s ( [ ?1 ,1 , ?1 ,1] ) p=exp (2 pi  i  ( 1 :m)/m) ; pl o t (p , '  ' ) hold s=rand+i  rand ; f o r j =1:n r=c e i l (m rand ) ; s=d i s t  s+(1?d i s t )p( r ) ; pl o t ( s , ' . ' ) end 2. Try out the following commands s rpns k i ( 3 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 2 5 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 5 0 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 4 ) 1 s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 2 ) s rpns k i ( 5 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 4 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 6 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 8 , 0 . 3 , 5 0 0 0 ) The Barnsley Fern The following program is the famous Barnsley Fern. The only external parameter is n, the number of iterations. 3. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on f e r n (n) A1=[ 0 . 8 5 , 0 . 0 4 ; ?0 . 0 4 , 0 . 8 5 ] ; A2=[ ?0 . 1 5 , 0 . 2 8 ; 0 . 2 6 , 0 . 2 4 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 2 , ?0 . 2 6 ; 0 . 2 3 , 0 . 2 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 6 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 4 4 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 ] ; P1=0.85; P2=0.07; P3=0.07; P4=0.01; c l f ; s=rand ( 2 , 1 ) ; pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) hold f o r j =1:n r=rand ; i f r<=P1 , s=A1 s+T1 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2 , s=A2 s+T2 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2+P3 , s=A3 s+T3 ; e l s e s=A4 s ; end pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) end 4. Try the following commands: f e r n (100) f e r n (500) f e r n (1000) f e r n (3000) f e r n (5000) f e r n (10000) 2 5. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; T1=[ 1 ; 1 ] ; T2=[ 1 ; 5 0 ] ; T3=[ 5 0 ; 5 0 ] ; P1=0.33; P2=0.33; P3=0.34; Call the new program srptri.m. Try the command s r p t r i (5000) You should see a familiar looking result. 6. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 4 2 , ?0 . 4 2 ; 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ; ?0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 . 1 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 0 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 . 2 ] ; P1=0.05; P2=0.4; P3=0.4; P4=0.15; Call the new program srptree.m. Try the command s r p t r e e (5000) This is an example of a fractal tree. Some nice animations of fractal trees can be seen here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ MATLAB commands to learn: Cl f , c e i l , imaginary uni t I , i f . . e l s e i f . . e l s e . . end 3

Lab 5 Math 551 Fall 2015 Goal: In this assignment we will look at two fractals, namely the Sierpinski fractal and the Barnsley Fern. During the lab session, your lab instructor will teach you the necessary MATLAB code to complete the assignment, which will be discussed in the lab on Thursday October 8th or Friday October 9th in the lab (CW 144 or CW 145). What you have to submit: An m- le containing all of the commands necessary to perform all the tasks described below. Submit this le on Canvas. Click: \Assignments”, click \MATLAB Project 5″, click \Submit Assignment”, then upload your .m le and click \Submit Assignment” again. Due date: Friday October 16, 5pm. No late submission will be accepted. TASKS A fractal can be de ned as a self-similar detailed pattern repeating itself. Some of the most well know fractals (the Mandelbrot set and Julia set) can be viewed here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ The Sierpinski Fractal The program srnpnski(m,dist,n) gets its name from the mathematician W. Sierpinski. The only parameter that must be speci ed is m which determines the number of vertices that will be part of a regular polygon. For larger m it produces a graph which is similar to a snow ake. The program starts with a randomly chosen seed position given by the internal variable s. At each stage one of the vertices is chosen at random and a new point is produced which is dist away from the old point to the vertex. The value of dist should be between 0 and 1. The default value is 0.5. This process is repeated n times. The default value of n is 1500. 1. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on s rpns k i (m, di s t , n) %This c r e a t e s a snowf lake from m v e r t i c e s us ing n i t e r a t i o n s . i f nargin <3, n=1500; end i f nargin <2, d i s t =0.5; end c l f a x i s ( [ ?1 ,1 , ?1 ,1] ) p=exp (2 pi  i  ( 1 :m)/m) ; pl o t (p , '  ' ) hold s=rand+i  rand ; f o r j =1:n r=c e i l (m rand ) ; s=d i s t  s+(1?d i s t )p( r ) ; pl o t ( s , ' . ' ) end 2. Try out the following commands s rpns k i ( 3 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 2 5 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 5 0 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 4 ) 1 s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 2 ) s rpns k i ( 5 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 4 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 6 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 8 , 0 . 3 , 5 0 0 0 ) The Barnsley Fern The following program is the famous Barnsley Fern. The only external parameter is n, the number of iterations. 3. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on f e r n (n) A1=[ 0 . 8 5 , 0 . 0 4 ; ?0 . 0 4 , 0 . 8 5 ] ; A2=[ ?0 . 1 5 , 0 . 2 8 ; 0 . 2 6 , 0 . 2 4 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 2 , ?0 . 2 6 ; 0 . 2 3 , 0 . 2 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 6 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 4 4 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 ] ; P1=0.85; P2=0.07; P3=0.07; P4=0.01; c l f ; s=rand ( 2 , 1 ) ; pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) hold f o r j =1:n r=rand ; i f r<=P1 , s=A1 s+T1 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2 , s=A2 s+T2 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2+P3 , s=A3 s+T3 ; e l s e s=A4 s ; end pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) end 4. Try the following commands: f e r n (100) f e r n (500) f e r n (1000) f e r n (3000) f e r n (5000) f e r n (10000) 2 5. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; T1=[ 1 ; 1 ] ; T2=[ 1 ; 5 0 ] ; T3=[ 5 0 ; 5 0 ] ; P1=0.33; P2=0.33; P3=0.34; Call the new program srptri.m. Try the command s r p t r i (5000) You should see a familiar looking result. 6. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 4 2 , ?0 . 4 2 ; 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ; ?0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 . 1 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 0 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 . 2 ] ; P1=0.05; P2=0.4; P3=0.4; P4=0.15; Call the new program srptree.m. Try the command s r p t r e e (5000) This is an example of a fractal tree. Some nice animations of fractal trees can be seen here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ MATLAB commands to learn: Cl f , c e i l , imaginary uni t I , i f . . e l s e i f . . e l s e . . end 3

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1. How does the milk market respond to the following events? Show Change in Supply or Demand. A) Mad cow disease hits the US herds B) Genetically Enhanced cows are 80% of all the milk cows are destroyed created and produce 30% more milk $$ Supply $$ Supply Demand Demand 0 Quantity 0 Quantity EXPLAIN: EXPLAIN: C) Moms learn that if kids drink a gallon of D) A drought wipes out all the grain milk a day, they are guaranteed to get crops and there is no breakfast prefect grades cereal produced this year. $$ Supply $$ Supply Demand Demand 0 Quantity 0 Quantity EXPLAIN: EXPLAIN: 2. The market for movie tickets has the following demand and supply schedule. (4 points) Price Demand Supply $$ $10 35 165 $8 65 105 $7 87 87 $6 99 65 $5 130 55 $3 170 35 o Q A) GRAPH Demand & Supply B) What is the equilbrium price of Movie Tickets? C) If a Price Floor of $8 is imposed on market, how many Movie Tickets are sold? D) If a Price Ceiling of $5 is imposed on the market, how many Movie Tickets are sold? 3. The economy of Winterland, produces snowflakes and icicles. Icicles Snowflakes Icicles 352 0 280 250 215 400 160 550 105 700 51 850 0 950 0 Snowflakes A) Graph Winterland’s Production Possibility Frontier. LABEL THE POINTS B) What is the Opportunity Cost of making 215 Icicles? C) What is the Opportunity Cost of making 700 Snowflakes? D) Can Harmony make 160 Icicles and 500 Snowflakes at the same time? Why or Why Not? E) Does it make sense for Harmony to choose to produce 352 Icicles and 0 Snowflakes

1. How does the milk market respond to the following events? Show Change in Supply or Demand. A) Mad cow disease hits the US herds B) Genetically Enhanced cows are 80% of all the milk cows are destroyed created and produce 30% more milk $$ Supply $$ Supply Demand Demand 0 Quantity 0 Quantity EXPLAIN: EXPLAIN: C) Moms learn that if kids drink a gallon of D) A drought wipes out all the grain milk a day, they are guaranteed to get crops and there is no breakfast prefect grades cereal produced this year. $$ Supply $$ Supply Demand Demand 0 Quantity 0 Quantity EXPLAIN: EXPLAIN: 2. The market for movie tickets has the following demand and supply schedule. (4 points) Price Demand Supply $$ $10 35 165 $8 65 105 $7 87 87 $6 99 65 $5 130 55 $3 170 35 o Q A) GRAPH Demand & Supply B) What is the equilbrium price of Movie Tickets? C) If a Price Floor of $8 is imposed on market, how many Movie Tickets are sold? D) If a Price Ceiling of $5 is imposed on the market, how many Movie Tickets are sold? 3. The economy of Winterland, produces snowflakes and icicles. Icicles Snowflakes Icicles 352 0 280 250 215 400 160 550 105 700 51 850 0 950 0 Snowflakes A) Graph Winterland’s Production Possibility Frontier. LABEL THE POINTS B) What is the Opportunity Cost of making 215 Icicles? C) What is the Opportunity Cost of making 700 Snowflakes? D) Can Harmony make 160 Icicles and 500 Snowflakes at the same time? Why or Why Not? E) Does it make sense for Harmony to choose to produce 352 Icicles and 0 Snowflakes

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Which statement describes glycolysis?This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration. This process converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.

Which statement describes glycolysis?This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration. This process converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.

This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs … Read More...
____ types of asphalt paving are in common use. Two Four Three Five ___ is the act of remodeling the existing land form to provide a level area for a structure, create circulation paths, and create drainage and landscape features. Grading Excavating Sheeting Caissoning ____ foundations use long wood, concrete, or steel piles that are driven into the earth. Pile Mat Spread Caisson ____ hammers use a heavy weight lifted up vertical rails called leads. Diesel Vibratory Single-acting steam Drop ____ of soil refers to increasing its density by mechanically forcing the soil particles closer together. Blending Compaction Shaking Consolidation ____ are temporary watertight enclosures used either in water-bearing soil or directly in water. Cofferdams Caissons Slurries Sheet pilings The ____ was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to classify soils for use in roads, embankments, and foundations. Unified Soil Classification System American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials System Chicago Center for Green Technologies American Society of Testing and Materials ____ piles utilize heavy-gauge steel pipes that are driven with an open end. H Precast concrete Pipe Timber A ____ test ascertains the consistency of a soil sample near the plastic limit. dry strength toughness soil coarseness shaking ____ techniques involve lowering the level of subsurface water on a site to allow excavation to occur in a dry and stable environment. Underpinning Excavating Dewatering Sheeting Clays and silty clay soils can be stabilized through the addition of ____, which produces a chemical reaction. calcium carbon ore lime ____ foundations are reinforced concrete slabs several feet in thickness that cover the entire footprint of a building. Pile Mat Spread Caisson ____, in the form of sheet piling, lagging, and slurry walls, is used to hold up the face of an excavation. Excavating Grading Anchoring Sheeting Predominantly granular soils that have minute amounts of clay particles can be stabilized by blending them with ____. Portland cement asphalt rock salt lime A ____ foundation is a pier that is drilled into the earth, filled with the required reinforcing steel, and poured with concrete. caisson spread mat pile

____ types of asphalt paving are in common use. Two Four Three Five ___ is the act of remodeling the existing land form to provide a level area for a structure, create circulation paths, and create drainage and landscape features. Grading Excavating Sheeting Caissoning ____ foundations use long wood, concrete, or steel piles that are driven into the earth. Pile Mat Spread Caisson ____ hammers use a heavy weight lifted up vertical rails called leads. Diesel Vibratory Single-acting steam Drop ____ of soil refers to increasing its density by mechanically forcing the soil particles closer together. Blending Compaction Shaking Consolidation ____ are temporary watertight enclosures used either in water-bearing soil or directly in water. Cofferdams Caissons Slurries Sheet pilings The ____ was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to classify soils for use in roads, embankments, and foundations. Unified Soil Classification System American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials System Chicago Center for Green Technologies American Society of Testing and Materials ____ piles utilize heavy-gauge steel pipes that are driven with an open end. H Precast concrete Pipe Timber A ____ test ascertains the consistency of a soil sample near the plastic limit. dry strength toughness soil coarseness shaking ____ techniques involve lowering the level of subsurface water on a site to allow excavation to occur in a dry and stable environment. Underpinning Excavating Dewatering Sheeting Clays and silty clay soils can be stabilized through the addition of ____, which produces a chemical reaction. calcium carbon ore lime ____ foundations are reinforced concrete slabs several feet in thickness that cover the entire footprint of a building. Pile Mat Spread Caisson ____, in the form of sheet piling, lagging, and slurry walls, is used to hold up the face of an excavation. Excavating Grading Anchoring Sheeting Predominantly granular soils that have minute amounts of clay particles can be stabilized by blending them with ____. Portland cement asphalt rock salt lime A ____ foundation is a pier that is drilled into the earth, filled with the required reinforcing steel, and poured with concrete. caisson spread mat pile

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Assignment 2 Conditional Probability, Bayes Theorem, and Random Variables Conditional Probability and Bayes’ Theorem Problems 1-14 from Problem Set on Conditional Probability and Bayes’ Theorem I am including all the question here so that there is no confusion. Q1. Pair of six sided dices are rolled and the outcome is noted: What is the sample space? What is the size of the sample space? Suppose all we are interested in is the sum of the two outcomes. What is the probability that the sum of the two is 6? 7? 8? (Note: This can be solved using both enumeration and conditional probability method). Here, it makes more sense to use the enumeration approach than conditional probability. It is, however, listed here to set the stage for Q5. What is the probability that the sum of the two is above 5 and the two numbers are equal? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators. What is the probability that the sum of the two is above 5 or the two numbers are equal? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators. Q2. If P(A)=0.4, P(B)=0.5 and P(A∩B)=0.3 What is the value of (a) P(A|B) and (b) P(B|A) Q3. At a fair, a vendor has 25 helium balloons on strings: 10 balloons are yellow, 8 are red, and 7 are green. A balloon is selected at random and sold. Given that the balloon sold is yellow, what is the probability that the next balloon selected at random is also yellow? Q4. A bowl contains seven blue chips and three red chips. Two chips are to be drawn at random and without replacement. What is the probability that the fist chip is a red chip and the second a blue? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators and use conditional probability. Q5. Three six sided dices are rolled and the outcome is noted: What is the size of the sample space? What is the probability that the sum of the three numbers is 6? 13? 18? Solve using conditional probability How does the concept of conditional probability help? Q6. A grade school boy has 5 blue and four white marbles in his left pocket and four blue and five white marbles in his right pocket. If he transfers one marble at random from his left pocket to his right pocket, what is the probability of his then drawing a blue marble from his right pocket? Q7. In a certain factory, machine I, II, and III are all producing springs of the same length. Of their production, machines I, II, and III produce 2%, 1%, and 3% defective springs respectively. Of the total production of springs in the factory, machine I produces 35%, machine II produces 25%, and machine III produces 40%. If one spring is selected at random from the total springs produced in a day, what is the probability that it is defective? Given that the selected spring is defective, what is the probability that it was produced on machine III? Q8. Bowl B1 contains 2 white chips, bowl B2 contains 2 red chips, bowl B3 contains 2 white and 2 red chips, and Bowl B4 contains 3 white chips and 1 red chip. The probabilities of selecting bowl B1, B2, B3, and B4 are 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/8 respectively. A bowl is selected using these probabilities, and a chip is then drawn at random. Find P(W), the probability of drawing a white chip P(B1|W): the probability that bowl B1 was selected, given that a white chip was drawn. Q9. A pap smear is a screening procedure used to detect cervical cancer. For women with this cancer, there are about 16% false negative. For women without cervical cancer, there are about 19% false positive. In the US, there are about 8 women in 100,000 who have this cancer. What is the probability that a woman who has been tested positive actually has cervical cancer? Q10. There is a new diagnostic test for a disease that occurs in about 0.05% of the population. The test is not perfect but will detect a person with the disease 99% of the time. It will, however, say that a person without the disease has the disease about 3% of the time. A person is selected at random from the population and the test indicates that this person has the disease. What are the conditional probabilities that The person has the disease The person does not have the disease Q11. Consider two urns: the first contains two white and seven black balls, and the second contains five white and six black balls. We flip a fair coin and then draw a ball from the first urn or the second urn depending on whether the outcome was a head or a tails. What is the conditional probability that the outcome of the toss was heads given that a white ball was selected? Q12. In answering a question on a multiple-choice test a student either knows the answer or guesses. Let p be the probability that she knows the answer. Assume that a student who guesses at the answer will be correct with probability 1/m where m is the number of multiple choice alternatives. What is the conditional probability that a student knew the answer given that she answered it correctly? Q13. A laboratory blood test is 95% effective in detecting a certain disease when it is, in fact, present. However, the test also yields a “false positive” result for 1% of the healthy persons tested (i.e., if a healthy person is tested, then, with probability 0.01, the test result will imply that he has the disease.). If 0.5% of the population actually have the disease, what is the probability a person has the disease given that his test results are positive? Q14. An urn contains b black balls and r red balls. One of the balls is drawn at random, but when it is put back in the urn, c additional balls of the same color are put in it with it. Now suppose that we draw another ball. What is the probability that the first ball drawn was black given that the second ball drawn was red? Random Variables Q15. Suppose an experiment consists of tossing two six sided fair dice and observing the outcomes. What is the sample space? Let Y denote the sum of the two numbers that appear on the dice. Define Y to be a random variable. What are the values that the random variable Y can take? What does it mean if we say Y=7? What does it mean if I say that Y<7? Q16. Suppose an experiment consists of picking a sample of size n from a population of size N. Assume that n≪N. Also, assume that the population contains D defective parts and N-D non defective parts, where n<D≪N. What is the sample space? If we are interested in knowing the number (count) of defective parts in the sample space, describe how, the concept of a random variable could help. Define a random variable Y and describe what values the random variable Y can take? What does it mean if we say Y=5? Q17. Suppose an experiment consists of tossing two fair coins. Let Y denote the number of heads appearing. Define Y to be a random variable. What are the values that the random variable Y can take? What does it mean if we say Y=1? What are the probabilities associated with each outcome? What is the sum of the probabilities associated with all possible values that Y can take? Q18. A lot, consisting of 100 fuses, is inspected by the following procedure. Five fuses are chosen at random and tested: if all 5 fuses pass the inspection, the lot is accepted. Suppose that the lot contains 20 defective fuses. What is the probability of accepting the lot? Define the random variable, its purpose, and the formula/concept that you would use. Q19. In a small pond there are 50 fish, 10 of which have been tagged. If a fisherman’s catch consists of 7 fish, selected at random and without replacement. Give an example of a random variable that can be defined if we are interested in knowing the number of tagged fish that are caught? What is the probability that exactly 2 tagged fish are caught? Define the random variable, its purpose, and the formula/concept that you would use. Applied to Quality Control Q20. My manufacturing firm makes 100 cars every day out of which 10 are defective; the quality control inspector tests drives 5 different cars. Based on the sample, the quality control inspector will make a generalization about the whole batch of 100 cars that I have on that day. Let d denote the number of defective cars in the sample What are the values that d can take (given the information provided above)? What is the probability that the quality control inspector will conclude that: (a) 0% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=0); (b) 20% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=1); (c) 40% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=2); (d) 60% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=3),(e) 80% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=4), and (f) 100% of the cars are defective- call this P(d=5) What is P(d=0)+ P(d=1)+ P(d=2)+ P(d=3)+ P(d=4)+ P(d=5) Let’s assume that the quality control inspector has been doing the testing for a while (say for the past 1000 days). What is the average # of defective cars that he found? Q21. Assume that the quality control inspector is selecting 1 car at a time and the car that he tested is put back in the pool of possible cars that he can test (sample with replacement). Let d denote the number of defective cars in the sample (n) What are the values that d can take (given the information provided above)? What is the probability that the quality control inspector will conclude that: (a) 0% of the cars are defective, (b) 20% of the cars are defective, (c) 40% of the cars are defective, (d) 60% of the cars are defective, (e) 80% of the cars are defective, and (f) 100% of the cars are defective. Let’s call these P(d=0)….P(d=5) What is P(d=0)+ P(d=1)+ P(d=2)+ P(d=3)+ P(d=4)+ P(d=5) Let’s assume that the quality control inspector has been doing the testing for a while (say for the past 1000 days). What is the average # of defective cars that he found? Interesting Problems Q22. A closet contains n pairs of shoes. If 2r shoes are chosen at random (2r<n), what is the probability that there will be no matching pair in the sample? Q23. In a draft lottery containing the 366 days of the leap year, what is the probability that the first 180 days drawn (without replacement) are evenly distributed among the 12 months? What is the probability that the first 30 days drawn contain none from September? Q25. You and I play a coin-tossing game. If the coin falls heads I score one, if tails, you score one. In the beginning, the score is zero. What is the probability that after 2n throws our scores are equal? What is the probability that after 2n+1 throws my score is three more than yours?

Assignment 2 Conditional Probability, Bayes Theorem, and Random Variables Conditional Probability and Bayes’ Theorem Problems 1-14 from Problem Set on Conditional Probability and Bayes’ Theorem I am including all the question here so that there is no confusion. Q1. Pair of six sided dices are rolled and the outcome is noted: What is the sample space? What is the size of the sample space? Suppose all we are interested in is the sum of the two outcomes. What is the probability that the sum of the two is 6? 7? 8? (Note: This can be solved using both enumeration and conditional probability method). Here, it makes more sense to use the enumeration approach than conditional probability. It is, however, listed here to set the stage for Q5. What is the probability that the sum of the two is above 5 and the two numbers are equal? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators. What is the probability that the sum of the two is above 5 or the two numbers are equal? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators. Q2. If P(A)=0.4, P(B)=0.5 and P(A∩B)=0.3 What is the value of (a) P(A|B) and (b) P(B|A) Q3. At a fair, a vendor has 25 helium balloons on strings: 10 balloons are yellow, 8 are red, and 7 are green. A balloon is selected at random and sold. Given that the balloon sold is yellow, what is the probability that the next balloon selected at random is also yellow? Q4. A bowl contains seven blue chips and three red chips. Two chips are to be drawn at random and without replacement. What is the probability that the fist chip is a red chip and the second a blue? Express this question in terms of events A, B, and set operators and use conditional probability. Q5. Three six sided dices are rolled and the outcome is noted: What is the size of the sample space? What is the probability that the sum of the three numbers is 6? 13? 18? Solve using conditional probability How does the concept of conditional probability help? Q6. A grade school boy has 5 blue and four white marbles in his left pocket and four blue and five white marbles in his right pocket. If he transfers one marble at random from his left pocket to his right pocket, what is the probability of his then drawing a blue marble from his right pocket? Q7. In a certain factory, machine I, II, and III are all producing springs of the same length. Of their production, machines I, II, and III produce 2%, 1%, and 3% defective springs respectively. Of the total production of springs in the factory, machine I produces 35%, machine II produces 25%, and machine III produces 40%. If one spring is selected at random from the total springs produced in a day, what is the probability that it is defective? Given that the selected spring is defective, what is the probability that it was produced on machine III? Q8. Bowl B1 contains 2 white chips, bowl B2 contains 2 red chips, bowl B3 contains 2 white and 2 red chips, and Bowl B4 contains 3 white chips and 1 red chip. The probabilities of selecting bowl B1, B2, B3, and B4 are 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/8 respectively. A bowl is selected using these probabilities, and a chip is then drawn at random. Find P(W), the probability of drawing a white chip P(B1|W): the probability that bowl B1 was selected, given that a white chip was drawn. Q9. A pap smear is a screening procedure used to detect cervical cancer. For women with this cancer, there are about 16% false negative. For women without cervical cancer, there are about 19% false positive. In the US, there are about 8 women in 100,000 who have this cancer. What is the probability that a woman who has been tested positive actually has cervical cancer? Q10. There is a new diagnostic test for a disease that occurs in about 0.05% of the population. The test is not perfect but will detect a person with the disease 99% of the time. It will, however, say that a person without the disease has the disease about 3% of the time. A person is selected at random from the population and the test indicates that this person has the disease. What are the conditional probabilities that The person has the disease The person does not have the disease Q11. Consider two urns: the first contains two white and seven black balls, and the second contains five white and six black balls. We flip a fair coin and then draw a ball from the first urn or the second urn depending on whether the outcome was a head or a tails. What is the conditional probability that the outcome of the toss was heads given that a white ball was selected? Q12. In answering a question on a multiple-choice test a student either knows the answer or guesses. Let p be the probability that she knows the answer. Assume that a student who guesses at the answer will be correct with probability 1/m where m is the number of multiple choice alternatives. What is the conditional probability that a student knew the answer given that she answered it correctly? Q13. A laboratory blood test is 95% effective in detecting a certain disease when it is, in fact, present. However, the test also yields a “false positive” result for 1% of the healthy persons tested (i.e., if a healthy person is tested, then, with probability 0.01, the test result will imply that he has the disease.). If 0.5% of the population actually have the disease, what is the probability a person has the disease given that his test results are positive? Q14. An urn contains b black balls and r red balls. One of the balls is drawn at random, but when it is put back in the urn, c additional balls of the same color are put in it with it. Now suppose that we draw another ball. What is the probability that the first ball drawn was black given that the second ball drawn was red? Random Variables Q15. Suppose an experiment consists of tossing two six sided fair dice and observing the outcomes. What is the sample space? Let Y denote the sum of the two numbers that appear on the dice. Define Y to be a random variable. What are the values that the random variable Y can take? What does it mean if we say Y=7? What does it mean if I say that Y<7? Q16. Suppose an experiment consists of picking a sample of size n from a population of size N. Assume that n≪N. Also, assume that the population contains D defective parts and N-D non defective parts, where n

4. A farmer in Georgia has a 100-acre farm on which to plant watermelons and cantaloupes. Every acre planted with watermelons requires 50 gallons of water per day and must be prepared for planting with 20 pounds of fertilizer. Every acre planted with cantaloupes requires 75 gallons of water per day and must be prepared with for planting with 15 pounds of fertilizer. The farmer estimates that it will take 2 hours of labor to harvest each acre planted with watermelons and 2.5 hours of labor for each acre planted with cantaloupes. He believes that watermelons will selce for about $3 each, and cantaloupes will sell for about $1 each. Every acre planted with watermelons is expected to yield 90 salable units. Every acre planted with cantaloupes is expected to yield 300 salable units. The farmer can pump 6,000 gallons of water per day for irrigation purposes from a shallow well. He can buy as much fertilizer as he needs at a cost of $10 per 50-pound bag. Finally, the farmer can hire laborers to the harvest the fields at a rate of $5 per hour. If the farmer sells all the watermelons and cantaloupes he produces, how many acres of each crop should the farmer plant to maximize profits? a. Reformulate an LP model for this problem. b. Sketch the feasible region for this problem. c. Determine the optimal solution to the problem by enumerating the corner points.

4. A farmer in Georgia has a 100-acre farm on which to plant watermelons and cantaloupes. Every acre planted with watermelons requires 50 gallons of water per day and must be prepared for planting with 20 pounds of fertilizer. Every acre planted with cantaloupes requires 75 gallons of water per day and must be prepared with for planting with 15 pounds of fertilizer. The farmer estimates that it will take 2 hours of labor to harvest each acre planted with watermelons and 2.5 hours of labor for each acre planted with cantaloupes. He believes that watermelons will selce for about $3 each, and cantaloupes will sell for about $1 each. Every acre planted with watermelons is expected to yield 90 salable units. Every acre planted with cantaloupes is expected to yield 300 salable units. The farmer can pump 6,000 gallons of water per day for irrigation purposes from a shallow well. He can buy as much fertilizer as he needs at a cost of $10 per 50-pound bag. Finally, the farmer can hire laborers to the harvest the fields at a rate of $5 per hour. If the farmer sells all the watermelons and cantaloupes he produces, how many acres of each crop should the farmer plant to maximize profits? a. Reformulate an LP model for this problem. b. Sketch the feasible region for this problem. c. Determine the optimal solution to the problem by enumerating the corner points.

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Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

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