Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

The objectification of women has been a very controversial topic … Read More...
Book review The Shareholder Value Myth: How Putting Shareholders First Harms Investors, Corporations, and the Public by Lynn Stout Provide 1) a 900 word review of this book (word range 900-1,200) and 2) a 350 word reflection where you force yourself to relate the message of the book . As per the format of the review, I like the ones done by the folks of the WSJ. This is an example: http://forums.delphiforums.com/diversecity/messages?msg=17531.1264 or http://www.wsj.com/articles/book-review-how-adam-smith-can-change-your-life-by-russ-roberts-1413846808?KEYWORDS=book+reviews

Book review The Shareholder Value Myth: How Putting Shareholders First Harms Investors, Corporations, and the Public by Lynn Stout Provide 1) a 900 word review of this book (word range 900-1,200) and 2) a 350 word reflection where you force yourself to relate the message of the book . As per the format of the review, I like the ones done by the folks of the WSJ. This is an example: http://forums.delphiforums.com/diversecity/messages?msg=17531.1264 or http://www.wsj.com/articles/book-review-how-adam-smith-can-change-your-life-by-russ-roberts-1413846808?KEYWORDS=book+reviews

The Shareholder Value Myth: How Putting Shareholders First Harms Investors, … Read More...
Assignment 5 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, March 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 6.13 A hand presses down on the book in the figure. Part A Is the normal force of the table on the book larger than, smaller than, or equal to ? ANSWER: Correct mg Equal to Larger than Smaller than mg mg mg Problem 6.2 The three ropes in the figure are tied to a small, very light ring. Two of these ropes are anchored to walls at right angles with the tensions shown in the figure. Part A What is the magnitude of the tension in the third rope? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the direction of the tension in the third rope? Express your answer using two significant figures. T  3 T3 = 94 N T  3 Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct The Normal Force When an object rests on a surface, there is always a force perpendicular to the surface; we call this the normal force, denoted by . The two questions to the right will explore the normal force. Part A A man attempts to pick up his suitcase of weight by pulling straight up on the handle. However, he is unable to lift the suitcase from the floor. Which statement about the magnitude of the normal force acting on the suitcase is true during the time that the man pulls upward on the suitcase? Hint 1. How to approach this problem First, identify the forces that act on the suitcase and draw a free-body diagram. Then use the fact that the suitcase is in equilibrium, , to examine how the forces acting on the suitcase relate to each other. Hint 2. Identify the correct free-body diagram Which of the figures represents the free-body diagram of the suitcase while the man is pulling on the handle with a force of magnitude ? = 58   below horizontal n ws n F = 0 fpull Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B A B C D The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase minus the magnitude of the force of the pull. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the sum of the magnitude of the force of the pull and the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is greater than the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase. Typesetting math: 100% Now assume that the man of weight is tired and decides to sit on his suitcase. Which statement about the magnitude of the normal force acting on the suitcase is true during the time that the man is sitting on the suitcase? Hint 1. Identify the correct free-body diagram. Which of the figures represents the free-body diagram while the man is sitting atop the suitcase? Here the vector labeled is a force that has the same magnitude as the man’s weight. ANSWER: wm n wm Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Recognize that the normal force acting on an object is not always equal to the weight of that object. This is an important point to understand. Problem 6.5 A construction worker with a weight of 880 stands on a roof that is sloped at 18 . Part A What is the magnitude of the normal force of the roof on the worker? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct A B C D The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight minus the magnitude of the man’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the sum of the magnitude of the man’s weight and the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is less than the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. N  n = 840 N Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.6 In each of the two free-body diagrams, the forces are acting on a 3.0 object. Part A For diagram , find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B For diagram the part A, find the value of the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg ax x ax = -0.67 m s2 ay, y Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C For diagram , find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D For diagram the part C, find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: ay = 0 m s2 ax x ax = 0.67 m s2 ay y Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.7 In each of the two free-body diagrams, the forces are acting on a 3.0 object. Part A Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (a). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ay = 0 m s2 kg ax x ax = 0.99 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Part B Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (a). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (b). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (b). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ay y ay = 0 m s2 ax x ax = -0.18 m s2 ay y ay = 0 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.10 A horizontal rope is tied to a 53.0 box on frictionless ice. What is the tension in the rope if: Part A The box is at rest? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The box moves at a steady = 4.80 ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C The box = 4.80 and = 4.60 ? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg T = 0 N vx m/s T = 0 N vx m/s ax m/s2 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.14 It takes the elevator in a skyscraper 4.5 to reach its cruising speed of 11 . A 60 passenger gets aboard on the ground floor. Part A What is the passenger’s weight before the elevator starts moving? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the passenger’s weight while the elevator is speeding up? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the passenger’s weight after the elevator reaches its cruising speed? T = 244 N s m/s kg w = 590 N w = 730 N Typesetting math: 100% Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Block on an Incline A block lies on a plane raised an angle from the horizontal. Three forces act upon the block: , the force of gravity; , the normal force; and , the force of friction. The coefficient of friction is large enough to prevent the block from sliding . Part A Consider coordinate system a, with the x axis along the plane. Which forces lie along the axes? ANSWER: w = 590 N  F  w F n F  f Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B Which forces lie along the axes of the coordinate system b, in which the y axis is vertical? ANSWER: Correct only only only and and and and and F  f F  n F  w F  f F  n F  f F  w F  n F w F  f F  n F w only only only and and and and and F  f F  n F  w F  f F  n F  f F  w F  n F w F  f F  n F w Typesetting math: 100% Usually the best advice is to choose coordinate system so that the acceleration of the system is directly along one of the coordinate axes. If the system isn’t accelerating, then you are better off choosing the coordinate system with the most vectors along the coordinate axes. But now you are going to ignore that advice. You will find the normal force, , using vertical coordinate system b. In these coordinates you will find the magnitude appearing in both the x and y equations, each multiplied by a trigonometric function. Part C Because the block is not moving, the sum of the y components of the forces acting on the block must be zero. Find an expression for the sum of the y components of the forces acting on the block, using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . Hint 1. Find the y component of Write an expression for , the y component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Some geometry help – a useful angle The smaller angle between and the y-axis is also , as shown in the figure. ANSWER: F  n Fn Fn Ff Fw  F n Fny F  n Fn  F  n  Typesetting math: 100% Hint 2. Find the y component of Write an expression for , the y component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Some geometry help – a useful angle The smaller angle between and the x-axis is also , as shown in the figure. ANSWER: ANSWER: Fny = Fncos() F f Ffy F f Ff  F  f  Ffy = Ffsin() Fy = 0 = Fncos() + Ffsin() − Fw Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part D Because the block is not moving, the sum of the x components of the forces acting on the block must be zero. Find an expression for the sum of the x components of the forces acting on the block, using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . Hint 1. Find the x component of Write an expression for , the x component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part E To find the magnitude of the normal force, you must express in terms of since is an unknown. Using the equations you found in the two previous parts, find an expression for involving and but not . Hint 1. How to approach the problem From your answers to the previous two parts you should have two force equations ( and ). Combine these equations to eliminate . The key is to multiply the Fn Ff Fw  F n Fnx F  n Fn  Fnx = −Fnsin() Fx = 0 = −Fnsin() + Ffcos() Fn Fw Ff Fn Fw  Ff Typesetting math: 100% Fy = 0 Fx = 0 Ff equation for the y components by and the equation for the x components by , then add or subtract the two equations to eliminate the term . An alternative motivation for the algebra is to eliminate the trig functions in front of by using the trig identity . At the very least this would result in an equation that is simple to solve for . ANSWER: Correct Congratulations on working this through. Now realize that in coordinate system a, which is aligned with the plane, the y-coordinate equation is , which leads immediately to the result obtained here for . CONCLUSION: A thoughtful examination of which coordinate system to choose can save a lot of algebra. Contact Forces Introduced Learning Goal: To introduce contact forces (normal and friction forces) and to understand that, except for friction forces under certain circumstances, these forces must be determined from: net Force = ma. Two solid objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time. Indeed, when the objects touch, they exert repulsive normal forces on each other, as well as frictional forces that resist their slipping relative to each other. These contact forces arise from a complex interplay between the electrostatic forces between the electrons and ions in the objects and the laws of quantum mechanics. As two surfaces are pushed together these forces increase exponentially over an atomic distance scale, easily becoming strong enough to distort the bulk material in the objects if they approach too close. In everyday experience, contact forces are limited by the deformation or acceleration of the objects, rather than by the fundamental interatomic forces. Hence, we can conclude the following: The magnitude of contact forces is determined by , that is, by the other forces on, and acceleration of, the contacting bodies. The only exception is that the frictional forces cannot exceed (although they can be smaller than this or even zero). Normal and friction forces Two types of contact forces operate in typical mechanics problems, the normal and frictional forces, usually designated by and (or , or something similar) respectively. These are the components of the overall contact force: perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of contact. Kinetic friction when surfaces slide cos  sin  Ff cos() sin() Fn sin2() + cos2 () = 1 Fn Fn = Fwcos() Fy = Fn − FW cos() = 0 Fn F = ma μn n f Ffric n f Typesetting math: 100% When one surface is sliding past the other, experiments show three things about the friction force (denoted ): The frictional force opposes the relative motion at the 1. point of contact, 2. is proportional to the normal force, and 3. the ratio of the magnitude of the frictional force to that of the normal force is fairly constant over a wide range of speeds. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of kinetic friction, often designated . As long as the sliding continues, the frictional force is then (valid when the surfaces slide by each other). Static friction when surfaces don’t slide When there is no relative motion of the surfaces, the frictional force can assume any value from zero up to a maximum , where is the coefficient of static friction. Invariably, is larger than , in agreement with the observation that when a force is large enough that something breaks loose and starts to slide, it often accelerates. The frictional force for surfaces with no relative motion is therefore (valid when the contacting surfaces have no relative motion). The actual magnitude and direction of the static friction force are such that it (together with other forces on the object) causes the object to remain motionless with respect to the contacting surface as long as the static friction force required does not exceed . The equation is valid only when the surfaces are on the verge of sliding. Part A When two objects slide by one another, which of the following statements about the force of friction between them, is true? ANSWER: Correct Part B fk fk μk fk = μkn μsn μs μs μk fs ! μsn μsn fs = μsn The frictional force is always equal to . The frictional force is always less than . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . μkn μkn μkn Typesetting math: 100% When two objects are in contact with no relative motion, which of the following statements about the frictional force between them, is true? ANSWER: Correct For static friction, the actual magnitude and direction of the friction force are such that it, together with any other forces present, will cause the object to have the observed acceleration. The magnitude of the force cannot exceed . If the magnitude of static friction needed to keep acceleration equal to zero exceeds , then the object will slide subject to the resistance of kinetic friction. Do not automatically assume that unless you are considering a situation in which the magnitude of the static friction force is as large as possible (i.e., when determining at what point an object will just begin to slip). Whether the actual magnitude of the friction force is 0, less than , or equal to depends on the magnitude of the other forces (if any) as well as the acceleration of the object through . Part C When a board with a box on it is slowly tilted to larger and larger angle, common experience shows that the box will at some point “break loose” and start to accelerate down the board. The box begins to slide once the component of gravity acting parallel to the board just begins to exceeds the maximum force of static friction. Which of the following is the most general explanation for why the box accelerates down the board? ANSWER: The frictional force is always equal to . The frictional force is always less than . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . μsn μsn μsn μsn μsn fs = μsn μsn μsn F = ma Fg The force of kinetic friction is smaller than that of maximum static friction, but remains the same. Once the box is moving, is smaller than the force of maximum static friction but larger than the force of kinetic friction. Once the box is moving, is larger than the force of maximum static friction. When the box is stationary, equals the force of static friction, but once the box starts moving, the sliding reduces the normal force, which in turn reduces the friction. Fg Fg Fg Fg Typesetting math: 100% Correct At the point when the box finally does “break loose,” you know that the component of the box’s weight that is parallel to the board just exceeds (i.e., this component of gravitational force on the box has just reached a magnitude such that the force of static friction, which has a maximum value of , can no longer oppose it.) For the box to then accelerate, there must be a net force on the box along the board. Thus, the component of the box’s weight parallel to the board must be greater than the force of kinetic friction. Therefore the force of kinetic friction must be less than the force of static friction which implies , as expected. Part D Consider a problem in which a car of mass is on a road tilted at an angle . The normal force Select the best answer. ANSWER: Correct The key point is that contact forces must be determined from Newton’s equation. In the problem described above, there is not enough information given to determine the normal force (e.g., the acceleration is unknown). Each of the answer options is valid under some conditions ( , the car is sliding down an icy incline, or the car is going around a banked turn), but in fact none is likely to be correct if there are other forces on the car or if the car is accelerating. Do not memorize values for the normal force valid in different problems–you must determine from . Problem 6.17 Bonnie and Clyde are sliding a 323 bank safe across the floor to their getaway car. The safe slides with a constant speed if Clyde pushes from behind with 375 of force while Bonnie pulls forward on a rope with 335 of force. μsn μsn μkn μsn μk < μs M  is found using n = Mg n = Mg cos() n = Mg cos() F  = Ma  = 0 n F = ma kg N N Typesetting math: 100% Part A What is the safe's coefficient of kinetic friction on the bank floor? ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.19 A crate is placed on a horizontal conveyor belt. The materials are such that and . Part A Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the crate if the conveyer belt runs at constant speed. Draw the force vectors with their tails at the dot. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER: 0.224 10 kg μs = 0.5 μk = 0.3 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the crate if the conveyer belt is speeding up. Draw the force vectors with their tails at the dot. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER: Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C What is the maximum acceleration the belt can have without the crate slipping? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct amax = 4.9 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.28 A 1100 steel beam is supported by two ropes. Part A What is the tension in rope 1? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the tension in rope 2? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg T1 = 7000 N Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.35 The position of a 1.4 mass is given by , where is in seconds. Part A What is the net horizontal force on the mass at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the net horizontal force on the mass at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.39 T2 = 4800 N kg x = (2t3 − 3t2 )m t t = 0 s F = -8.4 N t = 1 s F = 8.4 N Typesetting math: 100% A rifle with a barrel length of 61 fires a 8 bullet with a horizontal speed of 400 . The bullet strikes a block of wood and penetrates to a depth of 11 . Part A What resistive force (assumed to be constant) does the wood exert on the bullet? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B How long does it take the bullet to come to rest after entering the wood? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.45 You and your friend Peter are putting new shingles on a roof pitched at 21 . You're sitting on the very top of the roof when Peter, who is at the edge of the roof directly below you, 5.0 away, asks you for the box of nails. Rather than carry the 2.0 box of nails down to Peter, you decide to give the box a push and have it slide down to him. Part A If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the roof is 0.55, with what speed should you push the box to have it gently come to rest right at the edge of the roof? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. cm g m/s cm fk = 5800 N = 5.5×10−4 t s  m kg Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.54 The 2.0 wood box in the figure slides down a vertical wood wall while you push on it at a 45 angle. Part A What magnitude of force should you apply to cause the box to slide down at a constant speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct v = 3.9 ms kg  F = 23 N Typesetting math: 100% Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 98.8%. You received 114.57 out of a possible total of 116 points. Typesetting math: 100%

Assignment 5 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, March 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 6.13 A hand presses down on the book in the figure. Part A Is the normal force of the table on the book larger than, smaller than, or equal to ? ANSWER: Correct mg Equal to Larger than Smaller than mg mg mg Problem 6.2 The three ropes in the figure are tied to a small, very light ring. Two of these ropes are anchored to walls at right angles with the tensions shown in the figure. Part A What is the magnitude of the tension in the third rope? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the direction of the tension in the third rope? Express your answer using two significant figures. T  3 T3 = 94 N T  3 Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct The Normal Force When an object rests on a surface, there is always a force perpendicular to the surface; we call this the normal force, denoted by . The two questions to the right will explore the normal force. Part A A man attempts to pick up his suitcase of weight by pulling straight up on the handle. However, he is unable to lift the suitcase from the floor. Which statement about the magnitude of the normal force acting on the suitcase is true during the time that the man pulls upward on the suitcase? Hint 1. How to approach this problem First, identify the forces that act on the suitcase and draw a free-body diagram. Then use the fact that the suitcase is in equilibrium, , to examine how the forces acting on the suitcase relate to each other. Hint 2. Identify the correct free-body diagram Which of the figures represents the free-body diagram of the suitcase while the man is pulling on the handle with a force of magnitude ? = 58   below horizontal n ws n F = 0 fpull Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B A B C D The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase minus the magnitude of the force of the pull. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the sum of the magnitude of the force of the pull and the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is greater than the magnitude of the weight of the suitcase. Typesetting math: 100% Now assume that the man of weight is tired and decides to sit on his suitcase. Which statement about the magnitude of the normal force acting on the suitcase is true during the time that the man is sitting on the suitcase? Hint 1. Identify the correct free-body diagram. Which of the figures represents the free-body diagram while the man is sitting atop the suitcase? Here the vector labeled is a force that has the same magnitude as the man’s weight. ANSWER: wm n wm Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Recognize that the normal force acting on an object is not always equal to the weight of that object. This is an important point to understand. Problem 6.5 A construction worker with a weight of 880 stands on a roof that is sloped at 18 . Part A What is the magnitude of the normal force of the roof on the worker? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct A B C D The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight minus the magnitude of the man’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is equal to the sum of the magnitude of the man’s weight and the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. The magnitude of the normal force is less than the magnitude of the suitcase’s weight. N  n = 840 N Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.6 In each of the two free-body diagrams, the forces are acting on a 3.0 object. Part A For diagram , find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B For diagram the part A, find the value of the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg ax x ax = -0.67 m s2 ay, y Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C For diagram , find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D For diagram the part C, find the value of , the -component of the acceleration. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: ay = 0 m s2 ax x ax = 0.67 m s2 ay y Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.7 In each of the two free-body diagrams, the forces are acting on a 3.0 object. Part A Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (a). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ay = 0 m s2 kg ax x ax = 0.99 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Part B Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (a). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (b). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D Find the value of , the component of the acceleration in diagram (b). Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ay y ay = 0 m s2 ax x ax = -0.18 m s2 ay y ay = 0 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.10 A horizontal rope is tied to a 53.0 box on frictionless ice. What is the tension in the rope if: Part A The box is at rest? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The box moves at a steady = 4.80 ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C The box = 4.80 and = 4.60 ? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg T = 0 N vx m/s T = 0 N vx m/s ax m/s2 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.14 It takes the elevator in a skyscraper 4.5 to reach its cruising speed of 11 . A 60 passenger gets aboard on the ground floor. Part A What is the passenger’s weight before the elevator starts moving? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the passenger’s weight while the elevator is speeding up? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the passenger’s weight after the elevator reaches its cruising speed? T = 244 N s m/s kg w = 590 N w = 730 N Typesetting math: 100% Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Block on an Incline A block lies on a plane raised an angle from the horizontal. Three forces act upon the block: , the force of gravity; , the normal force; and , the force of friction. The coefficient of friction is large enough to prevent the block from sliding . Part A Consider coordinate system a, with the x axis along the plane. Which forces lie along the axes? ANSWER: w = 590 N  F  w F n F  f Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B Which forces lie along the axes of the coordinate system b, in which the y axis is vertical? ANSWER: Correct only only only and and and and and F  f F  n F  w F  f F  n F  f F  w F  n F w F  f F  n F w only only only and and and and and F  f F  n F  w F  f F  n F  f F  w F  n F w F  f F  n F w Typesetting math: 100% Usually the best advice is to choose coordinate system so that the acceleration of the system is directly along one of the coordinate axes. If the system isn’t accelerating, then you are better off choosing the coordinate system with the most vectors along the coordinate axes. But now you are going to ignore that advice. You will find the normal force, , using vertical coordinate system b. In these coordinates you will find the magnitude appearing in both the x and y equations, each multiplied by a trigonometric function. Part C Because the block is not moving, the sum of the y components of the forces acting on the block must be zero. Find an expression for the sum of the y components of the forces acting on the block, using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . Hint 1. Find the y component of Write an expression for , the y component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Some geometry help – a useful angle The smaller angle between and the y-axis is also , as shown in the figure. ANSWER: F  n Fn Fn Ff Fw  F n Fny F  n Fn  F  n  Typesetting math: 100% Hint 2. Find the y component of Write an expression for , the y component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . Hint 1. Some geometry help – a useful angle The smaller angle between and the x-axis is also , as shown in the figure. ANSWER: ANSWER: Fny = Fncos() F f Ffy F f Ff  F  f  Ffy = Ffsin() Fy = 0 = Fncos() + Ffsin() − Fw Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part D Because the block is not moving, the sum of the x components of the forces acting on the block must be zero. Find an expression for the sum of the x components of the forces acting on the block, using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and . Hint 1. Find the x component of Write an expression for , the x component of the force , using coordinate system b. Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part E To find the magnitude of the normal force, you must express in terms of since is an unknown. Using the equations you found in the two previous parts, find an expression for involving and but not . Hint 1. How to approach the problem From your answers to the previous two parts you should have two force equations ( and ). Combine these equations to eliminate . The key is to multiply the Fn Ff Fw  F n Fnx F  n Fn  Fnx = −Fnsin() Fx = 0 = −Fnsin() + Ffcos() Fn Fw Ff Fn Fw  Ff Typesetting math: 100% Fy = 0 Fx = 0 Ff equation for the y components by and the equation for the x components by , then add or subtract the two equations to eliminate the term . An alternative motivation for the algebra is to eliminate the trig functions in front of by using the trig identity . At the very least this would result in an equation that is simple to solve for . ANSWER: Correct Congratulations on working this through. Now realize that in coordinate system a, which is aligned with the plane, the y-coordinate equation is , which leads immediately to the result obtained here for . CONCLUSION: A thoughtful examination of which coordinate system to choose can save a lot of algebra. Contact Forces Introduced Learning Goal: To introduce contact forces (normal and friction forces) and to understand that, except for friction forces under certain circumstances, these forces must be determined from: net Force = ma. Two solid objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time. Indeed, when the objects touch, they exert repulsive normal forces on each other, as well as frictional forces that resist their slipping relative to each other. These contact forces arise from a complex interplay between the electrostatic forces between the electrons and ions in the objects and the laws of quantum mechanics. As two surfaces are pushed together these forces increase exponentially over an atomic distance scale, easily becoming strong enough to distort the bulk material in the objects if they approach too close. In everyday experience, contact forces are limited by the deformation or acceleration of the objects, rather than by the fundamental interatomic forces. Hence, we can conclude the following: The magnitude of contact forces is determined by , that is, by the other forces on, and acceleration of, the contacting bodies. The only exception is that the frictional forces cannot exceed (although they can be smaller than this or even zero). Normal and friction forces Two types of contact forces operate in typical mechanics problems, the normal and frictional forces, usually designated by and (or , or something similar) respectively. These are the components of the overall contact force: perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of contact. Kinetic friction when surfaces slide cos  sin  Ff cos() sin() Fn sin2() + cos2 () = 1 Fn Fn = Fwcos() Fy = Fn − FW cos() = 0 Fn F = ma μn n f Ffric n f Typesetting math: 100% When one surface is sliding past the other, experiments show three things about the friction force (denoted ): The frictional force opposes the relative motion at the 1. point of contact, 2. is proportional to the normal force, and 3. the ratio of the magnitude of the frictional force to that of the normal force is fairly constant over a wide range of speeds. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of kinetic friction, often designated . As long as the sliding continues, the frictional force is then (valid when the surfaces slide by each other). Static friction when surfaces don’t slide When there is no relative motion of the surfaces, the frictional force can assume any value from zero up to a maximum , where is the coefficient of static friction. Invariably, is larger than , in agreement with the observation that when a force is large enough that something breaks loose and starts to slide, it often accelerates. The frictional force for surfaces with no relative motion is therefore (valid when the contacting surfaces have no relative motion). The actual magnitude and direction of the static friction force are such that it (together with other forces on the object) causes the object to remain motionless with respect to the contacting surface as long as the static friction force required does not exceed . The equation is valid only when the surfaces are on the verge of sliding. Part A When two objects slide by one another, which of the following statements about the force of friction between them, is true? ANSWER: Correct Part B fk fk μk fk = μkn μsn μs μs μk fs ! μsn μsn fs = μsn The frictional force is always equal to . The frictional force is always less than . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . μkn μkn μkn Typesetting math: 100% When two objects are in contact with no relative motion, which of the following statements about the frictional force between them, is true? ANSWER: Correct For static friction, the actual magnitude and direction of the friction force are such that it, together with any other forces present, will cause the object to have the observed acceleration. The magnitude of the force cannot exceed . If the magnitude of static friction needed to keep acceleration equal to zero exceeds , then the object will slide subject to the resistance of kinetic friction. Do not automatically assume that unless you are considering a situation in which the magnitude of the static friction force is as large as possible (i.e., when determining at what point an object will just begin to slip). Whether the actual magnitude of the friction force is 0, less than , or equal to depends on the magnitude of the other forces (if any) as well as the acceleration of the object through . Part C When a board with a box on it is slowly tilted to larger and larger angle, common experience shows that the box will at some point “break loose” and start to accelerate down the board. The box begins to slide once the component of gravity acting parallel to the board just begins to exceeds the maximum force of static friction. Which of the following is the most general explanation for why the box accelerates down the board? ANSWER: The frictional force is always equal to . The frictional force is always less than . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . μsn μsn μsn μsn μsn fs = μsn μsn μsn F = ma Fg The force of kinetic friction is smaller than that of maximum static friction, but remains the same. Once the box is moving, is smaller than the force of maximum static friction but larger than the force of kinetic friction. Once the box is moving, is larger than the force of maximum static friction. When the box is stationary, equals the force of static friction, but once the box starts moving, the sliding reduces the normal force, which in turn reduces the friction. Fg Fg Fg Fg Typesetting math: 100% Correct At the point when the box finally does “break loose,” you know that the component of the box’s weight that is parallel to the board just exceeds (i.e., this component of gravitational force on the box has just reached a magnitude such that the force of static friction, which has a maximum value of , can no longer oppose it.) For the box to then accelerate, there must be a net force on the box along the board. Thus, the component of the box’s weight parallel to the board must be greater than the force of kinetic friction. Therefore the force of kinetic friction must be less than the force of static friction which implies , as expected. Part D Consider a problem in which a car of mass is on a road tilted at an angle . The normal force Select the best answer. ANSWER: Correct The key point is that contact forces must be determined from Newton’s equation. In the problem described above, there is not enough information given to determine the normal force (e.g., the acceleration is unknown). Each of the answer options is valid under some conditions ( , the car is sliding down an icy incline, or the car is going around a banked turn), but in fact none is likely to be correct if there are other forces on the car or if the car is accelerating. Do not memorize values for the normal force valid in different problems–you must determine from . Problem 6.17 Bonnie and Clyde are sliding a 323 bank safe across the floor to their getaway car. The safe slides with a constant speed if Clyde pushes from behind with 375 of force while Bonnie pulls forward on a rope with 335 of force. μsn μsn μkn μsn μk < μs M  is found using n = Mg n = Mg cos() n = Mg cos() F  = Ma  = 0 n F = ma kg N N Typesetting math: 100% Part A What is the safe's coefficient of kinetic friction on the bank floor? ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.19 A crate is placed on a horizontal conveyor belt. The materials are such that and . Part A Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the crate if the conveyer belt runs at constant speed. Draw the force vectors with their tails at the dot. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER: 0.224 10 kg μs = 0.5 μk = 0.3 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B Draw a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the crate if the conveyer belt is speeding up. Draw the force vectors with their tails at the dot. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. The exact length of your vectors will not be graded but the relative length of one to the other will be graded. ANSWER: Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C What is the maximum acceleration the belt can have without the crate slipping? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct amax = 4.9 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Problem 6.28 A 1100 steel beam is supported by two ropes. Part A What is the tension in rope 1? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the tension in rope 2? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: kg T1 = 7000 N Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 6.35 The position of a 1.4 mass is given by , where is in seconds. Part A What is the net horizontal force on the mass at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the net horizontal force on the mass at ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.39 T2 = 4800 N kg x = (2t3 − 3t2 )m t t = 0 s F = -8.4 N t = 1 s F = 8.4 N Typesetting math: 100% A rifle with a barrel length of 61 fires a 8 bullet with a horizontal speed of 400 . The bullet strikes a block of wood and penetrates to a depth of 11 . Part A What resistive force (assumed to be constant) does the wood exert on the bullet? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B How long does it take the bullet to come to rest after entering the wood? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.45 You and your friend Peter are putting new shingles on a roof pitched at 21 . You're sitting on the very top of the roof when Peter, who is at the edge of the roof directly below you, 5.0 away, asks you for the box of nails. Rather than carry the 2.0 box of nails down to Peter, you decide to give the box a push and have it slide down to him. Part A If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the roof is 0.55, with what speed should you push the box to have it gently come to rest right at the edge of the roof? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. cm g m/s cm fk = 5800 N = 5.5×10−4 t s  m kg Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Problem 6.54 The 2.0 wood box in the figure slides down a vertical wood wall while you push on it at a 45 angle. Part A What magnitude of force should you apply to cause the box to slide down at a constant speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct v = 3.9 ms kg  F = 23 N Typesetting math: 100% Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 98.8%. You received 114.57 out of a possible total of 116 points. Typesetting math: 100%

Assignment 5 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, March 5, 2014 You … Read More...
– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: Oct. 1st, 2015 G. Ozsoyoglu Concurrent Programming with Semaphores; 140 points (100 pts) 1. Priority-based Searchers/Inserters/Deleters Problem without starvation. Three types of processes, namely, searchers, inserters, and deleters share access to a singly linked list L, and perform search, insert, or delete operations, respectively. The list L does not have duplicate values. a) Searchers merely search the list L, and report success (i.e., item searched is in L) or no-success (i.e., item searched is not in L) to a log file. Hence they can execute concurrently with each other. b) Inserters add new items to the end of the list L, and report success (i.e., item is not in L, and successfully inserted into L) or no-success (i.e., item is already in L, and no insertion takes place) to a log file. Insertions must be mutually exclusive to preclude two inserters from inserting new items at about the same time. However, one insert can proceed in parallel with any number of searches. c) Deleters remove items from anywhere in the list, and report success (i.e., the item is found in L and deleted) or no-success (i.e., item is not in L, and could not be deleted) to a log file. At most one deleter can access the list L at a time, and the deletion must be mutually exclusive with searches and insertions. d) Initial start. Searcher, inserter, and deleter processes are initially launched as follows. A user process that needs a search/insertion/deletion operation to the list L first forks a process, and then, in the forked process, performs an execv into a searcher/ inserter/deleter process. e) Log maintenance. Upon start, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to a log file, recording the time of insertion, process id, process type (i.e., searcher, inserter, or deleter), and the item that is being searched/inserted/deleted. f) Termination. Upon successful or unsuccessful completion, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to the same log file, recording the time and the result of its execution. g) Priority-based service between three types. Searchers, inserters, and deleters perform their search, insert, delete operations, respectively, on a priority basis (not on a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) basis) between separate process types (i.e., searchers, inserters, deleters) as follows. Searchers search with the highest priority; inserters insert with the second highest priority (except that one inserter can proceed in parallel with any number of searchers), and deleters delete with the lowest priority. h) FCFS service within a single type. Processes of the same type are serviced FCFS. As an example, among multiple inserters, the order of insertions into L is FCFS. Similarly, among multiple deleters, the order of deletions into L is FCFS. Note that, among searchers, while the start of search among searchers is FCFS, due to concurrent searcher execution, the completions of multiple searchers may not be FCFS. i) Starvation avoidance. In addition to the above priority-based search/insert/delete operations, the following starvation-avoidance rule is enforced. o After 10 consecutive searchers search the list L, if there is at least one waiting inserter or deleter then newly arriving searchers are blocked until (a) all waiting inserters are first serviced FCFS, and, then (b) all waiting deleters are serviced FCFS. Then, both the standard priority-based service between process types and the FCFS service within a process type resume. You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to synchronize searcher, inserter and deleter processes. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). – 2 – (40 pts) 2. Four-of-a-Kind Problem is defined as follows.  There is a deck of 24 cards, split into 6 different kinds, 4 cards of each kind.  There are 4 players (i.e., processes) ??,0≤?≤3; each player can hold 4 cards.  Between each pair of adjacent (i.e., seated next to each other) players, there is a pile of cards.  The game begins by o someone dealing four cards to each player, and putting two cards on the pile between each pair of adjacent players, and o ?0 starting the game. If ?0 has four-of-a-kind, ?0 wins. Whoever gets four-of-a-kind first wins.  Players take turns to play clockwise. That is, ?0 plays, ?1 plays, ?2 plays, ?3 plays, ?0 plays, etc.  Each player behaves as follows. o So long as no one has won, keep playing. o If it is my turn and no one has won:  Check for Four-of-a-Kind. If yes, claim victory. Otherwise discard a card into the pile on the right; pick up a card from the pile on the left; and, check again: If Four-of-a-Kind, claim victory; otherwise revise turn so that the next player plays and wait for your turn.  There are no ties; when a player has claimed victory, all other players stop (when their turns to play come up). You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to the Four-of-a-Kind problem. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). P1 P0 P2 P3 pile 1 pile 2 pile 3 pile 0

– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: Oct. 1st, 2015 G. Ozsoyoglu Concurrent Programming with Semaphores; 140 points (100 pts) 1. Priority-based Searchers/Inserters/Deleters Problem without starvation. Three types of processes, namely, searchers, inserters, and deleters share access to a singly linked list L, and perform search, insert, or delete operations, respectively. The list L does not have duplicate values. a) Searchers merely search the list L, and report success (i.e., item searched is in L) or no-success (i.e., item searched is not in L) to a log file. Hence they can execute concurrently with each other. b) Inserters add new items to the end of the list L, and report success (i.e., item is not in L, and successfully inserted into L) or no-success (i.e., item is already in L, and no insertion takes place) to a log file. Insertions must be mutually exclusive to preclude two inserters from inserting new items at about the same time. However, one insert can proceed in parallel with any number of searches. c) Deleters remove items from anywhere in the list, and report success (i.e., the item is found in L and deleted) or no-success (i.e., item is not in L, and could not be deleted) to a log file. At most one deleter can access the list L at a time, and the deletion must be mutually exclusive with searches and insertions. d) Initial start. Searcher, inserter, and deleter processes are initially launched as follows. A user process that needs a search/insertion/deletion operation to the list L first forks a process, and then, in the forked process, performs an execv into a searcher/ inserter/deleter process. e) Log maintenance. Upon start, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to a log file, recording the time of insertion, process id, process type (i.e., searcher, inserter, or deleter), and the item that is being searched/inserted/deleted. f) Termination. Upon successful or unsuccessful completion, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to the same log file, recording the time and the result of its execution. g) Priority-based service between three types. Searchers, inserters, and deleters perform their search, insert, delete operations, respectively, on a priority basis (not on a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) basis) between separate process types (i.e., searchers, inserters, deleters) as follows. Searchers search with the highest priority; inserters insert with the second highest priority (except that one inserter can proceed in parallel with any number of searchers), and deleters delete with the lowest priority. h) FCFS service within a single type. Processes of the same type are serviced FCFS. As an example, among multiple inserters, the order of insertions into L is FCFS. Similarly, among multiple deleters, the order of deletions into L is FCFS. Note that, among searchers, while the start of search among searchers is FCFS, due to concurrent searcher execution, the completions of multiple searchers may not be FCFS. i) Starvation avoidance. In addition to the above priority-based search/insert/delete operations, the following starvation-avoidance rule is enforced. o After 10 consecutive searchers search the list L, if there is at least one waiting inserter or deleter then newly arriving searchers are blocked until (a) all waiting inserters are first serviced FCFS, and, then (b) all waiting deleters are serviced FCFS. Then, both the standard priority-based service between process types and the FCFS service within a process type resume. You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to synchronize searcher, inserter and deleter processes. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). – 2 – (40 pts) 2. Four-of-a-Kind Problem is defined as follows.  There is a deck of 24 cards, split into 6 different kinds, 4 cards of each kind.  There are 4 players (i.e., processes) ??,0≤?≤3; each player can hold 4 cards.  Between each pair of adjacent (i.e., seated next to each other) players, there is a pile of cards.  The game begins by o someone dealing four cards to each player, and putting two cards on the pile between each pair of adjacent players, and o ?0 starting the game. If ?0 has four-of-a-kind, ?0 wins. Whoever gets four-of-a-kind first wins.  Players take turns to play clockwise. That is, ?0 plays, ?1 plays, ?2 plays, ?3 plays, ?0 plays, etc.  Each player behaves as follows. o So long as no one has won, keep playing. o If it is my turn and no one has won:  Check for Four-of-a-Kind. If yes, claim victory. Otherwise discard a card into the pile on the right; pick up a card from the pile on the left; and, check again: If Four-of-a-Kind, claim victory; otherwise revise turn so that the next player plays and wait for your turn.  There are no ties; when a player has claimed victory, all other players stop (when their turns to play come up). You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to the Four-of-a-Kind problem. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). P1 P0 P2 P3 pile 1 pile 2 pile 3 pile 0

– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: … Read More...
. What behaviors indicate psychological distress? Name 5 and explain.

. What behaviors indicate psychological distress? Name 5 and explain.

The term ‘distress’ is commonly used in nursing literature to … Read More...
Critical Essay Guidelines FORMAT: Prepare your paper as a Microsoft Word file. Single-space the body of your paper; you may double-space between the headings (Introduction, Background Explanation and Critical Evaluation) described below. Use 1” margins on all sides. Use a font that is no larger than Times New Roman at 12 pt. and no smaller than Times New Roman at 10 pt. Put your name, course name, section and the date in a header on top of all pages. Include page numbers. LENGTH, TOPIC, ETC.: Write a 2 – 3 page (single-spaced) (1500 words) critical response on your topic. Back up your discussion with direct quotation from the relevant text, preferably short quotes, such as single sentences and (even better) crucial phrases. Leave out words or phrases using…ellipses…, etc. Less than 1/4 page total of your paper should be direct quotation. Cite any direct quotes simply by giving text title and page number in parentheses; the page number will either be from the textbook or what’s posted on Blackboard. For example, such a citation might look like: (Schoedinger, 25). Include a “Works Cited” page at the end of your paper citing the primary philosophic text from Schoedinger’s textbook. No other sources should be used. Treat your intended audience as someone who has some familiarity with philosophy generally, but no familiarity with the details of what you are writing on. STRUCTURE: In this critical response, you will do all and only the following three things, putting each under its OWN SECTION HEADING: A. INTRODUCTION Begin with a one-sentence introductory paragraph where you very briefly say what you will be doing in the rest of the critical response, one which has the exact form: “In this critical response, I will consider <insert chosen topic>, and then I will argue that <insert statement of main thesis>.” For example: “In this critical response, I will consider Socrates’ views on a worthwhile life, and then I will argue that the worthwhile life is nothing more or less than the life of pleasure.” B. BACKGROUND EXPLANATION Explain (in one-half to 1 page), as clearly as you can, the background to your chosen topic, including any relevant discussion in the text, and also including any relevant theories, arguments, objections, crucial notions and distinctions, etc. C. CRITICAL EVALUATION Critically evaluate (in 1½ – 2 pages) your chosen topic. This involves explaining and defending your thesis on the topic. In doing this, address relevant material from your “ Background Explanation” section. Also, you are encouraged (but not required) to anticipate potential objections and reply to them. Throughout your critical evaluation, pay careful attention (even if just informally) to the criteria of a good argument. This applies both when you are considering others’ arguments and when you are giving your own. GRADING: Grading will be based partly on whether or not you have successfully followed the instructions above (including the format requirements). Each defect in terms of failure to satisfy the instructions will cost you points. Any paper which completely ignores all instructions, however, will receive a zero. Barring prior consent from me or documented and sufficiently excusing special contingency, late papers will be graded in accord with the late policy on the syllabus. Grading will also be based on the writing quality. Here I have in mind things like: is the paper clear, concise, grammatical and accurate? Does it provide necessary explanations and avoid irrelevant material?

Critical Essay Guidelines FORMAT: Prepare your paper as a Microsoft Word file. Single-space the body of your paper; you may double-space between the headings (Introduction, Background Explanation and Critical Evaluation) described below. Use 1” margins on all sides. Use a font that is no larger than Times New Roman at 12 pt. and no smaller than Times New Roman at 10 pt. Put your name, course name, section and the date in a header on top of all pages. Include page numbers. LENGTH, TOPIC, ETC.: Write a 2 – 3 page (single-spaced) (1500 words) critical response on your topic. Back up your discussion with direct quotation from the relevant text, preferably short quotes, such as single sentences and (even better) crucial phrases. Leave out words or phrases using…ellipses…, etc. Less than 1/4 page total of your paper should be direct quotation. Cite any direct quotes simply by giving text title and page number in parentheses; the page number will either be from the textbook or what’s posted on Blackboard. For example, such a citation might look like: (Schoedinger, 25). Include a “Works Cited” page at the end of your paper citing the primary philosophic text from Schoedinger’s textbook. No other sources should be used. Treat your intended audience as someone who has some familiarity with philosophy generally, but no familiarity with the details of what you are writing on. STRUCTURE: In this critical response, you will do all and only the following three things, putting each under its OWN SECTION HEADING: A. INTRODUCTION Begin with a one-sentence introductory paragraph where you very briefly say what you will be doing in the rest of the critical response, one which has the exact form: “In this critical response, I will consider , and then I will argue that .” For example: “In this critical response, I will consider Socrates’ views on a worthwhile life, and then I will argue that the worthwhile life is nothing more or less than the life of pleasure.” B. BACKGROUND EXPLANATION Explain (in one-half to 1 page), as clearly as you can, the background to your chosen topic, including any relevant discussion in the text, and also including any relevant theories, arguments, objections, crucial notions and distinctions, etc. C. CRITICAL EVALUATION Critically evaluate (in 1½ – 2 pages) your chosen topic. This involves explaining and defending your thesis on the topic. In doing this, address relevant material from your “ Background Explanation” section. Also, you are encouraged (but not required) to anticipate potential objections and reply to them. Throughout your critical evaluation, pay careful attention (even if just informally) to the criteria of a good argument. This applies both when you are considering others’ arguments and when you are giving your own. GRADING: Grading will be based partly on whether or not you have successfully followed the instructions above (including the format requirements). Each defect in terms of failure to satisfy the instructions will cost you points. Any paper which completely ignores all instructions, however, will receive a zero. Barring prior consent from me or documented and sufficiently excusing special contingency, late papers will be graded in accord with the late policy on the syllabus. Grading will also be based on the writing quality. Here I have in mind things like: is the paper clear, concise, grammatical and accurate? Does it provide necessary explanations and avoid irrelevant material?

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http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and how does it affect production? A. He means that each person does their own work to benefit themselves by creating goods. This creates well-crafted goods. B. He argues that in order to become more efficient, we need to put everyone in the same workhouses and eliminate division. C. He says that the division of labor provides farmers with the opportunity to become involved in manufacturing. D. He means that each person makes one small part of a good very quickly, but this is bad for the quality of production overall. E. He means that by having each individual specialize in one thing, they can work together to create products more efficiently and effectively. Which of the following is NOT an example of the circumstances by which the division of labor improves efficiency? A. A doll-making company stops allowing each employee to make one whole doll each and instead appoints each employee to create one part of the doll. B. A family of rug makers buys a loom to speed up their production. C. A mechanic opens a new shop to be nearer to the market. D. A factory changes the responsibilities of its employees so that one group handles heavy boxes and the other group does precision sewing. E. A baker who used to make a dozen cookies at a time buys a giant mixer and oven that enable him to make 20 dozen cookies at a time. Considering the global system of states, what do you think the allegory of the pins has to offer? A. It suggests that there could be a natural harmony of interests among states because they can divide labor among themselves to the benefit of everyone. B. It suggests that states can never be secure enough to cooperate because every state is equally capable of producing the same things. C. It suggests that a central authority is necessary to help states cooperate, in the same way that a manager oversees operations at a factory. D. The allegory of the pins is a great way to think about how wars come about, because states won’t cooperate with each other like pin-makers do. E. The allegory of the pins shows us that there is no natural harmony of interests between states. Smith sees the development of industry, technology, and the division of labor as A. generally positive but not progressive. The lives of many people may improve, but the world will generally stay the same. B. generally positive and progressive. The world is improving because of these changes, and it will continue to improve. C. generally negative. The creation of new technologies and the division of labor are harmful to all humans, both the wealthy and the poor. D. generally negative. The creation of the division of labor only benefits the wealthy at the expense of the poor. E. both positive and negative. Smith thinks that technology hurts us, while the division of labor helps society progress and develop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RUwS1uAdUcI What point is Hans Rosling trying to make when he describes the global health pre-test? A. He is trying to show how the average person has no idea of the true state of global health. B. He is trying to illustrate how we tend to carry around outdated notions about the state of global health. C. He is trying to make us see that the less-developed countries are far worse off than we ever thought. D. He is trying to drive home the idea that global health has not improved over time despite foreign aid and improvements in medicine. E. He is trying to warn us about the rapid growth in world population. Rosling shows us that we tend to think about global health in terms of “we and them.” Who are the “we” and who are the “them”? A. “We” refers to academics, students, and scholars; “them” refers to the uneducated. B. “We” refers to the average person; “them” refers to politicians and global leaders. C. “We” refers to the wealthy; “them” refers to the poor. D. “We” refers to the Western world; “them” refers to the Third World. E. “We” refers to students; “them” refers to professors. In the life expectancy and fertility rate demonstration, what do the statistics reveal? A. Over time, developed countries produced small families and long lives, whereas developing countries produced large families and short lives. B. The world today looks much like it did in 1962 despite our attempts to help poorer countries develop. C. All countries in the world, even the poorer ones, are trending toward longer lives and smaller families. D. Developed countries are trending toward smaller families but shorter lives. E. All countries tend to make gains and losses in fertility and lifespan, but in the long run there is no significant change. What point does Rosling make about life expectancy in Vietnam as compared to the United States? To what does he attribute the change? A. He indicates that economic change preceded social change. B. He suggests that markets and free trade resulted in the increase in life expectancy. C. He says that the data indicates that the Vietnam War contributed to the decrease in life expectancy during that time, but that it recovered shortly thereafter. D. He says that social change in Asia preceded economic change, and life expectancy in Vietnam increased despite the war. E. He indicates that Vietnam was equal to the United States in life expectancy before the war. According to Rosling, how are regional statistics about child survival rates and GDP potentially misleading? A. Countries have an incentive to lie about the actual survival rates because they want foreign assistance. B. Statistics for the individual countries in a region are often vastly different. C. Regional statistics give us a strong sense of how we can understand development within one region, but it does not allow us to compare across regions. D. The data available over time and from countries within regions is often poorly collected and incomplete. E. Child survival rates cannot be compared regionally, since each culture has a different sense of how important children are. What is Rosling’s main point about statistical databases? A. The data is available but not readily accessible, so we need to create networks to solve that problem. B. The data that comes from these databases is often flawed and unreliable. C. It doesn’t matter whether we have access to these databases because the data can’t be used in an interesting way. D. Statistics can’t tell us very much, but we should do our best to make use of the information we do have. E. The information that could be true is too hard to sort out from what isn’t true because we don’t know how strong the data really is. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/ch10.htm#v22zz99h-298-GUESS Click the link at left to read Chapter 10 of Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, then answer the questions below. According to Lenin, what is the fundamental source of a monopoly? A. It is a natural effect of human behavior. B. It is the result of governments and police systems. C. Its source is rooted in democracy. D. It comes from the concentration of production at a high stage. E. It is what follows a socialist system. What are the principal types or manifestations of monopoly capitalism? A. Monopolistic capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy. B. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. C. Monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. D. Monopolist capitalist associations like cartels, syndicates and trusts; and monopolies as a result of colonial policy AND monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital. E. Monopolization of raw materials and monopolization of finance capital AND monopolization of governing structures and monopolies of oligarchies. What is the definition of a rentier state according to Lenin? A. A state that colonizes other states. B. A state whose bourgeoisie live off the export of capital. C. A poor state. D. A wealthy state. E. A colonized state. Overall Lenin’s analysis of the state of capitalism is concerned with: A. The interactions between states. B. The interactions within states. C. The ownership of industry and organizations. D. The interactions within states AND the ownership of industry and organizations. E. All of these options. http://view.vzaar.com/1194665/flashplayer Watch the video at left, and then answer the questions below. The Marshall Plan was developed by the United States after World War II. What was its purpose? A. to feed the hungry of Europe B. to stem the spread of communism C. to maintain an American military presence in Europe D. to feed the hungry of Europe AND to stem the spread of communism E. to stem the spread of communism AND to maintain an American military presence in Europe What kind of aid was sent at first? A. foods, fertilizers, and machines for agriculture B. books, paper, and radios for education C. clothing, medical supplies, and construction equipment D. mostly cash in the form of loans and grants E. people with business expertise to help develop the economy What kind of aid did the United States send to Greece to help its farmers? A. tractors B. mules C. seeds D. fertilizer E. all of these options What was one way that the United States influenced public opinion in Italy during the elections described in the video? A. The United States provided significant food aid to Italy so that the Italians would be inclined to vote against the Communists. B. The Italians had been impressed by the strength and loyalty of the American soldiers, and were inclined to listen to them during the elections. C. There was a large number of young Italians who followed American fashion and culture. D. Italian immigrants in the United States wrote letters to their families in Italy urging them not to vote for Communists. E. The Greeks showed the Italians how much the Americans had helped them, warning that supporting a Communist candidate would mean sacrificing American aid. How did Pope Pius XII undermine the strength of the Communist Party in Italy? A. He encouraged Italians to go out and vote. B. He warned that the Communist Party would legalize abortion. C. He excommunicated many members of the Communist Party. D. He made a speech in support of capitalism. E. He declared that Communists should not be baptized. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVhWqwnZ1eM Use the video at left to answer the questions below. Hans Rosling shares how his students discuss “we” versus “them.” To whom are his students referring? A. the United States and Mexico B. Christians and Muslims C. Democrats and Republicans D. Europe and Asia E. none of these options According to Rosling, what factors contribute to a better quality of life for people in developing countries? A. family planning B. soap and water C. investment D. vaccinations E. all of these options Using his data, Rosling demonstrates a great shift in Mexico. What change does his data demonstrate? A. a decrease in drug usage B. a decrease in the number of jobs available C. an increase in average life expenctancy D. an increase in the rate of violent crime E. all of these options Instead of “developing” and “developed,” Rosling divides countries into four categories. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A. high-income countries B. middle-income countries C. low-income countries D. no-income countries E. collapsing countries Rosling discusses the increased life expectancy in both China and the United States. How are the situations different? A. The U.S. and China are on different continents. B. The life expectancy in China rose much higher than it did in the U.S. C. China first expanded its life expectancy and then grew economically, whereas the U.S. did the reverse. D. Average income and life expectancy steadily increased in the U.S., but they steadily decreased in China. E. all of these options Rosling shows a chart that demonstrates the regional income distribution of the world from 1970 to 2015. During that time, what has happened in South and East Asia? A. Money has flowed out of Asia to developing countries in Africa. B. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has increased over the last 30 years. C. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has decreased over the last 30 years. D. The average income of citizens of South and East Asia has surpassed that of Europe and North America. E. There has been no change. Click here to access GapMinder, the data visualizer that Hans Rosling uses. In 2010, which of the following countries had both a higher per-capita GDP and a higher life expectancy than the United States? A. France B. Japan C. Denmark D. Singapore E. Kuwait http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_tragedy_of_the_commons.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM The Tragedy of the Commons What is the rough definition of the “commons” given in the article? A. any private property on which others trespass B. behavior that everyone considers to be normal C. a cow that lives in a herd D. government-administered benefits, like unemployment or Social Security E. a shared resource What does Hardin mean by describing pollution as a reverse tragedy of the commons? A. Rather than causing a problem, it resolves a problem. B. Pollution costs us money rather than making us money. C. We are putting something into the commons rather than removing something from it. D. It starts at the other end of the biological pyramid. E. Humans see less of it as time goes on. Hardin says “the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means.” What are those means? A. establishing more international treaties to protect the environment B. using laws or taxes to make the polluter pay for pollution C. punishing consumers for generating waste D. raising awareness about environmental issues E. developing greener products Pacific Garbage Dump According to the news report, what percent of the Gyre is made of plastic? A. 50 percent B. 60 percent C. 70 percent D. 80 percent E. 90 percent Where does the majority of the plastic in the Gyre come from? A. barges that dump trash in the ocean B. storm drains from land C. people throwing litter off boats into the ocean D. remnants from movie sets filmed at sea E. fishing boats processing their catch What does Charles Moore mean by the “throwaway concept”? A. the habitual use of disposable plastic packaging B. the mistaken view that marine ecosystems are infinitely renewable C. a general lack of interest in recycling D. the willingness to discard effective but small-scale environmental policies in deference to broader E. people throwing away their lives in pursuit of money In what way does the Great Pacific Gyre represent issues like global warming a tragedy of the commons? A. because all the plastic trash in it comes from the United States B. because it kills the albatross and makes it impossible for them to reproduce C. surbecause the countries rounding the Pacific Ocean are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality of the resource for all, but no one is specifically accountable for it D. because it causes marine life to compete for increasingly scarce nutrients in the ocean E. because nations in the region all collectively agreed to dump their trash in the Pacific http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/ http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/climateconnections/climate-map http://www.npr.org/news/specials/climate/video/wildchronicles.html Use the links provided at left to answer the questions below. Global Warming: It’s All About Carbon How does carbon give us fuel? A. When you burn things that contain carbon the bonds break, giving off energy. B. Burning things creates carbon out of other elements as a result of combustion. C. Carbon is created after oxygen and hydrogen get released. D. Carbon bonds are created thereby giving off energy. E. Carbon is made into fuel by refining oil. National Geographic Climate Map What geographic areas have seen the most significant changes in temperature? A. The African continent. B. The Pacific Ocean. C. The Atlantic Ocean. D. The Arctic Ocean. E. The Indian Ocean. Why does it matter that rain fall steadily rather than in downpours? A. For those countries accustomed to steady rain fall, downpours are actually more efficient ways to catch water. B. Downpours in regions accustomed to steady fall makes them more prone to flooding and damage. C. In general, as long as regions get either steady fall or downpours most things will stay the same. D. Downpours are always more beneficial to crop growth than steady rain. E. Steady rain is always more beneficial to crop growth than downpours. Climate Change Threatens Kona Coffee What is unique about the climate in Hawaii, making it a good place to grow coffee? A. The elevation is high, the nights are cool and the days are humid. B. The elevation is low, the nights are warm and the days are dry. C. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are dry. D. The elevation is low, the nights are cool and the days are dry. E. The elevation is high, the nights are warm and the days are humid. What specific temperature pattern have experts noted about the region where Kona coffee is grown in Hawaii? A. There has been no significant change but the bean production has dropped. B. The nights have warmed up, even though the days have cooled. C. There has been an increase in bean production with the change in climate. D. The nights have cooled even more so than before. E. There has been universally hot days all the way around.

http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN1.html#B.I,%20Ch.1,%20Of%20the%20Division%20of%20Labor What does Smith mean by division of labor, and … Read More...
Objective: Persuade readers that they should fear a threat of your choosing, real or fabricated. Due Date: Wednesday, November 18th Length: 4-5 pages Format: typed, double-spaced, standard font and margins For this essay, you will be putting together all the aspects of argument that we have been learning about over the last few weeks. You will be using those elements to convince your readers that some issue of your choosing is a threat to them. This issue can be a real threat that you believe people should actually be aware of, or it can be a threat that is not real but that you treat as real (whether it be a fictional/legendary threat or something that is perhaps a small threat but that you present as a big one). Your job is to convince your audience to take this threat seriously, and to do that, you will need to make use of emotional appeal (especially to fear—think back to essays one and two), logical appeal (partly use of details/facts/ evidence we discussed in essay four, but also through definition such as we worked on in essay three), and ethical appeal (your own credibility—think back to issues besides logic and evidence covered in essay four). You may choose to include outside sources if you wish, but you must cite them if you use them and indicate when you are using the words of the original source. We will discuss how to find and to cite them to prepare you to use them correctly. If writing about a fictional threat, you may wish to make up sources. If you do so, I leave it up to you whether you formally cite them (though you must do this if you are using real sources) or informally refer to them in a manner similar to what we saw in the articles we read for essay four. Turning in an essay in which significant portions are not written by you and/or without outside sources cited will result in an essay grade of zero (and not revisable for a higher grade). If you are unsure what to cite, let me know. For ideas, you may want to browse the website snopes.com. This site contains lists and research about many feasible topics for this essay. Try not to use Snopes itself as a source—most entries there contain a list of sources that would be more appropriate for you to utilize and credit in your research. You may also choose to write about a topic covered by one of the essay four articles—if you liked an issue but felt that the warning about it was not very credible, you can use this paper as an opportunity to write about that topic but in a believable, convincing way. Whatever you choose as your topic, by the end of it, you want your reader to believe that what you discuss is a real threat to them. Essay Five: Argument Paper/Warning Assignment Description English 101, Sections 26 & 30 Fall 2015 Skills We Will Cover In This Unit: • finding & citing sources • utilizing emotional, logical, and ethical appeal SCHEDULE GRADING Incomplete papers or papers that stray from the assigned topic/purpose will receive a D or F. C B A To earn at least a C, the paper should: • have a clearly established threat that it attempts to warn the reader about • cite any information obtained from outside sources • be written in such a way as it can be easily understood by the reader To earn a B, the paper should fulfill the criteria above, plus: • include at least one section intended to appeal to the reader’s emotions (especially fear) • include logical support in the form of evidence, details, or other forms of establishing logical reasoning • be organized well, which includes having a clear sense of structure and transitioning into new ideas • include only the information and discussion necessary to accomplish the purpose of the assignment • have only a few grammatical errors, and those should not interfere with understanding To earn an A, the paper should fulfill the criteria for a B paper, plus: • possess strong unity of ideas • skillfully utilize all three rhetorical appeals • make a convincing case that the threat is real • be nearly free of grammatical or wording problems FRI OCT 30 MON NOV 2 discuss “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” (p. 481) WED NOV 4 discuss “How Bingeing Became the New College Sport” (p. 476) FRI NOV 6 Homecoming—no classes after noon, no Blackboard assignment MON NOV 9 Discuss “The Real Skinny” (p. 492) No class—Blackboard assignment: online scavenger hunt (opens Monday, due by 11:59pm on Sunday 11/1) WED NOV 11 FRI NOV 13 No class—Blackboard assignment: essay five peer review. Post your draft by noon Friday, respond to two classmates’ by 11:59pm on Monday 11/16. You may wish to review skills from previous assignments as you work on this essay: • essay one: telling a story, creating an emotional response • essay two: how to create emotional response, utilizing evidence • essay three: defining important terms, using logic • essay four: establishing character and credibility WED OCT 28 Discuss “Our Unhealthy Obsession with Sickness (p. 469) MON OCT 26 Essay Four Due; Essay Five Assigned; meet in 70-122 MON NOV 16 No class—Dr. Hill at BTW Symposium (you can attend, too!) Meet in 70-122 for research time and citing instruction MON NOV 18 Essay five due; final portfolio assigned

Objective: Persuade readers that they should fear a threat of your choosing, real or fabricated. Due Date: Wednesday, November 18th Length: 4-5 pages Format: typed, double-spaced, standard font and margins For this essay, you will be putting together all the aspects of argument that we have been learning about over the last few weeks. You will be using those elements to convince your readers that some issue of your choosing is a threat to them. This issue can be a real threat that you believe people should actually be aware of, or it can be a threat that is not real but that you treat as real (whether it be a fictional/legendary threat or something that is perhaps a small threat but that you present as a big one). Your job is to convince your audience to take this threat seriously, and to do that, you will need to make use of emotional appeal (especially to fear—think back to essays one and two), logical appeal (partly use of details/facts/ evidence we discussed in essay four, but also through definition such as we worked on in essay three), and ethical appeal (your own credibility—think back to issues besides logic and evidence covered in essay four). You may choose to include outside sources if you wish, but you must cite them if you use them and indicate when you are using the words of the original source. We will discuss how to find and to cite them to prepare you to use them correctly. If writing about a fictional threat, you may wish to make up sources. If you do so, I leave it up to you whether you formally cite them (though you must do this if you are using real sources) or informally refer to them in a manner similar to what we saw in the articles we read for essay four. Turning in an essay in which significant portions are not written by you and/or without outside sources cited will result in an essay grade of zero (and not revisable for a higher grade). If you are unsure what to cite, let me know. For ideas, you may want to browse the website snopes.com. This site contains lists and research about many feasible topics for this essay. Try not to use Snopes itself as a source—most entries there contain a list of sources that would be more appropriate for you to utilize and credit in your research. You may also choose to write about a topic covered by one of the essay four articles—if you liked an issue but felt that the warning about it was not very credible, you can use this paper as an opportunity to write about that topic but in a believable, convincing way. Whatever you choose as your topic, by the end of it, you want your reader to believe that what you discuss is a real threat to them. Essay Five: Argument Paper/Warning Assignment Description English 101, Sections 26 & 30 Fall 2015 Skills We Will Cover In This Unit: • finding & citing sources • utilizing emotional, logical, and ethical appeal SCHEDULE GRADING Incomplete papers or papers that stray from the assigned topic/purpose will receive a D or F. C B A To earn at least a C, the paper should: • have a clearly established threat that it attempts to warn the reader about • cite any information obtained from outside sources • be written in such a way as it can be easily understood by the reader To earn a B, the paper should fulfill the criteria above, plus: • include at least one section intended to appeal to the reader’s emotions (especially fear) • include logical support in the form of evidence, details, or other forms of establishing logical reasoning • be organized well, which includes having a clear sense of structure and transitioning into new ideas • include only the information and discussion necessary to accomplish the purpose of the assignment • have only a few grammatical errors, and those should not interfere with understanding To earn an A, the paper should fulfill the criteria for a B paper, plus: • possess strong unity of ideas • skillfully utilize all three rhetorical appeals • make a convincing case that the threat is real • be nearly free of grammatical or wording problems FRI OCT 30 MON NOV 2 discuss “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” (p. 481) WED NOV 4 discuss “How Bingeing Became the New College Sport” (p. 476) FRI NOV 6 Homecoming—no classes after noon, no Blackboard assignment MON NOV 9 Discuss “The Real Skinny” (p. 492) No class—Blackboard assignment: online scavenger hunt (opens Monday, due by 11:59pm on Sunday 11/1) WED NOV 11 FRI NOV 13 No class—Blackboard assignment: essay five peer review. Post your draft by noon Friday, respond to two classmates’ by 11:59pm on Monday 11/16. You may wish to review skills from previous assignments as you work on this essay: • essay one: telling a story, creating an emotional response • essay two: how to create emotional response, utilizing evidence • essay three: defining important terms, using logic • essay four: establishing character and credibility WED OCT 28 Discuss “Our Unhealthy Obsession with Sickness (p. 469) MON OCT 26 Essay Four Due; Essay Five Assigned; meet in 70-122 MON NOV 16 No class—Dr. Hill at BTW Symposium (you can attend, too!) Meet in 70-122 for research time and citing instruction MON NOV 18 Essay five due; final portfolio assigned

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Name___________________________________ Period_____ Investigation: Making Waves PART I: Objectives: • Learn vocabulary describing waves • Calculate the speed of a wave • Understand how amplitude affects the speed of a wave • Understand how frequency and wavelength affect the speed of a wave Open this web site: http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Wave_on_a_String You can click on Run Now! to run the simulation online, or Run Offline to save it to your desktop. It might run faster this way. Start by Wiggling the Wrench. Spend about 5 minutes experimenting with the Tension, Manual/Pulse/Oscillate, Fixed/Loose/No end, and changing the Amplitude, Frequency and Damping. Click on Show Rulers and Timer. Practice moving the rulers around and starting/resetting the timer. Click on the Pause/Play and Step buttons to see how they work. Use these settings: Pulse, Amplitude=50, Pulse Width=35, Damping=0, Tension at High and No End. NOTE that the amplitude is just a relative scale (not centimeters). Send a single pulse down the string. This is called a TRANSVERSE PULSE. Watch the motion of the green dots.  1. As the pulse goes by from left to right, in what direction does the string move? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  2. A definition of TRANSVERSE is “lying across”. Why is TRANSVERSE a good name for the wave you just observed? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Make another pulse, and then PAUSE the wave. Use the vertical ruler to measure the amplitude of the wave in centimeters. This is the distance from the dotted orange line to the crest of the wave. Record the amplitude in Table 1 in the first row. Now, measure the time for a pulse to travel 100 cm. To do this: • Reset the clock to 0:00 and reset the generator • Click Pause/Play—it should say PAUSED on the screen • Click Pulse • Click Pause/Play again to start a timed pulse. Pause again just as the crest (peak) of the pulse touches the window 100 cm away. Record the time for a pulse to travel 100 cm in Table 1. Run 3 time trials, and record in the table. Calculate the average time. Now, measure the amplitude and timing of pulses for two other amplitudes (one smaller than 50, one larger than 50). Do three trials at each amplitude and calculate the average times. Calculate the average wave speed for each of the three amplitudes. See below for a sample calculation. Table 1 Your measured amplitude, cm Time for pulse to travel 100 cm, seconds Average time, seconds Speed=length of string / average time Example of speed calculation: Speed = string length/ average time Speed = 100 cm/2 seconds = 50 cm/second  3. How does the amplitude of a wave affect the speed of a wave? ________________________________________________________________________ Use these settings: Oscillate, Fixed end. Try amplitude=20, frequency=51, damping=0. The result is called a periodic wave. 4. Describe the appearance of the wave you created. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ You should see waves that do not move along the string. You will also see points where the string does not move at all. These waves are called STANDING WAVES. The points where the wave doesn’t move are called NODES. Pause the simulation.  5. Draw the standing wave in the box below, labeling the AMPLITUDE, WAVELENGTH and NODES of a standing wave. Use these settings: Amplitude=20, Frequency=50, Damping=0, Oscillate, No End. Reset the clock. You can also measure the wave frequency. To do this, you should pair up with another student if possible. Watch the piston go up and down to make the wave. One up and down motion represents one wave. Use the clock to measure the time required for 10 complete cycles or waves. You will also need to PAUSE the wave to measure the wavelength of the wave in centimeters (cm). The frequency of the wave is calculated in the following way: Frequency = 10 waves/# seconds for 10 cycles For example, 10 waves/5 seconds = 2 cycles per second, or 2 Hertz. Make several waves by changing the wave frequency—use numbers over 30 on the scale. For each wave, measure the wavelength using the ruler. Now, calculate the frequency. See the example in the first row of Table 2. Record the wavelength and frequency of three waves with different wavelengths. Wavelength (cm) Frequency (cycles/second or Hertz) Speed (cm/s) = Wavelength x frequency 33 cm 10 waves/5.45 sec = 1.8 Hertz 33 cm x 1.8 Hertz = 59.4 cm/second Based on the equation used to calculate the speed of a wave, answer questions 6 and 7.  6. If you increase the wavelength of a wave, how does the speed change? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  7. If you increase the frequency of a wave, how does the speed change? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Part II: Objectives: • Interpret a 2D top view picture of a wave • Identify areas of constructive and destructive interference in 2D • Predict the behavior of water, sound, or light when you have two sources o What will happen in constructive areas o What will happen in destructive areas 1) Open the “Wave Interference” simulation from the PhET website (in Sound & Waves) 2) On the water simulation, what does the crest (peak) of the wave look like in the top view? What does the trough look like? 3) When you add two drips, what changes about the waves’ patterns? 4) What does the wave look like in the area that the two waves constructively interfere? Describe both the top view and what the side view would look like. a. TOP: b. SIDE: 5) What does the wave look like in the area that the two waves destructively interfere? Describe both the top view and what the side view would look like. a. TOP: b. SIDE: 6) Switch to the sound simulation. a. What do you think will happen when you put two speakers next to each other? b. Why do you think this will happen? c. Try it (putting two speakers together) and tell me what happened. 7) Now switch to the light simulation. a. What do you think will happen when you put two light sources next to each other? b. Why do you think this will happen? c. Try it (putting two light sources together) and tell me what happened. d. What happens when you use one light source and two slits? 8) What is similar about all three of these simulations (i.e. water, sound & light)? 9) How do I know that these things are waves and not particles? (Think about what would happen in the two slit experiment if they were particles).

Name___________________________________ Period_____ Investigation: Making Waves PART I: Objectives: • Learn vocabulary describing waves • Calculate the speed of a wave • Understand how amplitude affects the speed of a wave • Understand how frequency and wavelength affect the speed of a wave Open this web site: http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Wave_on_a_String You can click on Run Now! to run the simulation online, or Run Offline to save it to your desktop. It might run faster this way. Start by Wiggling the Wrench. Spend about 5 minutes experimenting with the Tension, Manual/Pulse/Oscillate, Fixed/Loose/No end, and changing the Amplitude, Frequency and Damping. Click on Show Rulers and Timer. Practice moving the rulers around and starting/resetting the timer. Click on the Pause/Play and Step buttons to see how they work. Use these settings: Pulse, Amplitude=50, Pulse Width=35, Damping=0, Tension at High and No End. NOTE that the amplitude is just a relative scale (not centimeters). Send a single pulse down the string. This is called a TRANSVERSE PULSE. Watch the motion of the green dots.  1. As the pulse goes by from left to right, in what direction does the string move? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  2. A definition of TRANSVERSE is “lying across”. Why is TRANSVERSE a good name for the wave you just observed? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Make another pulse, and then PAUSE the wave. Use the vertical ruler to measure the amplitude of the wave in centimeters. This is the distance from the dotted orange line to the crest of the wave. Record the amplitude in Table 1 in the first row. Now, measure the time for a pulse to travel 100 cm. To do this: • Reset the clock to 0:00 and reset the generator • Click Pause/Play—it should say PAUSED on the screen • Click Pulse • Click Pause/Play again to start a timed pulse. Pause again just as the crest (peak) of the pulse touches the window 100 cm away. Record the time for a pulse to travel 100 cm in Table 1. Run 3 time trials, and record in the table. Calculate the average time. Now, measure the amplitude and timing of pulses for two other amplitudes (one smaller than 50, one larger than 50). Do three trials at each amplitude and calculate the average times. Calculate the average wave speed for each of the three amplitudes. See below for a sample calculation. Table 1 Your measured amplitude, cm Time for pulse to travel 100 cm, seconds Average time, seconds Speed=length of string / average time Example of speed calculation: Speed = string length/ average time Speed = 100 cm/2 seconds = 50 cm/second  3. How does the amplitude of a wave affect the speed of a wave? ________________________________________________________________________ Use these settings: Oscillate, Fixed end. Try amplitude=20, frequency=51, damping=0. The result is called a periodic wave. 4. Describe the appearance of the wave you created. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ You should see waves that do not move along the string. You will also see points where the string does not move at all. These waves are called STANDING WAVES. The points where the wave doesn’t move are called NODES. Pause the simulation.  5. Draw the standing wave in the box below, labeling the AMPLITUDE, WAVELENGTH and NODES of a standing wave. Use these settings: Amplitude=20, Frequency=50, Damping=0, Oscillate, No End. Reset the clock. You can also measure the wave frequency. To do this, you should pair up with another student if possible. Watch the piston go up and down to make the wave. One up and down motion represents one wave. Use the clock to measure the time required for 10 complete cycles or waves. You will also need to PAUSE the wave to measure the wavelength of the wave in centimeters (cm). The frequency of the wave is calculated in the following way: Frequency = 10 waves/# seconds for 10 cycles For example, 10 waves/5 seconds = 2 cycles per second, or 2 Hertz. Make several waves by changing the wave frequency—use numbers over 30 on the scale. For each wave, measure the wavelength using the ruler. Now, calculate the frequency. See the example in the first row of Table 2. Record the wavelength and frequency of three waves with different wavelengths. Wavelength (cm) Frequency (cycles/second or Hertz) Speed (cm/s) = Wavelength x frequency 33 cm 10 waves/5.45 sec = 1.8 Hertz 33 cm x 1.8 Hertz = 59.4 cm/second Based on the equation used to calculate the speed of a wave, answer questions 6 and 7.  6. If you increase the wavelength of a wave, how does the speed change? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  7. If you increase the frequency of a wave, how does the speed change? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Part II: Objectives: • Interpret a 2D top view picture of a wave • Identify areas of constructive and destructive interference in 2D • Predict the behavior of water, sound, or light when you have two sources o What will happen in constructive areas o What will happen in destructive areas 1) Open the “Wave Interference” simulation from the PhET website (in Sound & Waves) 2) On the water simulation, what does the crest (peak) of the wave look like in the top view? What does the trough look like? 3) When you add two drips, what changes about the waves’ patterns? 4) What does the wave look like in the area that the two waves constructively interfere? Describe both the top view and what the side view would look like. a. TOP: b. SIDE: 5) What does the wave look like in the area that the two waves destructively interfere? Describe both the top view and what the side view would look like. a. TOP: b. SIDE: 6) Switch to the sound simulation. a. What do you think will happen when you put two speakers next to each other? b. Why do you think this will happen? c. Try it (putting two speakers together) and tell me what happened. 7) Now switch to the light simulation. a. What do you think will happen when you put two light sources next to each other? b. Why do you think this will happen? c. Try it (putting two light sources together) and tell me what happened. d. What happens when you use one light source and two slits? 8) What is similar about all three of these simulations (i.e. water, sound & light)? 9) How do I know that these things are waves and not particles? (Think about what would happen in the two slit experiment if they were particles).