-1- Department of Engineering ELE3DDE: Electronic Design Automation – 2015 Assignment: Traffic Light Controller: Design, Synthesis and Test DUE: Code Submission and Demonstration, Wednesday, September 9 Report, 2pm Monday, September 14 Students will work on this assignment individually – developing their own design and producing their own independent report Task: A traffic signal controller is required for an intersection of two cross roads in a busy town centre that also has considerable pedestrian traffic. All four approaches to the intersection have standard traffic lights (Red, Amber and Green) and a traffic sensor (active low), which can detect the presence of approaching traffic. Assume that when a car passes over a sensor, it produces a low signal for approximately three (3) seconds. Thus a constant stream of traffic would produce a continuous low signal (i.e. assume that debouncing for these sensors has already been performed in the sensor circuitry). The intersection also has pedestrian crossing signals (Walk, Don’t Walk (flashing), and Don’t Walk (constantly illuminated), and pedestrian call buttons (simple push button switches) at each of the four crossing points. As a digital design engineer, you have been asked to produce an FPGA prototype for the Traffic Light Controller and assigned the following tasks (i) Produce a VHDL design for the Traffic Light Controller meeting the specifications outlined below. (ii) Produce a test bench for your VHDL design and via simulation confirm that your design functions correctly. (iii) Produce a space efficient, fully tested working prototype, suitable for demonstration to the client. (i.e. implement your design in the ALTERA, Cyclone II FPGA on the ALTERA DE2 board). (iv) Produce a report of your work, including a discussion on the efficiency of your design. (v) All code generated for you design must be included in your report. If you have pages and pages of VHDL code (particularly if you generated them with HDL Designer), these should be included in your report as an appendix. Prototype. The design will be implemented using the ALTERA, Cyclone II (EP2C35F672C6) device on the ALTERA DE2 board. See Appendix or DE2 Board Manual for device I/O pins. The four traffic lights will be represented via the 7-segment displays HEX7 – HEX4, with segment ‘a’ representing a red light, segment ‘g’ representing a yellow light and segment ‘d’ representing a green light. With the traffic sensors in the road represented by four slide switches (SW17, SW15, SW13 & SW11). The emergency Amber flash switch should be connected to slide switch SW3. -2- The pedestrian call buttons will be represented by the push buttons, KEY0, KEY1, KEY2 and KEY3. With 7-segment displays HEX3 – HEX0 used to represent the pedestrian signals for the crossing of the intersection, in the following manner: Walk (segment ‘d’ on), Don’t Walk – flashing (segment ‘a’ flashing), and Don’t Walk (segment ‘a’ on continuously). For timing the development board has a 50MHz clock. Shown above is a diagram of a seven-segment display indicating how segments ‘a’, ‘g’ and ‘d’ are used to represent the red, yellow and green lights, of a traffic light, respectively on HEX7 – HEX4. While below shows seven-segment display indicating how segments ‘a’ and ‘d’ are used to indicate Don’t Walk and Walk respectively on HEX3 – HEX0. Design Specifications – Basic Design. The road traffic lights are to operate using the sequence RedGreenAmberRed according to the timing and requirements outlined below. Whenever the lights for one road are Green or Amber the crossroad must always display a red signal. All traffic lights must display a red signal for two seconds between changeovers. In their inactive state all pedestrian signals will display “Don’t Walk – continuous” (segment ‘a’ continuously on), independent of the changes in the traffic signals. The pedestrian signal can be activated following a pedestrian call being registered (by an appropriate push button(s) being pressed) and will operate in the sequence “Walk” “Don’t Walk – flash” “Don’t Walk – continuous” with the timing and requirements outlined below. As this intersection carries considerable pedestrian traffic the town planners have decided that the traffic sequence will contain a dedicated pedestrian crossing only period, where pedestrians may walk between any two points of the intersection (including through the middle of the intersection). Rather than embedding the pedestrian crossing sequences in with the road traffic sequence – as you are probably more familiar with. Thus whenever any traffic flow enabling signal is active (i.e. Green or Amber on) the pedestrian signals will be inactive (i.e. “Don’t Walk – continuous”) and vice versa, whenever the pedestrian signals are active (“Walk” or “Don’t Walk – flash”) all road traffic lights remain red. a d e f g c b a d e f g c b -3- Traffic Light sequence and timing When all automotive sensors are inactive the default sequence is: Green Road 1 14 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 14 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec For both Roads 1 & 2, if any traffic is detected after the road has been showing green for 9 seconds, then the Green time will be extended by a further 10 seconds (i.e. making the Green time 24 seconds for that road, on that sequence. The amber and red/red times remain at 4 and 2 seconds respectively – for all sequences. Thus if both Road 1 and Road 2 have heavy traffic (i.e. traffic still detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Also, should Road 1 have heavy traffic and Road 2 have only light or no traffic (i.e. no traffic detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 14 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec And alternatively, should Road 2 have heavy traffic and Road 1 have only light or no traffic (i.e. no traffic detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 14 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec When a pedestrian crossing sequence is required this is always inserted after the Road 2 sequence, following the 2 seconds of red in both directions. Pushing a pedestrian crossing button (outside of the “Walk” period) will register a “pedestrian call” and a pedestrian crossing sequence will be inserted as soon as the next Road 2 sequence is complete. Should a pedestrian call be registered at only one site, then the pedestrian crossing sequence will be: -4- : Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 18 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 : : Alternatively, should a pedestrian call be registered at more than one site, then the “Walk” portion of the pedestrian crossing sequence will be extended by a further 8 seconds, thus: : Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 26 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 : : All pedestrian calls will be cleared as soon as the “Walk” (‘d’ on) signal is activated, and will not register again until the “Walk” (‘d’ on) signal is no longer active. Any pedestrian calls (i.e. a pedestrian button push) made during the “Don’t Walk Flashing” signal will be registered as a call towards the next sequence and have no effect on the current length of the “Don’t Walk Flashing” signal. As an example, if the automotive traffic is “heavy” in both directions, and there is also a heavy demand on the pedestrian crossing, then the total sequence would be: : Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 26 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 24 sec : The traffic controller system must respond to road sensor changes within one second. (Hint – The core of your design may include a state machine that is clocked at 1Hz). Although, you may need a faster clock to register the pedestrian call buttons. Incorporate an emergency Amber flash switch in your design (SW3). When activated the system should move to the ‘Red both directions’ state as soon as possible (i.e. it must go through four seconds of amber if currently green or amber, or through six seconds of “Don’t Walk Flashing” should a pedestrian sequence be active. Then after two seconds of ‘Red both directions’ plus “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) it should flash amber at 1Hz in both directions. In this state all pedestrian -5- signals will remain continuously showing “Don’t Walk” and no pedestrian call buttons will be registered. The design must also include an reset (active low), which will immediately place the lights on both roads in the Red state, plus all pedestrian signals showing “Don’t Walk” continuously, hold for two seconds, and then move to normal operations. You should use SW0 for the reset. For the purposes of testing and demonstrating this assignment, you should include a state clock speed modification option (i.e. x4); under “test switch” control (SW2). This will enable an option of viewing (and testing) the sequence changes more quickly. Finally, so that each design is unique, arrange for a selectable option (using SW1) where your student number is displayed on the 7-segment displays. Clearly when the student number is being displayed the traffic light status cannot be shown, although normal operations should continue in the background. That is, SW1 controls a multiplexer that selects between traffic light and student number data to be displayed. There is no need to include this section in your report, as it is not part of the Traffic Light Controller design. However, it is required for the demonstration. Design Specifications – Enhanced Design. Add additional features to enhance your design. 1. Implement the “Walk”/”Don’t Walk” on the LCD display. 2. Display a count of the current ‘seconds’ for a particular state in the sequence. i.e. count up the seconds in “green-red”, then “amber-red”, then “red-red”, then “red-green” etc. 3. Implement Green right turn arrows on the cross roads. Use the four slide switches (SW16, SW14, SW12 & SW10) for the right turn sensors. If a North or East direction road has an right turn sensors that is active prior to the intended green cycle of that road then an additional 6 seconds inserted into the sequence showing “Green Arrow” and “Green” in one direction with “Red” in the opposite direction (i.e. South or West). After the 6 seconds have elapsed the “Green Arrow” is switched off while the “Green” remains on with “Red” still showing in the opposite direction. After a further four seconds the “Red” in opposite direction changes to “green” and the sequence continues normally. Alternatively, the right turn arrow for South or East direction roads is inserted at the end of the green sequence, as follows. If a South or West has an active right turn sensor then at the end of the common “Green” time for that road then an additional ten seconds is added to the sequence to accommodate the “Green Arrow”. This consists of four seconds of “Amber” in the corresponding opposite direction, with “Green” still showing in the South or East direction, followed by “Red” in the opposite direction, and “Green Arrow” with “Green” still on for a further 6 seconds. The cycle then moves to “Amber” in the South or East direction with the “Green Arrow” off and “Red” showing in the opposite direction for four seconds. After that is the “All Red” state for two seconds and then the start of a new sequence. For the purposes of the demonstration HEX7 & HEX6 are North & South respectively, while HEX5 & HEX4 are East & West respectively. As an example the following is a heavy traffic sequence with right turns. Red All Roads 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On North Road (South Red) 6 sec Green North Road with Green Arrow off (South Red) 4 sec Green North & South Roads 24 sec -6- Amber North Road with Green South Road 4 sec Red North Road with Green South Road 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On South Road (North Red) 6 sec Amber with Green Arrow off South Road (North Red) 4 sec Red All Roads 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On East Road (West Red) 6 sec Green East Road with Green Arrow off (West Red) 4 sec Green East & West Roads 24 sec Amber East Road with Green West Road 4 sec Red East Road with Green West Road 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On West Road (East Red) 6 sec Amber with Green Arrow off West Road (East Red) 4 sec Red All Roads 2 sec Shown above is a diagram of a seven-segment display indicating how segment ‘c’ is used to indicate a green right turn arrow in a traffic light, in conjunction with ‘a’, ‘g’ and ‘d’ representing the red, yellow and green lights. Notes/Hints: (i) A pedestrian signal sequence will only occur if a pedestrian call button has been pressed (and hence registered); otherwise it will remain in the continuous “Don’t Walk” state. (ii) The decision to extend a traffic signal sequence from 14 to 24 seconds should be made between the 10 and 14 second mark (inclusive). i.e. read the traffic sensors between these times. (iii) It is recommended that you practice implementing some of the basic functions on the DE2 Board first and build on this before implementing the entire design. At the end of the day, a partially implemented prototype that works will be easier to demonstrate than an entire design that does not work at all. (iv) There are many different ways of describing timing circuits in VHDL, not all are synthesisable. (v) At this stage it may be safer to stick with the standard ieee libraries, while it is possible to set up your own libraries – great care needs to be exercised. a d e f g c b -7- (vi) If you use a package – keep it in your work library, download it to the same folder as your design files (for the Quartus II compiler) and compile it (using the Quartus II compiler) before compiling your vending machine design. (vii) MOST IMPORTANT – the Quartus II compiler does NOT like integers of different ranges being assigned to each other – even though this may compile and simulate correctly in ModelSim. For your assignment report YOU ARE REQUIRED TO SUBMIT THE FOLLOWING: (a) Block diagrams of your design, showing the hierarchy of the design and signals at each level. You can use HDL Designer or another drawing package if you wish. To assist the explanation of your design (e) it may be appropriate to embed these in the written text. (b) Printout(s) of your Traffic Light Controller design (inc. VHDL code). Key parts of the design graphics/code should be included in the main body of the report, along with the explanation of the design. With the complete design code included as an appendix. Reset Amber Flash Road 1 Lights Pedestrian Signals Pedestrian Call Buttons Display Student No. Traffic Sensors Test Road 2 Lights -8- (c) Printout(s) of your test bench (stimulus) file(s). Where key to the understanding of the testing methodology and simulation results these should included in the main body of the report. Otherwise, a complete set of testbench code must be included as an appendix. (d) Test data (i.e. annotated printouts of simulation results and summary of on board testing); <> (e) A concise (two – three pages writing) explanation of your design and your testing methodologies (i.e. how your circuit works, and why your test results demonstrate that it is functioning correctly), also include comments on any particular innovative ideas you have implemented in your design; (f) Include a summary of the FPGA resource usage of your completed design. Briefly comment on the general efficiency of your design, remember that, typically the smaller the design the lower the cost (as it may fit in a smaller/cheaper device), and the lower the power consumption. Are there any areas where you think the design could save some resources by being implemented differently? You are not required to make changes to the VHDL just brief comment(s). (Half page plus resource usage summary). Submission (by 2pm Monday, September 14): Your complete report (including code) must be converted to an OCR compatible (i.e. searchable) PDF file and submitted to the Design Assignment drop box on the LMS site for this subject. No paper copies are required. When you submit your assignment it will be checked automatically by the Turnitin software for similarity with past and present work, web sites, books etc. Any report with a high Turnitin similarity index will be scrutinised for potential plagiarism. It is highly recommended that you submit a draft copy of your assignment report, to the draft Turnitin drop box (on LMS) and check the generated Turnitin report before finalising your submission. If you submit plagiarised work (that is work copied from others – including code) it will most likely be identified and your assignment deemed unsatisfactory! YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO SUBMIT YOUR DESIGN CODE AND DEMONSTRATE YOUR DESIGN IN PRACTICAL CLASS SESSION IN THE WEEK PRIOR TO THE REPORT DUE DATE (i.e. September 9). Jim Whittington August 2015 -9- APPENDIX – Altera DE2 Board, Switch, LED, 7-Segment Display and Clock pins The following information is taken from the Altera DE2 Board Manual Signal Name FPGA Pin Description SW0 PIN_N25 Slide Switch SW1 PIN_N26 Slide Switch SW2 PIN_P25 Slide Switch SW3 PIN_AE14 Slide Switch SW4 PIN_AF14 Slide Switch SW5 PIN_AD13 Slide Switch SW6 PIN_AC13 Slide Switch SW7 PIN_C13 Slide Switch SW8 PIN_B13 Slide Switch SW9 PIN_A13 Slide Switch SW10 PIN_N1 Slide Switch SW11 PIN_P1 Slide Switch SW12 PIN_P2 Slide Switch SW13 PIN_T7 Slide Switch SW14 PIN_U3 Slide Switch SW15 PIN_U4 Slide Switch SW16 PIN_V1 Slide Switch SW17 PIN_V2 Slide Switch Table-1 Altera DE2 Board Slide Switch Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description KEY0 PIN_G26 Pushbutton KEY1 PIN_N23 Pushbutton  KEY2 PIN_P23 Pushbutton  KEY3 PIN_W26 Pushbutton  Table-2 Altera DE2 Board Push Button Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description LEDR0 PIN_AE23 Red LED LEDR1 PIN_AF23 Red LED LEDR2 PIN_AB21 Red LED LEDR3 PIN_AC22 Red LED LEDR4 PIN_AD22 Red LED LEDR5 PIN_AD23 Red LED LEDR6 PIN_AD21 Red LED LEDR7 PIN_AC21 Red LED LEDR8 PIN_AA14 Red LED LEDR9 PIN_Y13 Red LED LEDR10 PIN_AA13 Red LED LEDR11 PIN_AC14 Red LED LEDR12 PIN_AD15 Red LED -10- LEDR13 PIN_AE15 Red LED LEDR14 PIN_AF13 Red LED LEDR15 PIN_AE13 Red LED LEDR16 PIN_AE12 Red LED LEDR17 PIN_AD12 Red LED LEDG0 PIN_AE22 Green LED LEDG1 PIN_AF22 Green LED LEDG2 PIN_W19 Green LED LEDG3 PIN_V18 Green LED LEDG4 PIN_U18 Green LED LEDG5 PIN_U17 Green LED LEDG6 PIN_AA20 Green LED LEDG7 PIN_Y18 Green LED LEDG8 PIN_Y12 Green LED Table-3 Altera DE2 LED Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description HEX0 PIN_AF10 HEX0 Segment a HEX0 PIN_AB12 HEX0 Segment b HEX0 PIN_AC12 HEX0 Segment c HEX0 PIN_AD11 HEX0 Segment d HEX0 PIN_AE11 HEX0 Segment e HEX0 PIN_V14 HEX0 Segment f HEX0 PIN_V13 HEX0 Segment g HEX1  PIN_V20 HEX1 Segment a HEX1  PIN_V21 HEX1 Segment b HEX1  PIN_W21 HEX1 Segment c HEX1  PIN_Y22 HEX1 Segment d HEX1  PIN_AA24 HEX1 Segment e HEX1  PIN_AA23 HEX1 Segment f HEX1  PIN_AB24 HEX1 Segment g HEX2  PIN_AB23 HEX2 Segment a HEX2  PIN_V22 HEX2 Segment b HEX2  PIN_AC25 HEX2 Segment c HEX2  PIN_AC26 HEX2 Segment d HEX2  PIN_AB26 HEX2 Segment e HEX2  PIN_AB25 HEX2 Segment f HEX2  PIN_Y24 HEX2 Segment g HEX3  PIN_Y23 HEX3 Segment a HEX3  PIN_AA25 HEX3 Segment b HEX3  PIN_AA26 HEX3 Segment c HEX3  PIN_Y26 HEX3 Segment d HEX3  PIN_Y25 HEX3 Segment e HEX3  PIN_U22 HEX3 Segment f -11- HEX3  PIN_W24 HEX3 Segment g HEX4  PIN_U9 HEX4 Segment a HEX4  PIN_U1 HEX4 Segment b HEX4  PIN_U2 HEX4 Segment c HEX4  PIN_T4 HEX4 Segment d HEX4  PIN_R7 HEX4 Segment e HEX4  PIN_R6 HEX4 Segment f HEX4  PIN_T3 HEX4 Segment g HEX5  PIN_T2 HEX5 Segment a HEX5  PIN_P6 HEX5 Segment b HEX5  PIN_P7 HEX5 Segment c HEX5  PIN_T9 HEX5 Segment d HEX5  PIN_R5 HEX5 Segment e HEX5  PIN_R4 HEX5 Segment f HEX5  PIN_R3 HEX5 Segment g HEX6  PIN_R2 HEX6 Segment a HEX6  PIN_P4 HEX6 Segment b HEX6  PIN_P3 HEX6 Segment c HEX6  PIN_M2 HEX6 Segment d HEX6  PIN_M3 HEX6 Segment e HEX6  PIN_M5 HEX6 Segment f HEX6  PIN_M4 HEX6 Segment g HEX7  PIN_L3 HEX7 Segment a HEX7  PIN_L2 HEX7 Segment b HEX7  PIN_L9 HEX7 Segment c HEX7  PIN_L6 HEX7 Segment d HEX7  PIN_L7 HEX7 Segment e HEX7  PIN_P9 HEX7 Segment f HEX7  PIN_N9 HEX7 Segment g Table-4 Altera DE2 Board 7-Segment Display Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description CLOCK_27 PIN_D13 27 MHz Clock CLOCK_50 PIN_N2 50 MHz Clock EXT_CLOCK PIN_P26 External Clock Input (SMA) Table-5 Altera DE2 Board Clock Pin Assignments
For the graph shown, select the statement that best represents the given system of equations. 4y + x = 2 8y + 2x = 4 Number graph that ranges from negative five to five on the x axis and negative four to six on the y axis. A line with a negative slope passes through (two, zero). A. coincident B. consistent and independent C. inconsistent D. not enough information
Chapter 04 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A The cells of all plants have _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Which of the following is a difference between cellular respiration and anaerobic respiration? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Which of the following are found in the cells of a dog but not in the bacteria that are found on a dog’s fur? ANSWER: chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions chloroplasts and mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions mitochondria but not chloroplasts and use proteins to power their functions chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use proteins to power their functions Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide. Only anaerobic respiration produces water. Only cellular respiration breaks down carbohydrates. Only cellular respiration uses oxygen to break down carbohydrates. membrane-enclosed nucleus, chloroplasts, and cytoplasm mitochondria, nuclei, and cytoplasm membrane-enclosed nucleus and mitochondria mitochondria and chloroplasts Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A The products of photosynthesis are the materials that react in the process of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Tissues within an organism’s body are different from each other because the cells in each tissue _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A An egg and a sperm are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 6 chemosynthesis cellular respiration osmosis anaerobic respiration are produced by different combinations of eggs and sperm activate different portions of the identical DNA remove the DNA that they do not need have different types of DNA gametes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a zygote zygotes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a gamete zygotes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a gamete gametes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a zygote Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A The growth of a population of sparrows accelerates with each generation. The chances of dying are about the same for these sparrows, regardless of age. This population of sparrows therefore demonstrates _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A A population will grow the fastest when total fertility rates are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A population will not change in size if the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A exponential growth and a type III survivorship curve exponential growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type I survivorship curve low and generation times are long high and generation times are short high and generation times are long low and generation times are short birth rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the immigration rate and the death rate equals the emigration rate death rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the death rate and the immigration rate equals the emigration rate Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM As a population increases to near its carrying capacity, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The various activities that define an organism’s role in an ecosystem are that organism’s _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Largemouth bass and rainbow trout are stocked in a small, deep 10-acre pond. The bass are most active in 20-30 °C water, and the rainbow trout prefer water at about 6-22 °C. We expect to find few places in this pond where the two species interact because they have different _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The evolutionary concept of fitness is most closely associated with _____. birth rates decline, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth increases birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates increase, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines range of tolerance habitat ecological niche fitness generation times ranges of tolerance growth rates carrying capacities Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A The ultimate source of new inherited traits in a population is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A Studies of human birth weight and infant health reveal that babies who are heavier than 10 pounds or lighter than 6 pounds have decreased survival rates. This pattern of survival is an example of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A From an evolutionary perspective, the most important property that defines a species is _____. ANSWER: feeding reproduction carrying capacity mutations adaptation survivorship natural selection mutation disruptive selection directional selection bimodal selection stabilizing selection Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A In Missouri, the marbled salamander breeds in the late fall (October-December). In the same region, the closely related spotted salamander breeds in early spring (February-March). Thus, these species are kept separate because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A Which one of the following correctly lists the levels of classification from specific to general? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In a phylogenetic tree, all of the species in one family will _____. ANSWER: the ability of a species to extend the its range its type of natural selection its dietary habits reproductive isolation behavioral isolation structural isolation temporal isolation geographic isolation genus, species, order, family, class, phylum, kingdom species, genus, class, family, order, phylum, kingdom species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. have the same scientific name have identical ecological niches be scattered throughout the tree be clustered together in the tree Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM
Biomedical Signal and Image Processing (4800_420_001) Assigned on September 12th, 2017 Assignment 4 – Noise and Correlation 1. If a signal is measured as 2.5 V and the noise is 28 mV (28 × 10−3 V), what is the SNR in dB? 2. A single sinusoidal signal is found with some noise. If the RMS value of the noise is 0.5 V and the SNR is 10 dB, what is the RMS amplitude of the sinusoid? 3. The file signal_noise.mat contains a variable x that consists of a 1.0-V peak sinusoidal signal buried in noise. What is the SNR for this signal and noise? Assume that the noise RMS is much greater than the signal RMS. Note: “signal_noise.mat” and other files used in these assignments can be downloaded from the content area of Brightspace, within the “Data Files for Exercises” folder. These files can be opened in Matlab by copying into the active folder and double-clicking on the file or using the Matlab load command using the format: load(‘signal_noise.mat’). To discover the variables within the files use the Matlab who command. 4. An 8-bit ADC converter that has an input range of ±5 V is used to convert a signal that ranges between ±2 V. What is the SNR of the input if the input noise equals the quantization noise of the converter? Hint: Refer to Equation below to find the quantization noise: 5. The file filter1.mat contains the spectrum of a fourth-order lowpass filter as variable x in dB. The file also contains the corresponding frequencies of x in variable freq. Plot the spectrum of this filter both as dB versus log frequency and as linear amplitude versus linear frequency. The frequency axis should range between 10 and 400 Hz in both plots. Hint: Use Equation below to convert: Biomedical Signal and Image Processing (4800_420_001) Assigned on September 12th, 2017 6. Generate one cycle of the square wave similar to the one shown below in a 500-point MATLAB array. Determine the RMS value of this waveform. [Hint: When you take the square of the data array, be sure to use a period before the up arrow so that MATLAB does the squaring point-by-point (i.e., x.^2).]. 7. A resistor produces 10 μV noise (i.e., 10 × 10−6 V noise) when the room temperature is 310 K and the bandwidth is 1 kHz (i.e., 1000 Hz). What current noise would be produced by this resistor? 8. A 3-ma current flows through both a diode (i.e., a semiconductor) and a 20,000-Ω (i.e., 20-kΩ) resistor. What is the net current noise, in? Assume a bandwidth of 1 kHz (i.e., 1 × 103 Hz). Which of the two components is responsible for producing the most noise? 9. Determine if the two signals, x and y, in file correl1.mat are correlated by checking the angle between them. 10. Modify the approach used in Practice Problem 3 to find the angle between short signals: Do not attempt to plot these vectors as it would require a 6-dimensional plot!