View the ppt presentation of Chapter 4 in “slide show” mode and when you reach slide 10, click on “Plato’s Cave” and watch the video on youtube. This video shows that the perception of “reality” is not constant but changes, even for the same individual. What causes such changes? [Limit your answer to no more than 5 sentences]

## View the ppt presentation of Chapter 4 in “slide show” mode and when you reach slide 10, click on “Plato’s Cave” and watch the video on youtube. This video shows that the perception of “reality” is not constant but changes, even for the same individual. What causes such changes? [Limit your answer to no more than 5 sentences]

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Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is correct about interpreting the results of statistical tests? Question 2 options: 1) Obtaining a probability value of .05 tells us the difference between groups is definitely not caused by chance fluctuation. 2) If a probability value falls above .05, then the results will have to be replicated before we can have confidence in them. 3) Obtaining a probability value of .05 gives us confidence that the findings are not the result of chance, but does not eliminate this possibility. 4) A .05 probability value means there is a 5 percent chance the finding reflects a real difference. Question 3 (1 point) Which of the following statements is true about theories of personality? Question 3 options: 1) They provide only a part of the picture of human personality. 2) They support the expert’s viewpoint. 3) Theories are predicted from one hypothesis or another. 4) They are directly tested using empirical methods. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following statements is correct about hypothetical constructs? Question 4 options: 1) They are useful inventions by researchers that have no physical reality. 2) They are easier to measure than personality variables. 3) They cannot be measured with personality tests. 4) They have poor reliability and validity. Question 5 (1 point) According to the “law of parsimony,” Question 5 options: 1) a good theory generates a large number of hypotheses. 2) the best theory is the one that explains a phenomenon with the fewest constructs. 3) hypotheses are generated from theories. 4) theories should require as few studies as possible to support them. ________________________________________ Question 6 (1 point) Which of the following does a correlation coefficient not tell us? Question 6 options: 1) If the difference between two means reflects a real difference or can be attributed tochancefluctuation. 2) The strength of a relationship between two measures. 3) The direction of a relationship between two measures. 4) How well a score on one measure can be predicted by a score on another measure. Question 7 (1 point) A researcher finds that males make fewer errors than females when working in a competitive situation. However, women make fewer errors than men when working in acooperative situation. This is an example of Question 7 options: 1) a confound. 2) two manipulated independent variables. 3) an interaction. 4) a failure to replicate.

## Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is correct about interpreting the results of statistical tests? Question 2 options: 1) Obtaining a probability value of .05 tells us the difference between groups is definitely not caused by chance fluctuation. 2) If a probability value falls above .05, then the results will have to be replicated before we can have confidence in them. 3) Obtaining a probability value of .05 gives us confidence that the findings are not the result of chance, but does not eliminate this possibility. 4) A .05 probability value means there is a 5 percent chance the finding reflects a real difference. Question 3 (1 point) Which of the following statements is true about theories of personality? Question 3 options: 1) They provide only a part of the picture of human personality. 2) They support the expert’s viewpoint. 3) Theories are predicted from one hypothesis or another. 4) They are directly tested using empirical methods. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following statements is correct about hypothetical constructs? Question 4 options: 1) They are useful inventions by researchers that have no physical reality. 2) They are easier to measure than personality variables. 3) They cannot be measured with personality tests. 4) They have poor reliability and validity. Question 5 (1 point) According to the “law of parsimony,” Question 5 options: 1) a good theory generates a large number of hypotheses. 2) the best theory is the one that explains a phenomenon with the fewest constructs. 3) hypotheses are generated from theories. 4) theories should require as few studies as possible to support them. ________________________________________ Question 6 (1 point) Which of the following does a correlation coefficient not tell us? Question 6 options: 1) If the difference between two means reflects a real difference or can be attributed tochancefluctuation. 2) The strength of a relationship between two measures. 3) The direction of a relationship between two measures. 4) How well a score on one measure can be predicted by a score on another measure. Question 7 (1 point) A researcher finds that males make fewer errors than females when working in a competitive situation. However, women make fewer errors than men when working in acooperative situation. This is an example of Question 7 options: 1) a confound. 2) two manipulated independent variables. 3) an interaction. 4) a failure to replicate.

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