EENG 1920: Project II – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Assignment-10 (Optional) Due date: 11/27/2015 Problem-1 Create a VI called YourName_Problem2. On the front panel create an array of clusters called Classroom. Each cluster should have five elements in it: a string control called Name, two digital controls called Age and Final Grade, and two Booleans: one called Student? and the second called Male/Female?. The program should compute the mean age, the total number of students in the Classroom, the number of males or females, the number of students that are passing the course and display the results in an indicator cluster called Results. This cluster should have five elements in it: Mean Age, Number of Students, Number of Males, Number of Females, and Number of Students Passing or simply Passing. To determine the number of students passing the course, your program should compare the value of the final grade to a constant 75. A student is considered as passing when his/her final grade is higher than the value of the constant. Improve the VI so that the standard deviation and variance of the ages in the Classroom array are also computed. You will have to add two new indicators to your Results cluster to show these new values. Add a control to the Classroom cluster so that the user can vary the value of the constant used to determine the grade of the students. Test your program by creating a classroom of at least 10 students. Problem-2 Read the document named “In-Class Activity” posted in Lesson-12 and create a VI to replicate the block diagram shown in Figure-2. The arrows at the edge of the loop are called “Shift Registers” and can be obtained by right clicking on the edge of the loop and selecting “Add Shift Register”. The trigonometric functions can be found in “Express Math” under Arithmetic and Comparison though the block diagram. Provide a simple explanation of how you solve these problems (Problem-1 & 2). Discuss any difficulties encountered. Make sure to include all the VIs and subVIs that you created in your submission packet.

EENG 1920: Project II – Introduction to Electrical Engineering Assignment-10 (Optional) Due date: 11/27/2015 Problem-1 Create a VI called YourName_Problem2. On the front panel create an array of clusters called Classroom. Each cluster should have five elements in it: a string control called Name, two digital controls called Age and Final Grade, and two Booleans: one called Student? and the second called Male/Female?. The program should compute the mean age, the total number of students in the Classroom, the number of males or females, the number of students that are passing the course and display the results in an indicator cluster called Results. This cluster should have five elements in it: Mean Age, Number of Students, Number of Males, Number of Females, and Number of Students Passing or simply Passing. To determine the number of students passing the course, your program should compare the value of the final grade to a constant 75. A student is considered as passing when his/her final grade is higher than the value of the constant. Improve the VI so that the standard deviation and variance of the ages in the Classroom array are also computed. You will have to add two new indicators to your Results cluster to show these new values. Add a control to the Classroom cluster so that the user can vary the value of the constant used to determine the grade of the students. Test your program by creating a classroom of at least 10 students. Problem-2 Read the document named “In-Class Activity” posted in Lesson-12 and create a VI to replicate the block diagram shown in Figure-2. The arrows at the edge of the loop are called “Shift Registers” and can be obtained by right clicking on the edge of the loop and selecting “Add Shift Register”. The trigonometric functions can be found in “Express Math” under Arithmetic and Comparison though the block diagram. Provide a simple explanation of how you solve these problems (Problem-1 & 2). Discuss any difficulties encountered. Make sure to include all the VIs and subVIs that you created in your submission packet.

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1 Lab Assignment Q1) The PIC16F1937 Memory Banks i) The Special Function Registers within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller are held within a number of memory banks. How many memory banks are there within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller? ii) Explain two methods to show how a special function register within a particular memory bank can be selected. Q1) The TRIS Registers The PIC16F61937 microcontroller has five TRIS registers, TRISA, TRISB, TRISC, TRISD, and TRISE situated in bank 1 in the special function register memory map. i) What is the function of the TRIS registers? ii) How can the TRIS registers in bank 1 be accessed? Write a short program to configure PORTA of the microcontroller as inputs and PORTB of the microcontroller as outputs. For the remaining exercises assume that PORTA is connected to switches and PORTB is connected to LEDs in common cathode configuration (i.e. output a 1 to illuminate). Q2) Key Press Accumulator It is required to produce a system incorporating a microcontroller that keeps count (in binary) of the number of times that a key has been pressed. The key is connected to bit RA0 of PORTA and when pressed should increment the binary value displayed on LEDs connected to PORTB. Write a program to meet the above specification, simulate the program to ensure correct operation, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 2 Q3) Software Delays The PIC16F1937 assembly language program listed below is a software time delay incorporating two nested loops. value1 equ 0x20 value2 equ 0x21 org 0x00 delay movlw .65 movwf value1 outer movlw .255 movwf value2 inner decfsz value2 goto inner decfsz value1 goto outer wait goto wait By incorporating breakpoints and using the stopwatch determine the amount of time elapsed in the software delay assuming the microcontroller is operating from a 4 MHz crystal oscillator. Compare the value obtained above with that obtained by calculation. Are the time values equal? Q4) Travelling LED program It is required to produce a system incorporating a PIC16F1937 to produce the following sequence on LEDs (travelling LED). And repeat The LEDs are connected to PORTB and the sequence should only start after the key connected to RA0 has been asserted. Should key RA1 be pressed then all of the LEDs should be switched off. The sequence can be set off again by reasserting key RA0. Incorporate a 100ms delay between changes of state of the sequence. Write a program to carry out the above specification, simulate, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 3 Lab Assignment Checklist Marks allocation: Q1) The PIC16F1937 memory banks Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Q1) TRIS Registers Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Configuration program 4% Q2) Key Press Accumulator Program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% Q3) Software Delays By stopwatch 6% By calculation 6% Q4) Travelling LED program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% TOTAL 100%

1 Lab Assignment Q1) The PIC16F1937 Memory Banks i) The Special Function Registers within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller are held within a number of memory banks. How many memory banks are there within the PIC16F1937 microcontroller? ii) Explain two methods to show how a special function register within a particular memory bank can be selected. Q1) The TRIS Registers The PIC16F61937 microcontroller has five TRIS registers, TRISA, TRISB, TRISC, TRISD, and TRISE situated in bank 1 in the special function register memory map. i) What is the function of the TRIS registers? ii) How can the TRIS registers in bank 1 be accessed? Write a short program to configure PORTA of the microcontroller as inputs and PORTB of the microcontroller as outputs. For the remaining exercises assume that PORTA is connected to switches and PORTB is connected to LEDs in common cathode configuration (i.e. output a 1 to illuminate). Q2) Key Press Accumulator It is required to produce a system incorporating a microcontroller that keeps count (in binary) of the number of times that a key has been pressed. The key is connected to bit RA0 of PORTA and when pressed should increment the binary value displayed on LEDs connected to PORTB. Write a program to meet the above specification, simulate the program to ensure correct operation, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 2 Q3) Software Delays The PIC16F1937 assembly language program listed below is a software time delay incorporating two nested loops. value1 equ 0x20 value2 equ 0x21 org 0x00 delay movlw .65 movwf value1 outer movlw .255 movwf value2 inner decfsz value2 goto inner decfsz value1 goto outer wait goto wait By incorporating breakpoints and using the stopwatch determine the amount of time elapsed in the software delay assuming the microcontroller is operating from a 4 MHz crystal oscillator. Compare the value obtained above with that obtained by calculation. Are the time values equal? Q4) Travelling LED program It is required to produce a system incorporating a PIC16F1937 to produce the following sequence on LEDs (travelling LED). And repeat The LEDs are connected to PORTB and the sequence should only start after the key connected to RA0 has been asserted. Should key RA1 be pressed then all of the LEDs should be switched off. The sequence can be set off again by reasserting key RA0. Incorporate a 100ms delay between changes of state of the sequence. Write a program to carry out the above specification, simulate, program a microcontroller and test. (Marks allocated for correct program demonstration). 3 Lab Assignment Checklist Marks allocation: Q1) The PIC16F1937 memory banks Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Q1) TRIS Registers Qi) 2% Qii) 2% Configuration program 4% Q2) Key Press Accumulator Program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% Q3) Software Delays By stopwatch 6% By calculation 6% Q4) Travelling LED program Flowchart 8% Program 20% Explanation 5% Demonstration 5% TOTAL 100%

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Chapter 04 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Investigating Survivorship Curves Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of robins remains relatively constant throughout their life span. Part B Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____. ANSWER: Correct Young oysters have a very high mortality rate; older oysters have a much lower mortality rate. Thus, most oyster populations consist primarily of older individuals. Part C Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters? ANSWER: grasses oysters elephants robins humans juveniles adults prereproductive oysters larval and juvenile oysters larvae Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Grasses, like oysters, have a relatively high mortality rate early in their life span, after which the mortality rate decreases. Part D Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of elephants, like that of humans, remains relatively low for much of their life span and then dramatically increases for older individuals. BioFlix Quiz: Population Ecology Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. cats robins elephants grasses humans cats oysters grasses robins elephants Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part A An ideal habitat with unlimited resources is associated with Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Populations grow exponentially with unlimited resources. Part B The maximum population a habitat can support is its Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part C Logistic growth involves Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Both exponential growth and logistic growth. Population crashes. Exponential growth. Logistic growth. Neither exponential growth nor logistic growth. Logistic growth. Death rate. Birth rate. Carrying capacity. Exponential growth. A population crash. Population growth continuing forever. Population growth reaching carrying capacity and then speeding up. Population size decreasing to zero. Population growth slowing down as the population approaches carrying capacity. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Part D In exponential growth Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the following would NOT cause population size to decrease? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct An increased birth rate would cause population size to increase. BioFlix Activity: Photosynthesis — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the photosynthesis equation? To review photosynthesis, watch this BioFlix animation: Photosynthesis. Part A – Photosynthesis equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis. ANSWER: Population size grows more and more slowly as the population gets bigger. Population size grows faster and faster as the population gets bigger. Population size stays constant. Population growth slows as the population gets close to its carrying capacity. None of these are correct. Increased death rate A exponentially growing population outgrowing its food supply and crashing Poor weather, resulting in less food being available Increase in the number of predators Increased birth rate Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Energy Flow Can you identify how energy flows through an ecosystem? To review energy flow in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Energy flow through an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how energy flows through an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Chemical Cycling Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem? To review the chemical inputs and outputs of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Chemical cycling in an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the cellular respiration equation? To review cellular respiration, watch this BioFlix animation: Cellular Respiration. Part A – Cellular respiration equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Population Ecology — Types of Population Growth Can you identify the different ways in which populations grow? To review types of population growth, watch this BioFlix animation: Population Ecology. Part A – Types of population growth Drag the correct label under each graph to identify the type of population growth shown. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Doubling Time Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you calculate doubling times and growth rates for exponentially growing populations? Remember that the doubling time (in years) for an exponentially growing population is estimated by dividing 70 by the growth rate of the population (as a percentage): Doubling time (in years) = 70 / annual growth rate (%) Part A Drag the values on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all values will be used. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Population Growth Rates Populations grow larger from births and immigration and grow smaller from deaths and emigration. The growth rate for a population is determined by adding the birth rate and the immigration rate, and then subtracting the death rate and the emigration rate (all rates expressed as the number per 1,000 individuals per year): (birth rate + immigration rate) (death rate + emigration rate) = growth rate Positive population growth rates lead to population increases, and negative population growth rates lead to population declines. Part A Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 14 per 1,000/year Death rate = 6 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 5 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 1 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part B Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: 4 per 1,000/year 12 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 26 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Birth rate = 11 per 1,000/year Death rate = 10 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 4 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part C Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 10 per 1,000/year Death rate = 12 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 2 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Concept Review: Levels of Ecological Organization Can you identify the example that corresponds to each level of ecological organization? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets in the table. ANSWER: 0 per 1,000/year 2 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 28 per 1,000/year 3 per 1,000/year 1 per 1,000/year 17 per 1,000/year 27 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Mechanisms of Evolution — Natural Selection: Pesticides Can you identify the process by which natural selection acts on an insect population exposed to pesticides? To review the process of natural selection, watch this BioFlix animation: Mechanisms of Evolution: Natural Selection. Part A – Natural selection: Pesticides Drag the labels onto the flowchart to place them in the correct sequence. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ABC News Video: Protecting the Galapagos Islands Watch the ABC News video (2:07 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A Where are the Galapagos Islands located? ANSWER: Part B Which of the following sets of animals are likely to be found on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: near the tip of South Africa northeast of Australia along the Great Barrier Reef 600 miles west of Ecuador, near the equator in the Mediterranean Sea, as part of the Greek Islands frogs, lungfish, mountain goats tortoises, finches, blue-footed boobies ostriches, cougars, porcupines beaver, snakes, armadillos Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part C Which species is threatening the natural wildlife on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: Part D The Galapagos Islands were the first place on Earth to _____. ANSWER: Part E Tourism on the Galapagos Islands is being restricted by requiring tourists to _____. ANSWER: Current Events: A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (New York Times, 2/28/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (2/28/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part B What predator currently feeds on deer in Rock Creek Park? humans zebra mussels Asian carp mountain lions suffer the complete extinction of all native species be declared off-limits to all humans be declared a world heritage site be invaded by human-introduced species visit each island in groups of only ten individuals at a time view the islands only from the water be escorted by trained guides at all times stay at least 100 feet away from all animals on the islands Deer have always been a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not native to Rock Creek Park, and have been a problem since they were introduced in 1952. Deer were once absent from Rock Creek Park, and have only become a problem in the last 20 years. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ANSWER: Part C Why isn’t the deer population controlled by hunting in Rock Creek Park? ANSWER: Part D It is hoped that the deer herd can be reduced by how much? ANSWER: Part E Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Because the park is changing in response to the increasing deer population, this is an example of ______________. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 21.2%. You received 9.1 out of a possible total of 43 points. There are no predators of deer in Rock Creek Park. mountain lion coyote wolf Hunting has been attempted in the park, but the trees are too thick. Hunting is prohibited in the park. There is no public interest in hunting in the park. Deer are a protected species. one-quarter one-half three-quarters the entire herd Animals cannot be killed on federally managed public lands. Only Congress can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. The federal agency in charge of management of the land in question decides if animals should be killed. Only the National Park Service can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. succession artificial selection recession progression Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM

Chapter 04 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Investigating Survivorship Curves Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of robins remains relatively constant throughout their life span. Part B Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____. ANSWER: Correct Young oysters have a very high mortality rate; older oysters have a much lower mortality rate. Thus, most oyster populations consist primarily of older individuals. Part C Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters? ANSWER: grasses oysters elephants robins humans juveniles adults prereproductive oysters larval and juvenile oysters larvae Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Grasses, like oysters, have a relatively high mortality rate early in their life span, after which the mortality rate decreases. Part D Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of elephants, like that of humans, remains relatively low for much of their life span and then dramatically increases for older individuals. BioFlix Quiz: Population Ecology Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. cats robins elephants grasses humans cats oysters grasses robins elephants Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part A An ideal habitat with unlimited resources is associated with Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Populations grow exponentially with unlimited resources. Part B The maximum population a habitat can support is its Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part C Logistic growth involves Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Both exponential growth and logistic growth. Population crashes. Exponential growth. Logistic growth. Neither exponential growth nor logistic growth. Logistic growth. Death rate. Birth rate. Carrying capacity. Exponential growth. A population crash. Population growth continuing forever. Population growth reaching carrying capacity and then speeding up. Population size decreasing to zero. Population growth slowing down as the population approaches carrying capacity. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Part D In exponential growth Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the following would NOT cause population size to decrease? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct An increased birth rate would cause population size to increase. BioFlix Activity: Photosynthesis — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the photosynthesis equation? To review photosynthesis, watch this BioFlix animation: Photosynthesis. Part A – Photosynthesis equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis. ANSWER: Population size grows more and more slowly as the population gets bigger. Population size grows faster and faster as the population gets bigger. Population size stays constant. Population growth slows as the population gets close to its carrying capacity. None of these are correct. Increased death rate A exponentially growing population outgrowing its food supply and crashing Poor weather, resulting in less food being available Increase in the number of predators Increased birth rate Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Energy Flow Can you identify how energy flows through an ecosystem? To review energy flow in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Energy flow through an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how energy flows through an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Chemical Cycling Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem? To review the chemical inputs and outputs of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Chemical cycling in an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the cellular respiration equation? To review cellular respiration, watch this BioFlix animation: Cellular Respiration. Part A – Cellular respiration equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Population Ecology — Types of Population Growth Can you identify the different ways in which populations grow? To review types of population growth, watch this BioFlix animation: Population Ecology. Part A – Types of population growth Drag the correct label under each graph to identify the type of population growth shown. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Doubling Time Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you calculate doubling times and growth rates for exponentially growing populations? Remember that the doubling time (in years) for an exponentially growing population is estimated by dividing 70 by the growth rate of the population (as a percentage): Doubling time (in years) = 70 / annual growth rate (%) Part A Drag the values on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all values will be used. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Population Growth Rates Populations grow larger from births and immigration and grow smaller from deaths and emigration. The growth rate for a population is determined by adding the birth rate and the immigration rate, and then subtracting the death rate and the emigration rate (all rates expressed as the number per 1,000 individuals per year): (birth rate + immigration rate) (death rate + emigration rate) = growth rate Positive population growth rates lead to population increases, and negative population growth rates lead to population declines. Part A Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 14 per 1,000/year Death rate = 6 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 5 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 1 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part B Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: 4 per 1,000/year 12 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 26 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Birth rate = 11 per 1,000/year Death rate = 10 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 4 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part C Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 10 per 1,000/year Death rate = 12 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 2 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Concept Review: Levels of Ecological Organization Can you identify the example that corresponds to each level of ecological organization? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets in the table. ANSWER: 0 per 1,000/year 2 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 28 per 1,000/year 3 per 1,000/year 1 per 1,000/year 17 per 1,000/year 27 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Mechanisms of Evolution — Natural Selection: Pesticides Can you identify the process by which natural selection acts on an insect population exposed to pesticides? To review the process of natural selection, watch this BioFlix animation: Mechanisms of Evolution: Natural Selection. Part A – Natural selection: Pesticides Drag the labels onto the flowchart to place them in the correct sequence. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ABC News Video: Protecting the Galapagos Islands Watch the ABC News video (2:07 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A Where are the Galapagos Islands located? ANSWER: Part B Which of the following sets of animals are likely to be found on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: near the tip of South Africa northeast of Australia along the Great Barrier Reef 600 miles west of Ecuador, near the equator in the Mediterranean Sea, as part of the Greek Islands frogs, lungfish, mountain goats tortoises, finches, blue-footed boobies ostriches, cougars, porcupines beaver, snakes, armadillos Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part C Which species is threatening the natural wildlife on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: Part D The Galapagos Islands were the first place on Earth to _____. ANSWER: Part E Tourism on the Galapagos Islands is being restricted by requiring tourists to _____. ANSWER: Current Events: A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (New York Times, 2/28/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (2/28/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part B What predator currently feeds on deer in Rock Creek Park? humans zebra mussels Asian carp mountain lions suffer the complete extinction of all native species be declared off-limits to all humans be declared a world heritage site be invaded by human-introduced species visit each island in groups of only ten individuals at a time view the islands only from the water be escorted by trained guides at all times stay at least 100 feet away from all animals on the islands Deer have always been a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not native to Rock Creek Park, and have been a problem since they were introduced in 1952. Deer were once absent from Rock Creek Park, and have only become a problem in the last 20 years. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ANSWER: Part C Why isn’t the deer population controlled by hunting in Rock Creek Park? ANSWER: Part D It is hoped that the deer herd can be reduced by how much? ANSWER: Part E Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Because the park is changing in response to the increasing deer population, this is an example of ______________. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 21.2%. You received 9.1 out of a possible total of 43 points. There are no predators of deer in Rock Creek Park. mountain lion coyote wolf Hunting has been attempted in the park, but the trees are too thick. Hunting is prohibited in the park. There is no public interest in hunting in the park. Deer are a protected species. one-quarter one-half three-quarters the entire herd Animals cannot be killed on federally managed public lands. Only Congress can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. The federal agency in charge of management of the land in question decides if animals should be killed. Only the National Park Service can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. succession artificial selection recession progression Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM

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Chapter 05 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Human Population Growth Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of agriculture is the first of the events listed here that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part B Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The Industrial Revolution was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part C Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of modern medicine is the third and most recent of the events listed here that have stimulated an increase in the population size of humans. the Industrial Revolution the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the discovery of vaccines the discovery of antibiotics the advent of agriculture the Industrial Revolution the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics the Industrial Revolution Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth’s carrying capacity for humans? ANSWER: Correct Not knowing how technological innovations will affect the human population means there is insufficient information to answer this question. Activity: Analyzing Age-Structure Pyramids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct This would mean that most individuals are in the prereproductive years. Such a population is expected to increase. Part B Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct In such a population the majority of individuals are in their postreproductive years. Such a population is expected to decrease. Part C Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape? There is insufficient information to answer this question. either at or above the carrying capacity below the carrying capacity above the carrying capacity at the carrying capacity Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid pyramid Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM ANSWER: Correct Such a population is expected to have a relatively stable size. GraphIt!: Age Pyramids and Population Growth Click here to complete the graphing activity. Then answer the questions. Part A – Question 1 The population of Greece is expected to _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: Correct Part B – Question 2 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part C – Question 3 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. inverted pyramid a rectangle tapering toward the top expand remain stable decline True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part D – Question 4 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part E – Question 5 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Part F – Question 6 Greece had more females than males in 2000. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this? Hint 1. Which sex tends to live longer in the United States, males or females? ANSWER: Correct Part G – Question 7 The population of Colombia is currently _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: True False True False True False Females generally have a shorter life span than males. More females are born than males, and this difference remains throughout all age groups. There should be an equal number of males and females in every age group, so this is likely an error in the 2000 census for Greece. Males generally have a shorter life span than females. expanding stable declining Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Correct Part H – Question 8 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part I – Question 9 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part J – Question 10 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part K – Question 11 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Demographic Transition Model Can you identify what happens in each stage of the demographic transition model? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: True False True False True False True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Answer Requested Concept Review: Demographic Characteristics of Developed and Developing Nations For each demographic characteristic described in the table below, decide whether it applies to developed nations, developing nations, or neither group. Part A Drag the correct labels onto the table. Labels may be used once, more than once, or not at all. ANSWER: Concept Review: Age Structure Diagrams Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Can you label age structure diagrams? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. Pink labels indicate what each age class represents. Blue labels indicate how the population is expected to change over time. ANSWER: Correct Current Events: Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (New York Times, 4/14/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (4/14/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com /content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A The current human population is just over _______ billion people. ANSWER: Correct Part B How are the governments of sub-Saharan Africa reacting to a rapidly increasing population? ANSWER: Part C Which of the following tends to be true? ANSWER: 6 7 8 9 They are beginning to encourage people to have fewer children. They are doing nothing. They are waiting to hear the recommendations from the United Nations. They are still encouraging people to have many children. Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D You are in the Nigerian government and are working on trying to solve the problem of a rapidly increasing population. You decide to incorporate the Latin American model as part of your plan. Which of the following do you recommend? ANSWER: Part E If nearly every adult in a society is married and polygamy is common, which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Even if global total fertility rate drops to 2.1, estimates indicate that the human population will reach ________ by 2100. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 57.9%. You received 15.06 out of a possible total of 26 points. The relationship between changing population and unemployment rates is too variable to quantify. An increase in population leads to an increase in unemployment. Population growth and unemployment are not correlated. An increase in population leads to a decrease in unemployment. There will be tax breaks for families with fewer children. Girls will be required to finish high school. The government will impose a limit of only one child. The government will provide free family planning. There are more adult women than adult men. There are equal numbers of adult men and adult women. There are more adult men than adult women. The ratio of adult men to adult women would depend on the total fertility rate. 10 billion 12 billion 14 billion 16 billion Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

Chapter 05 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Human Population Growth Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of agriculture is the first of the events listed here that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part B Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The Industrial Revolution was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part C Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of modern medicine is the third and most recent of the events listed here that have stimulated an increase in the population size of humans. the Industrial Revolution the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the discovery of vaccines the discovery of antibiotics the advent of agriculture the Industrial Revolution the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics the Industrial Revolution Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth’s carrying capacity for humans? ANSWER: Correct Not knowing how technological innovations will affect the human population means there is insufficient information to answer this question. Activity: Analyzing Age-Structure Pyramids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct This would mean that most individuals are in the prereproductive years. Such a population is expected to increase. Part B Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct In such a population the majority of individuals are in their postreproductive years. Such a population is expected to decrease. Part C Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape? There is insufficient information to answer this question. either at or above the carrying capacity below the carrying capacity above the carrying capacity at the carrying capacity Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid pyramid Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM ANSWER: Correct Such a population is expected to have a relatively stable size. GraphIt!: Age Pyramids and Population Growth Click here to complete the graphing activity. Then answer the questions. Part A – Question 1 The population of Greece is expected to _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: Correct Part B – Question 2 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part C – Question 3 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. inverted pyramid a rectangle tapering toward the top expand remain stable decline True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part D – Question 4 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part E – Question 5 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Part F – Question 6 Greece had more females than males in 2000. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this? Hint 1. Which sex tends to live longer in the United States, males or females? ANSWER: Correct Part G – Question 7 The population of Colombia is currently _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: True False True False True False Females generally have a shorter life span than males. More females are born than males, and this difference remains throughout all age groups. There should be an equal number of males and females in every age group, so this is likely an error in the 2000 census for Greece. Males generally have a shorter life span than females. expanding stable declining Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Correct Part H – Question 8 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part I – Question 9 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part J – Question 10 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part K – Question 11 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Demographic Transition Model Can you identify what happens in each stage of the demographic transition model? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: True False True False True False True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Answer Requested Concept Review: Demographic Characteristics of Developed and Developing Nations For each demographic characteristic described in the table below, decide whether it applies to developed nations, developing nations, or neither group. Part A Drag the correct labels onto the table. Labels may be used once, more than once, or not at all. ANSWER: Concept Review: Age Structure Diagrams Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Can you label age structure diagrams? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. Pink labels indicate what each age class represents. Blue labels indicate how the population is expected to change over time. ANSWER: Correct Current Events: Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (New York Times, 4/14/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (4/14/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com /content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A The current human population is just over _______ billion people. ANSWER: Correct Part B How are the governments of sub-Saharan Africa reacting to a rapidly increasing population? ANSWER: Part C Which of the following tends to be true? ANSWER: 6 7 8 9 They are beginning to encourage people to have fewer children. They are doing nothing. They are waiting to hear the recommendations from the United Nations. They are still encouraging people to have many children. Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D You are in the Nigerian government and are working on trying to solve the problem of a rapidly increasing population. You decide to incorporate the Latin American model as part of your plan. Which of the following do you recommend? ANSWER: Part E If nearly every adult in a society is married and polygamy is common, which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Even if global total fertility rate drops to 2.1, estimates indicate that the human population will reach ________ by 2100. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 57.9%. You received 15.06 out of a possible total of 26 points. The relationship between changing population and unemployment rates is too variable to quantify. An increase in population leads to an increase in unemployment. Population growth and unemployment are not correlated. An increase in population leads to a decrease in unemployment. There will be tax breaks for families with fewer children. Girls will be required to finish high school. The government will impose a limit of only one child. The government will provide free family planning. There are more adult women than adult men. There are equal numbers of adult men and adult women. There are more adult men than adult women. The ratio of adult men to adult women would depend on the total fertility rate. 10 billion 12 billion 14 billion 16 billion Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

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Chapter 06 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Concept Review: Species Interactions Can you identify the type of species interaction that each label describes? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Activity: Food Webs Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct Autotrophs, such as phytoplankton, are producers. Part B An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The earthworm is feeding on the remains of dead organisms. Part C When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a primary consumer, the human is acting as a secondary consumer. Part D A cow eating grass is an example of a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a producer, the cow is acting as a primary consumer. Part E primary consumers tertiary consumers detritivores producers secondary consumers tertiary consumer secondary consumer producer detritivore primary consumer primary consumer detritivore secondary consumer producer tertiary consumer detritivore producer tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The shark that ate the seal that ate the clam that ate the algae is the tertiary consumer. Activity: Pyramids of Production Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A _____ are secondary consumers. ANSWER: Correct Secondary consumers are animals that eat other animals; thus, they are carnivores. Part B Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. ANSWER: Correct Approximately 5–10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. producer primary consumer tertiary consumer secondary consumer detritivore Producers Herbivores Plants Cows Carnivores 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 90–100 Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part C 10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer. ANSWER: Correct This is the number of kcal of tertiary consumer that could be supported. Activity: Primary Succession Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the question. Part A Which of these is a starting point for primary succession? ANSWER: Correct Such a surface lacks any life and is thus a starting point for primary succession. Part B The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be: ANSWER: 1,000 100 10 1 0 a surface exposed by a retreating glacier abandoned farmland an abandoned city a neglected yard none of these is a starting point for primary succession small shrubs trees lichens and mosses herbs Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses. Part C Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession? ANSWER: Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses, then by deciduous trees with wind-borne seeds. Concept Review: Secondary Succession Can you order the steps of secondary succession? Part A Order the labels in the flowchart to complete the model of secondary succession as observed in a deciduous forest of eastern North America. ANSWER: Current Events: In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (New York Times, 8/23/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (8/23/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following would be the best discovery regarding the Judas fish? ANSWER: plants are able to fix their own nitrogen plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area plants have wind-dispersed seeds plants are shade-tolerant Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part B Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part C Why is protecting cutthroat trout in Yellowstone so important? ANSWER: Part D Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part E Why don’t bears in Yellowstone eat lake trout? ANSWER: Part F How did rainbow trout become established worldwide? ANSWER: Learning where lake trout feed. Learning where lake trout hibernate. Learning where lake trout spawn. Learning where lake trout migrate to during fall. Officials are working only in certain areas to eliminate lake trout. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout Wyoming. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout the Great Lakes. All states in the U.S. are working to eliminate lake trout. Because many other species depend on cutthroat trout. Because local people depend on cutthroat trout for food. Because Yellowstone is the only place cutthroat trout are found. Because cutthroat trout are listed as a threatened species. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as rainbow trout are to Yellowstone Lake. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as Asian carp are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to Yellowstone Lake as see lamprey are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to the Great Lakes as Asian carp are to the Yellowstone Lake. They don’t like the taste. They cannot find them. Lake trout skin is too tough. Lake trout are too small for bears to be interested. Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Current Events: In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (New York Times, 4/25/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (4/25/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection? ANSWER: Part B Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following? ANSWER: Part C Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes? ANSWER: Part D Pla som is a unique dish because it is what? ANSWER: Part E Due to warming oceans caused by climate change. Natural process of migration. Accidental introduction via ships. Purposeful stocking. Consume ethyl alcohol while eating fish. Add more garlic. Cook it thoroughly. Pick the flukes out by hand. urine saliva feces blood rats mosquitoes frogs snails pickled frozen fermented blanched Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer? ANSWER: Part F You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them? ANSWER: ABC News Video: The Cuttlefish Watch the ABC News video (2:20 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are related to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part B Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s survival by enabling it to _______. 1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% The northwestern part of the country. The southeastern part of the country. The southwestern part of the country. The northeastern part of the country. camouflage elimination of waste reproductive strategies feeding behavior Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Correct Part C Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______. ANSWER: Correct Part D In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part E Which question was raised but not answered in the video? ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 48.5%. You received 16 out of a possible total of 33 points. sneak up on prey mimic poisonous species hide from predators warn potential predators that it is poisonous universal camouflage disruptive camouflage warning coloration camouflage tide-pool camouflage move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes turn completely white and hide in the white stripe turn completely black and hide in the black stripe exhibit the exact striping pattern of its surroundings Why does the cuttlefish change its skin pattern? What happens when a cuttlefish is placed in an unnatural environment? Is the cuttlefish able to grow a protective shell? How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind? Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

Chapter 06 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Concept Review: Species Interactions Can you identify the type of species interaction that each label describes? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Activity: Food Webs Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct Autotrophs, such as phytoplankton, are producers. Part B An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The earthworm is feeding on the remains of dead organisms. Part C When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a primary consumer, the human is acting as a secondary consumer. Part D A cow eating grass is an example of a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a producer, the cow is acting as a primary consumer. Part E primary consumers tertiary consumers detritivores producers secondary consumers tertiary consumer secondary consumer producer detritivore primary consumer primary consumer detritivore secondary consumer producer tertiary consumer detritivore producer tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The shark that ate the seal that ate the clam that ate the algae is the tertiary consumer. Activity: Pyramids of Production Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A _____ are secondary consumers. ANSWER: Correct Secondary consumers are animals that eat other animals; thus, they are carnivores. Part B Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. ANSWER: Correct Approximately 5–10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. producer primary consumer tertiary consumer secondary consumer detritivore Producers Herbivores Plants Cows Carnivores 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 90–100 Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part C 10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer. ANSWER: Correct This is the number of kcal of tertiary consumer that could be supported. Activity: Primary Succession Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the question. Part A Which of these is a starting point for primary succession? ANSWER: Correct Such a surface lacks any life and is thus a starting point for primary succession. Part B The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be: ANSWER: 1,000 100 10 1 0 a surface exposed by a retreating glacier abandoned farmland an abandoned city a neglected yard none of these is a starting point for primary succession small shrubs trees lichens and mosses herbs Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses. Part C Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession? ANSWER: Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses, then by deciduous trees with wind-borne seeds. Concept Review: Secondary Succession Can you order the steps of secondary succession? Part A Order the labels in the flowchart to complete the model of secondary succession as observed in a deciduous forest of eastern North America. ANSWER: Current Events: In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (New York Times, 8/23/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (8/23/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following would be the best discovery regarding the Judas fish? ANSWER: plants are able to fix their own nitrogen plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area plants have wind-dispersed seeds plants are shade-tolerant Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part B Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part C Why is protecting cutthroat trout in Yellowstone so important? ANSWER: Part D Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part E Why don’t bears in Yellowstone eat lake trout? ANSWER: Part F How did rainbow trout become established worldwide? ANSWER: Learning where lake trout feed. Learning where lake trout hibernate. Learning where lake trout spawn. Learning where lake trout migrate to during fall. Officials are working only in certain areas to eliminate lake trout. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout Wyoming. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout the Great Lakes. All states in the U.S. are working to eliminate lake trout. Because many other species depend on cutthroat trout. Because local people depend on cutthroat trout for food. Because Yellowstone is the only place cutthroat trout are found. Because cutthroat trout are listed as a threatened species. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as rainbow trout are to Yellowstone Lake. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as Asian carp are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to Yellowstone Lake as see lamprey are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to the Great Lakes as Asian carp are to the Yellowstone Lake. They don’t like the taste. They cannot find them. Lake trout skin is too tough. Lake trout are too small for bears to be interested. Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Current Events: In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (New York Times, 4/25/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (4/25/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection? ANSWER: Part B Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following? ANSWER: Part C Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes? ANSWER: Part D Pla som is a unique dish because it is what? ANSWER: Part E Due to warming oceans caused by climate change. Natural process of migration. Accidental introduction via ships. Purposeful stocking. Consume ethyl alcohol while eating fish. Add more garlic. Cook it thoroughly. Pick the flukes out by hand. urine saliva feces blood rats mosquitoes frogs snails pickled frozen fermented blanched Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer? ANSWER: Part F You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them? ANSWER: ABC News Video: The Cuttlefish Watch the ABC News video (2:20 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are related to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part B Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s survival by enabling it to _______. 1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% The northwestern part of the country. The southeastern part of the country. The southwestern part of the country. The northeastern part of the country. camouflage elimination of waste reproductive strategies feeding behavior Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Correct Part C Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______. ANSWER: Correct Part D In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part E Which question was raised but not answered in the video? ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 48.5%. You received 16 out of a possible total of 33 points. sneak up on prey mimic poisonous species hide from predators warn potential predators that it is poisonous universal camouflage disruptive camouflage warning coloration camouflage tide-pool camouflage move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes turn completely white and hide in the white stripe turn completely black and hide in the black stripe exhibit the exact striping pattern of its surroundings Why does the cuttlefish change its skin pattern? What happens when a cuttlefish is placed in an unnatural environment? Is the cuttlefish able to grow a protective shell? How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind? Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

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11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices

11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices

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1 BACKGROUND The new generation of enhanced mid core PICs such as the 16F1847 and the 12F1840 have an inbuilt temperature sensor. This sensor consists of a current source which flows through four diodes in series and the voltage drop across the diodes which is proportional to temperature can be measured by internally connecting the sensor to the ADC and determining the temperature based on the ADC value In this assignment the temperature sensor is used to create a simple thermometer application and to create an alarm should the sensor go outside the set value. Assignment Details 1) Determine the register settings needed to switch the sensor on and connect the temperature sensor to the ADC. Using appropriate values for Vref+ and Vref- display the ADC count value on the 7 segment display. 2) With reference to Microchip Application Note AN1333, “Use and Calibration of the Internal Temperature Indicator” (DS01333) determine an appropriate algorithm to convert from the ADC value to the temperature in degrees centigrade and implement it using a lookup table or otherwise. Display this value on the 7 segment display. Additional marks will be given for accuracy, calibration and averaging the temperature readings to give a more accurate, and a more stable temperature reading. . 2 In order to meet the specification the following will be required. i) Selection of appropriate microcontroller to meet the requirement of the task. ii) Development of an assembly language program to control the operation of the embedded system. iii) Thorough testing to ensure correct operation of the system. iv) Produce a project report to evidence all of the above. Follow Report Requirements (20 pages max) 1) Introduction – Clearly state the scope and aims and objectives of the project: Include Aims and Objectives, i.e. break down the project into smaller attainable aims and objectives for example one objective could be to develop a program to control the LED display. If all objectives are met then the overall project should have been completed. 2) Theory – Include any relevant theory 3) Procedure, Results Discussion – The report should show a methodical, systematic design approach. The microcontroller kits in the laboratory can be used as the hardware platform, however circuit diagrams should be included in the report and explanations of operation is expected. 4) Include flowcharts and detailed explanations of software development. Include appropriate simulation screen shots. Show and discuss results e.g. ADC program, LED program, etc. Include final/complete program. Were results as expected, do they compare favourably with simulated results, what could be done to improve the operation and accuracy of the system? 5) Conclusion – Reflect back on the original aims and objectives. Were they met if not why not? What further work could be carried out to meet aims and objectives etc? 3 Marks ALLOCATION Marks are allocated for the given activities as follows: MARK (%) PROJECT WORK 60 PROJECT REPORT 30 PRESENTATION MARK 10 ______ Total 100 The marks awarded for the microcontrollers in embedded system module will be made up as follows:- PROJECT MARK Have all of the specifications been met? Correct Register settings to switch on sensor and connect temperature sensor to ADC 5% Display two different characters on the 7 segment display 5% Display the ADC count value on the 7 segment display 10% Display the temperature on the seven segment display 20% Calibration 10% Accuraccy 10% Total 60% REPORT MARK Introduction and Theory 5% Procedure, Results and Discussion 20% Report Presentation 5% Total 30% PRESENTATION (POWER POINT) & DEMO Demonstration 10% Total 10% TOTAL 100% 4 Schematic for the Assignment Seven Segment Display Code ;************************************************ ;Appropriate values to illuminate a seven segment display ;with numbers 0 – 9 are extracted from a look up table ;and output on PORTB. ;A software delay is incorporated between displaying ;successive values so that they can be observed. ;(This program is useful demonstrating software delays, ; and look up tables. ; ;************************************************ ; list p=16F1937A #include <p=16f1937.inc> ; ; ****** PROGRAM EQUATES ****** ; temp equ 0x20 value equ 0x21 outer equ 0x22 RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 RB6 RB7 a b c d e f g dp RA1 RA0 +5V 16F84 VDD Vss 220Ω x 8 CA2 CA1 100K x 2 5K6 5K6 +5V +5V a b c d e f g a b c d e f g middle equ 0x23 inner equ 0x24 w equ 0 f equ 1 ; ; ; ****** MAIN PROGRAM ****** ; org 0x00 banksel PORTB clrf PORTB banksel ANSELB clrf ANSELB clrf ANSELA banksel TRISB movlw 0x00 ;Set port b all outputs movwf TRISB movlw 0x00 ;Set port a all inputs movwf TRISA banksel PORTB ; movlw 0x00 movwf PORTB ;turn off display ; ; ; **** DISPLAY COUNT SEQUENCE *** ; display movlw 0x00 ;Use value as a counter ie movwf value ;value is incremented every begin movf value,w ;time a value is extracted from table bsf PORTA,0 ;turn on LSB display call get ;call subroutine to get value movwf PORTB ;output value to portb call wait ;call delay subroutine incf value ;increment counter btfsc value,3 ;test to see if counter = %1010 btfss value,1 ;if not get next value, if yes goto begin ; goto display ;go to display again ; ; **** LOOK UP TABLE FOR VALUES **** ; get brw ;look up table to illuminate retlw 0xc0 ;the numbers 0 – 9 on seven segment retlw 0xf9 ;display (outputs from port are retlw 0xa4 ;active low retlw 0xb0 retlw 0x99 retlw 0x92 retlw 0x82 retlw 0xf8 retlw 0x80 retlw 0x90 ; ; **** TIME DELAY ROUTINE **** ; ( THREE NESTED LOOPS ) ; wait ;delay subroutine movlw 0x02 ;-outer loop movwf outer ; wait3 movlw 0 xff ; -middle loop movwf middle wait2 movlw 0xff ;-inner loop movwf inner wait1 decfsz inner,f goto wait1 ;-inner loop decfsz middle,f goto wait2 ;-middle loop decfsz outer,f goto wait3 ;-outer loop return end

1 BACKGROUND The new generation of enhanced mid core PICs such as the 16F1847 and the 12F1840 have an inbuilt temperature sensor. This sensor consists of a current source which flows through four diodes in series and the voltage drop across the diodes which is proportional to temperature can be measured by internally connecting the sensor to the ADC and determining the temperature based on the ADC value In this assignment the temperature sensor is used to create a simple thermometer application and to create an alarm should the sensor go outside the set value. Assignment Details 1) Determine the register settings needed to switch the sensor on and connect the temperature sensor to the ADC. Using appropriate values for Vref+ and Vref- display the ADC count value on the 7 segment display. 2) With reference to Microchip Application Note AN1333, “Use and Calibration of the Internal Temperature Indicator” (DS01333) determine an appropriate algorithm to convert from the ADC value to the temperature in degrees centigrade and implement it using a lookup table or otherwise. Display this value on the 7 segment display. Additional marks will be given for accuracy, calibration and averaging the temperature readings to give a more accurate, and a more stable temperature reading. . 2 In order to meet the specification the following will be required. i) Selection of appropriate microcontroller to meet the requirement of the task. ii) Development of an assembly language program to control the operation of the embedded system. iii) Thorough testing to ensure correct operation of the system. iv) Produce a project report to evidence all of the above. Follow Report Requirements (20 pages max) 1) Introduction – Clearly state the scope and aims and objectives of the project: Include Aims and Objectives, i.e. break down the project into smaller attainable aims and objectives for example one objective could be to develop a program to control the LED display. If all objectives are met then the overall project should have been completed. 2) Theory – Include any relevant theory 3) Procedure, Results Discussion – The report should show a methodical, systematic design approach. The microcontroller kits in the laboratory can be used as the hardware platform, however circuit diagrams should be included in the report and explanations of operation is expected. 4) Include flowcharts and detailed explanations of software development. Include appropriate simulation screen shots. Show and discuss results e.g. ADC program, LED program, etc. Include final/complete program. Were results as expected, do they compare favourably with simulated results, what could be done to improve the operation and accuracy of the system? 5) Conclusion – Reflect back on the original aims and objectives. Were they met if not why not? What further work could be carried out to meet aims and objectives etc? 3 Marks ALLOCATION Marks are allocated for the given activities as follows: MARK (%) PROJECT WORK 60 PROJECT REPORT 30 PRESENTATION MARK 10 ______ Total 100 The marks awarded for the microcontrollers in embedded system module will be made up as follows:- PROJECT MARK Have all of the specifications been met? Correct Register settings to switch on sensor and connect temperature sensor to ADC 5% Display two different characters on the 7 segment display 5% Display the ADC count value on the 7 segment display 10% Display the temperature on the seven segment display 20% Calibration 10% Accuraccy 10% Total 60% REPORT MARK Introduction and Theory 5% Procedure, Results and Discussion 20% Report Presentation 5% Total 30% PRESENTATION (POWER POINT) & DEMO Demonstration 10% Total 10% TOTAL 100% 4 Schematic for the Assignment Seven Segment Display Code ;************************************************ ;Appropriate values to illuminate a seven segment display ;with numbers 0 – 9 are extracted from a look up table ;and output on PORTB. ;A software delay is incorporated between displaying ;successive values so that they can be observed. ;(This program is useful demonstrating software delays, ; and look up tables. ; ;************************************************ ; list p=16F1937A #include ; ; ****** PROGRAM EQUATES ****** ; temp equ 0x20 value equ 0x21 outer equ 0x22 RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 RB6 RB7 a b c d e f g dp RA1 RA0 +5V 16F84 VDD Vss 220Ω x 8 CA2 CA1 100K x 2 5K6 5K6 +5V +5V a b c d e f g a b c d e f g middle equ 0x23 inner equ 0x24 w equ 0 f equ 1 ; ; ; ****** MAIN PROGRAM ****** ; org 0x00 banksel PORTB clrf PORTB banksel ANSELB clrf ANSELB clrf ANSELA banksel TRISB movlw 0x00 ;Set port b all outputs movwf TRISB movlw 0x00 ;Set port a all inputs movwf TRISA banksel PORTB ; movlw 0x00 movwf PORTB ;turn off display ; ; ; **** DISPLAY COUNT SEQUENCE *** ; display movlw 0x00 ;Use value as a counter ie movwf value ;value is incremented every begin movf value,w ;time a value is extracted from table bsf PORTA,0 ;turn on LSB display call get ;call subroutine to get value movwf PORTB ;output value to portb call wait ;call delay subroutine incf value ;increment counter btfsc value,3 ;test to see if counter = %1010 btfss value,1 ;if not get next value, if yes goto begin ; goto display ;go to display again ; ; **** LOOK UP TABLE FOR VALUES **** ; get brw ;look up table to illuminate retlw 0xc0 ;the numbers 0 – 9 on seven segment retlw 0xf9 ;display (outputs from port are retlw 0xa4 ;active low retlw 0xb0 retlw 0x99 retlw 0x92 retlw 0x82 retlw 0xf8 retlw 0x80 retlw 0x90 ; ; **** TIME DELAY ROUTINE **** ; ( THREE NESTED LOOPS ) ; wait ;delay subroutine movlw 0x02 ;-outer loop movwf outer ; wait3 movlw 0 xff ; -middle loop movwf middle wait2 movlw 0xff ;-inner loop movwf inner wait1 decfsz inner,f goto wait1 ;-inner loop decfsz middle,f goto wait2 ;-middle loop decfsz outer,f goto wait3 ;-outer loop return end

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