Chapter 07 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A A lake is currently at high pool, with the same amount of water flowing into the lake as is flowing over the spillway. Which of the following temporary changes would increase the resident time of water in this lake? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A A large reservoir behind a dam is rapidly rising, as rain and melting snow add more water than is being released out of the dam’s spillway. In this situation, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A Which one of the following statements is correct? ANSWER: Double the rate of water flow into the lake and double the rate of water flow out of the lake, while keeping the lake at the same level. Keep the inflow into the lake the same, but release twice as much water from the lake, resulting in a lowering of the lake level. Decrease the inflow into the lake by half, and decrease the outflow of the lake by half. None of the choices would increase the resident time in the lake. the net flux is positive and the capital of water within the reservoir is decreasing the net flux is positive and the capital of water within the reservoir is increasing the net flux is negative and the capital of water within the reservoir is increasing the net flux is negative and the capital of water within the reservoir is decreasing Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A A raging river cascades down a granite mountain and eventually reaches the ocean. At the mouth of the river is a beautiful sandy beach composed of fine grains of granite particles from the river. The entire process of producing this sand is a result of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A The physical and chemical properties of soils are primarily determined by _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Several inches of rain fall over a field of tall corn, soaking into the soil and draining into ditches. Within an hour, there is no standing water and the humidity over the field rises quickly. At a nearby shopping mall, the rainwater fell onto blacktop and drained to sewer pipes, which carried the water directly into a stream. Which of the following occurred in The cycling time of an element or molecule in an ecosystem is equal to the sum of all the flux times. The cycling time is how long it takes an element or molecule to pass through a biogeochemical cycle. The cycling time of water moving through an ecosystem is typically shorter than the resident time in any pool in this system. The amount of time that water spends in an ocean is the cycling time. mineral evaporation erosion, weathering, transport, and then deposition erosion, dissolution, and precipitation organisms consuming and eroding granite the properties of rock from which the soils develop the amount of precipitation that the soil experiences the range of temperatures that the soil experiences the types of animals that live and move through the soils Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM the cornfield but not in the parking lot? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A Most of the water on Earth is found in _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A Which one of the following primarily results from the effects of solar energy? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A rural Minnesota farmer grows a variety of vegetables to feed her family. In addition, she cuts down some of her dead trees for firewood to heat her home in the winter. This farmer is adding to the flux of the carbon cycle in her region by _____. precipitation evaporation runoff transpiration the polar ice caps lakes and streams aquifers the oceans evaporation of water from a lake the formation of ice on the top of a pond movement of ocean tides the movement of water over a waterfall Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A In a terrestrial ecosystem, most carbon is stored in the biomass of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A In which of the following countries would we expect that the terrestrial ecosystems have the highest net primary production and biomass? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Some farmers in the Midwest of the United States rotate their crops from year to year, switching from soybeans to corn on the same fields. What is one of the advantages of doing this? encouraging photosynthesis as she raises crops burning carbon-based fuels by consuming vegetables grown on her farm All of the choices are correct. the animals living there air the top layers of soil containing dead organisms living plants China Australia Brazil United States Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A Most nitrogen enters the biosphere through the process of _____ ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Where do we expect to find the least amount of nitrogen? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A Along the west coast of the United States, upwellings bring deep ocean waters to the surface, carrying with them _____, which greatly increases NPP. ANSWER: The corn crop benefits from reactive nitrogen added to the soil by the soybean crop. Both crops require the same fertilizing supplies, so farmers save by buying fertilizer in bulk. Soybeans add large amounts of carbon dioxide to the soil, which helps the corn crop. Corn adds large amounts of phosphorus to the soil, which helps the soybean crop. nitrogen fixation in which bacteria convert N2 to NH3 cellular respiration, in which animals convert N2 to NH4 fermentation in which bacteria convert N2 to HNO3 photosynthesis, in which plants convert N2 to NO2 in Earth’s crust in plants in animals in the atmosphere Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A Which one of the following statements about the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles is true? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A A large coal-burning power plant is about 50 miles upwind from a lake that used to be popular for fishing. But now, just five years after the plant was constructed, the fish populations are decreasing dramatically. Which one of the following impacts of this coal-burning power plant is most likely hurting the fish populations in this downwind lake? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Which one of the following statements about sulfur is correct? ANSWER: oxygen phosphate carbon sulfur Phosphorus is virtually absent in the atmosphere. The major source of carbon used by plants is the soil. Bacteria drive the phosphorus cycle. The major source of nitrogen used by plants is the air. insufficient sunlight reaching the lake low oxygen levels from burning fossil fuels eutrophication of the lake acidification of the lake Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Nitrogen and sulfur are important to all organisms because they are important constituents of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In Iowa, a small, deep lake in the summer becomes stratified with warmer, less-dense water at the surface and colder, denser water near the bottom. As fall air temperatures decrease, the surface water cools and then drops toward the bottom, mixing the lake levels together. As a result of this mixing, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A A fire spreads across hundreds of acres of prairie, burning most of the plant parts above the ground. Compared to before the fire, right after this fire the pool of nutrients in the prairie plants _____. The main pool of sulfur is in the atmosphere where the flux is high and the residence time is long. The main pool of sulfur is in rocks. The flux of sulfur through the atmosphere is high and the residence is short. The main pool of sulfur is in the atmosphere where the flux is low and the residence time is long. The main pool of sulfur is in rocks. The flux of sulfur through the atmosphere is low and the residence is short. nucleic acids glucose phosphates some amino acids nitrogen and phosphorus are added to the lake nitrogen and phosphorus decrease near the surface of the lake nitrogen and phosphorus increase near the surface of the lake None of the choices is correct. Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 21 points. and the soil decreases increases and the pool of nutrients in the soil decreases and the soil increases decreases and the pool of nutrients in the soil increases Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

Chapter 07 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 17 Part A A lake is currently at high pool, with the same amount of water flowing into the lake as is flowing over the spillway. Which of the following temporary changes would increase the resident time of water in this lake? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A A large reservoir behind a dam is rapidly rising, as rain and melting snow add more water than is being released out of the dam’s spillway. In this situation, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A Which one of the following statements is correct? ANSWER: Double the rate of water flow into the lake and double the rate of water flow out of the lake, while keeping the lake at the same level. Keep the inflow into the lake the same, but release twice as much water from the lake, resulting in a lowering of the lake level. Decrease the inflow into the lake by half, and decrease the outflow of the lake by half. None of the choices would increase the resident time in the lake. the net flux is positive and the capital of water within the reservoir is decreasing the net flux is positive and the capital of water within the reservoir is increasing the net flux is negative and the capital of water within the reservoir is increasing the net flux is negative and the capital of water within the reservoir is decreasing Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A A raging river cascades down a granite mountain and eventually reaches the ocean. At the mouth of the river is a beautiful sandy beach composed of fine grains of granite particles from the river. The entire process of producing this sand is a result of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A The physical and chemical properties of soils are primarily determined by _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 19 Part A Several inches of rain fall over a field of tall corn, soaking into the soil and draining into ditches. Within an hour, there is no standing water and the humidity over the field rises quickly. At a nearby shopping mall, the rainwater fell onto blacktop and drained to sewer pipes, which carried the water directly into a stream. Which of the following occurred in The cycling time of an element or molecule in an ecosystem is equal to the sum of all the flux times. The cycling time is how long it takes an element or molecule to pass through a biogeochemical cycle. The cycling time of water moving through an ecosystem is typically shorter than the resident time in any pool in this system. The amount of time that water spends in an ocean is the cycling time. mineral evaporation erosion, weathering, transport, and then deposition erosion, dissolution, and precipitation organisms consuming and eroding granite the properties of rock from which the soils develop the amount of precipitation that the soil experiences the range of temperatures that the soil experiences the types of animals that live and move through the soils Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM the cornfield but not in the parking lot? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 6 Part A Most of the water on Earth is found in _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A Which one of the following primarily results from the effects of solar energy? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A rural Minnesota farmer grows a variety of vegetables to feed her family. In addition, she cuts down some of her dead trees for firewood to heat her home in the winter. This farmer is adding to the flux of the carbon cycle in her region by _____. precipitation evaporation runoff transpiration the polar ice caps lakes and streams aquifers the oceans evaporation of water from a lake the formation of ice on the top of a pond movement of ocean tides the movement of water over a waterfall Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A In a terrestrial ecosystem, most carbon is stored in the biomass of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A In which of the following countries would we expect that the terrestrial ecosystems have the highest net primary production and biomass? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Some farmers in the Midwest of the United States rotate their crops from year to year, switching from soybeans to corn on the same fields. What is one of the advantages of doing this? encouraging photosynthesis as she raises crops burning carbon-based fuels by consuming vegetables grown on her farm All of the choices are correct. the animals living there air the top layers of soil containing dead organisms living plants China Australia Brazil United States Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A Most nitrogen enters the biosphere through the process of _____ ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 9 Part A Where do we expect to find the least amount of nitrogen? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A Along the west coast of the United States, upwellings bring deep ocean waters to the surface, carrying with them _____, which greatly increases NPP. ANSWER: The corn crop benefits from reactive nitrogen added to the soil by the soybean crop. Both crops require the same fertilizing supplies, so farmers save by buying fertilizer in bulk. Soybeans add large amounts of carbon dioxide to the soil, which helps the corn crop. Corn adds large amounts of phosphorus to the soil, which helps the soybean crop. nitrogen fixation in which bacteria convert N2 to NH3 cellular respiration, in which animals convert N2 to NH4 fermentation in which bacteria convert N2 to HNO3 photosynthesis, in which plants convert N2 to NO2 in Earth’s crust in plants in animals in the atmosphere Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A Which one of the following statements about the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles is true? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A A large coal-burning power plant is about 50 miles upwind from a lake that used to be popular for fishing. But now, just five years after the plant was constructed, the fish populations are decreasing dramatically. Which one of the following impacts of this coal-burning power plant is most likely hurting the fish populations in this downwind lake? ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A Which one of the following statements about sulfur is correct? ANSWER: oxygen phosphate carbon sulfur Phosphorus is virtually absent in the atmosphere. The major source of carbon used by plants is the soil. Bacteria drive the phosphorus cycle. The major source of nitrogen used by plants is the air. insufficient sunlight reaching the lake low oxygen levels from burning fossil fuels eutrophication of the lake acidification of the lake Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 13 Part A Nitrogen and sulfur are important to all organisms because they are important constituents of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In Iowa, a small, deep lake in the summer becomes stratified with warmer, less-dense water at the surface and colder, denser water near the bottom. As fall air temperatures decrease, the surface water cools and then drops toward the bottom, mixing the lake levels together. As a result of this mixing, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A A fire spreads across hundreds of acres of prairie, burning most of the plant parts above the ground. Compared to before the fire, right after this fire the pool of nutrients in the prairie plants _____. The main pool of sulfur is in the atmosphere where the flux is high and the residence time is long. The main pool of sulfur is in rocks. The flux of sulfur through the atmosphere is high and the residence is short. The main pool of sulfur is in the atmosphere where the flux is low and the residence time is long. The main pool of sulfur is in rocks. The flux of sulfur through the atmosphere is low and the residence is short. nucleic acids glucose phosphates some amino acids nitrogen and phosphorus are added to the lake nitrogen and phosphorus decrease near the surface of the lake nitrogen and phosphorus increase near the surface of the lake None of the choices is correct. Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 21 points. and the soil decreases increases and the pool of nutrients in the soil decreases and the soil increases decreases and the pool of nutrients in the soil increases Chapter 07 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

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Chapter 04 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Investigating Survivorship Curves Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of robins remains relatively constant throughout their life span. Part B Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____. ANSWER: Correct Young oysters have a very high mortality rate; older oysters have a much lower mortality rate. Thus, most oyster populations consist primarily of older individuals. Part C Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters? ANSWER: grasses oysters elephants robins humans juveniles adults prereproductive oysters larval and juvenile oysters larvae Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Grasses, like oysters, have a relatively high mortality rate early in their life span, after which the mortality rate decreases. Part D Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of elephants, like that of humans, remains relatively low for much of their life span and then dramatically increases for older individuals. BioFlix Quiz: Population Ecology Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. cats robins elephants grasses humans cats oysters grasses robins elephants Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part A An ideal habitat with unlimited resources is associated with Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Populations grow exponentially with unlimited resources. Part B The maximum population a habitat can support is its Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part C Logistic growth involves Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Both exponential growth and logistic growth. Population crashes. Exponential growth. Logistic growth. Neither exponential growth nor logistic growth. Logistic growth. Death rate. Birth rate. Carrying capacity. Exponential growth. A population crash. Population growth continuing forever. Population growth reaching carrying capacity and then speeding up. Population size decreasing to zero. Population growth slowing down as the population approaches carrying capacity. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Part D In exponential growth Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the following would NOT cause population size to decrease? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct An increased birth rate would cause population size to increase. BioFlix Activity: Photosynthesis — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the photosynthesis equation? To review photosynthesis, watch this BioFlix animation: Photosynthesis. Part A – Photosynthesis equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis. ANSWER: Population size grows more and more slowly as the population gets bigger. Population size grows faster and faster as the population gets bigger. Population size stays constant. Population growth slows as the population gets close to its carrying capacity. None of these are correct. Increased death rate A exponentially growing population outgrowing its food supply and crashing Poor weather, resulting in less food being available Increase in the number of predators Increased birth rate Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Energy Flow Can you identify how energy flows through an ecosystem? To review energy flow in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Energy flow through an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how energy flows through an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Chemical Cycling Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem? To review the chemical inputs and outputs of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Chemical cycling in an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the cellular respiration equation? To review cellular respiration, watch this BioFlix animation: Cellular Respiration. Part A – Cellular respiration equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Population Ecology — Types of Population Growth Can you identify the different ways in which populations grow? To review types of population growth, watch this BioFlix animation: Population Ecology. Part A – Types of population growth Drag the correct label under each graph to identify the type of population growth shown. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Doubling Time Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you calculate doubling times and growth rates for exponentially growing populations? Remember that the doubling time (in years) for an exponentially growing population is estimated by dividing 70 by the growth rate of the population (as a percentage): Doubling time (in years) = 70 / annual growth rate (%) Part A Drag the values on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all values will be used. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Population Growth Rates Populations grow larger from births and immigration and grow smaller from deaths and emigration. The growth rate for a population is determined by adding the birth rate and the immigration rate, and then subtracting the death rate and the emigration rate (all rates expressed as the number per 1,000 individuals per year): (birth rate + immigration rate) (death rate + emigration rate) = growth rate Positive population growth rates lead to population increases, and negative population growth rates lead to population declines. Part A Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 14 per 1,000/year Death rate = 6 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 5 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 1 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part B Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: 4 per 1,000/year 12 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 26 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Birth rate = 11 per 1,000/year Death rate = 10 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 4 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part C Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 10 per 1,000/year Death rate = 12 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 2 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Concept Review: Levels of Ecological Organization Can you identify the example that corresponds to each level of ecological organization? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets in the table. ANSWER: 0 per 1,000/year 2 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 28 per 1,000/year 3 per 1,000/year 1 per 1,000/year 17 per 1,000/year 27 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Mechanisms of Evolution — Natural Selection: Pesticides Can you identify the process by which natural selection acts on an insect population exposed to pesticides? To review the process of natural selection, watch this BioFlix animation: Mechanisms of Evolution: Natural Selection. Part A – Natural selection: Pesticides Drag the labels onto the flowchart to place them in the correct sequence. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ABC News Video: Protecting the Galapagos Islands Watch the ABC News video (2:07 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A Where are the Galapagos Islands located? ANSWER: Part B Which of the following sets of animals are likely to be found on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: near the tip of South Africa northeast of Australia along the Great Barrier Reef 600 miles west of Ecuador, near the equator in the Mediterranean Sea, as part of the Greek Islands frogs, lungfish, mountain goats tortoises, finches, blue-footed boobies ostriches, cougars, porcupines beaver, snakes, armadillos Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part C Which species is threatening the natural wildlife on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: Part D The Galapagos Islands were the first place on Earth to _____. ANSWER: Part E Tourism on the Galapagos Islands is being restricted by requiring tourists to _____. ANSWER: Current Events: A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (New York Times, 2/28/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (2/28/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part B What predator currently feeds on deer in Rock Creek Park? humans zebra mussels Asian carp mountain lions suffer the complete extinction of all native species be declared off-limits to all humans be declared a world heritage site be invaded by human-introduced species visit each island in groups of only ten individuals at a time view the islands only from the water be escorted by trained guides at all times stay at least 100 feet away from all animals on the islands Deer have always been a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not native to Rock Creek Park, and have been a problem since they were introduced in 1952. Deer were once absent from Rock Creek Park, and have only become a problem in the last 20 years. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ANSWER: Part C Why isn’t the deer population controlled by hunting in Rock Creek Park? ANSWER: Part D It is hoped that the deer herd can be reduced by how much? ANSWER: Part E Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Because the park is changing in response to the increasing deer population, this is an example of ______________. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 21.2%. You received 9.1 out of a possible total of 43 points. There are no predators of deer in Rock Creek Park. mountain lion coyote wolf Hunting has been attempted in the park, but the trees are too thick. Hunting is prohibited in the park. There is no public interest in hunting in the park. Deer are a protected species. one-quarter one-half three-quarters the entire herd Animals cannot be killed on federally managed public lands. Only Congress can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. The federal agency in charge of management of the land in question decides if animals should be killed. Only the National Park Service can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. succession artificial selection recession progression Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM

Chapter 04 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Investigating Survivorship Curves Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of robins remains relatively constant throughout their life span. Part B Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____. ANSWER: Correct Young oysters have a very high mortality rate; older oysters have a much lower mortality rate. Thus, most oyster populations consist primarily of older individuals. Part C Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters? ANSWER: grasses oysters elephants robins humans juveniles adults prereproductive oysters larval and juvenile oysters larvae Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Grasses, like oysters, have a relatively high mortality rate early in their life span, after which the mortality rate decreases. Part D Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans? ANSWER: Correct The mortality rate of elephants, like that of humans, remains relatively low for much of their life span and then dramatically increases for older individuals. BioFlix Quiz: Population Ecology Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. cats robins elephants grasses humans cats oysters grasses robins elephants Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part A An ideal habitat with unlimited resources is associated with Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Populations grow exponentially with unlimited resources. Part B The maximum population a habitat can support is its Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part C Logistic growth involves Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Both exponential growth and logistic growth. Population crashes. Exponential growth. Logistic growth. Neither exponential growth nor logistic growth. Logistic growth. Death rate. Birth rate. Carrying capacity. Exponential growth. A population crash. Population growth continuing forever. Population growth reaching carrying capacity and then speeding up. Population size decreasing to zero. Population growth slowing down as the population approaches carrying capacity. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Correct Part D In exponential growth Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for Population Ecology ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the following would NOT cause population size to decrease? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct An increased birth rate would cause population size to increase. BioFlix Activity: Photosynthesis — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the photosynthesis equation? To review photosynthesis, watch this BioFlix animation: Photosynthesis. Part A – Photosynthesis equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis. ANSWER: Population size grows more and more slowly as the population gets bigger. Population size grows faster and faster as the population gets bigger. Population size stays constant. Population growth slows as the population gets close to its carrying capacity. None of these are correct. Increased death rate A exponentially growing population outgrowing its food supply and crashing Poor weather, resulting in less food being available Increase in the number of predators Increased birth rate Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Energy Flow Can you identify how energy flows through an ecosystem? To review energy flow in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Energy flow through an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how energy flows through an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis — Chemical Cycling Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem? To review the chemical inputs and outputs of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, watch these BioFlix animations: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis. Part A – Chemical cycling in an ecosystem Drag the labels onto the diagram to identify how chemicals cycle in an ecosystem. ANSWER: BioFlix Activity: Cellular Respiration — Inputs and Outputs Can you fill in the cellular respiration equation? To review cellular respiration, watch this BioFlix animation: Cellular Respiration. Part A – Cellular respiration equation Drag the labels onto the equation to identify the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Population Ecology — Types of Population Growth Can you identify the different ways in which populations grow? To review types of population growth, watch this BioFlix animation: Population Ecology. Part A – Types of population growth Drag the correct label under each graph to identify the type of population growth shown. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Doubling Time Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Can you calculate doubling times and growth rates for exponentially growing populations? Remember that the doubling time (in years) for an exponentially growing population is estimated by dividing 70 by the growth rate of the population (as a percentage): Doubling time (in years) = 70 / annual growth rate (%) Part A Drag the values on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all values will be used. ANSWER: Concept Review: Calculating Population Growth Rates Populations grow larger from births and immigration and grow smaller from deaths and emigration. The growth rate for a population is determined by adding the birth rate and the immigration rate, and then subtracting the death rate and the emigration rate (all rates expressed as the number per 1,000 individuals per year): (birth rate + immigration rate) (death rate + emigration rate) = growth rate Positive population growth rates lead to population increases, and negative population growth rates lead to population declines. Part A Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 14 per 1,000/year Death rate = 6 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 5 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 1 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part B Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: 4 per 1,000/year 12 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 26 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Birth rate = 11 per 1,000/year Death rate = 10 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 4 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part C Suppose you are studying a population with the following characteristics: Birth rate = 10 per 1,000/year Death rate = 12 per 1,000/year Immigration rate = 2 per 1,000/year Emigration rate = 3 per 1,000/year What is the growth rate for this population? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Concept Review: Levels of Ecological Organization Can you identify the example that corresponds to each level of ecological organization? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets in the table. ANSWER: 0 per 1,000/year 2 per 1,000/year 14 per 1,000/year 28 per 1,000/year 3 per 1,000/year 1 per 1,000/year 17 per 1,000/year 27 per 1,000/year Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM BioFlix Activity: Mechanisms of Evolution — Natural Selection: Pesticides Can you identify the process by which natural selection acts on an insect population exposed to pesticides? To review the process of natural selection, watch this BioFlix animation: Mechanisms of Evolution: Natural Selection. Part A – Natural selection: Pesticides Drag the labels onto the flowchart to place them in the correct sequence. ANSWER: Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ABC News Video: Protecting the Galapagos Islands Watch the ABC News video (2:07 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A Where are the Galapagos Islands located? ANSWER: Part B Which of the following sets of animals are likely to be found on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: near the tip of South Africa northeast of Australia along the Great Barrier Reef 600 miles west of Ecuador, near the equator in the Mediterranean Sea, as part of the Greek Islands frogs, lungfish, mountain goats tortoises, finches, blue-footed boobies ostriches, cougars, porcupines beaver, snakes, armadillos Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM Part C Which species is threatening the natural wildlife on the Galapagos Islands? ANSWER: Part D The Galapagos Islands were the first place on Earth to _____. ANSWER: Part E Tourism on the Galapagos Islands is being restricted by requiring tourists to _____. ANSWER: Current Events: A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (New York Times, 2/28/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. A Surplus Washington Could Do Without: A Capital Park’s Rapacious Deer (2/28/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part B What predator currently feeds on deer in Rock Creek Park? humans zebra mussels Asian carp mountain lions suffer the complete extinction of all native species be declared off-limits to all humans be declared a world heritage site be invaded by human-introduced species visit each island in groups of only ten individuals at a time view the islands only from the water be escorted by trained guides at all times stay at least 100 feet away from all animals on the islands Deer have always been a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not a problem in Rock Creek Park. Deer are not native to Rock Creek Park, and have been a problem since they were introduced in 1952. Deer were once absent from Rock Creek Park, and have only become a problem in the last 20 years. Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM ANSWER: Part C Why isn’t the deer population controlled by hunting in Rock Creek Park? ANSWER: Part D It is hoped that the deer herd can be reduced by how much? ANSWER: Part E Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Because the park is changing in response to the increasing deer population, this is an example of ______________. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 21.2%. You received 9.1 out of a possible total of 43 points. There are no predators of deer in Rock Creek Park. mountain lion coyote wolf Hunting has been attempted in the park, but the trees are too thick. Hunting is prohibited in the park. There is no public interest in hunting in the park. Deer are a protected species. one-quarter one-half three-quarters the entire herd Animals cannot be killed on federally managed public lands. Only Congress can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. The federal agency in charge of management of the land in question decides if animals should be killed. Only the National Park Service can decide to have animals killed on federally managed public lands. succession artificial selection recession progression Chapter 04 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 13 5/21/2014 7:59 PM

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Chapter 07 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy BioFlix Quiz: The Carbon Cycle Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. Part A An organism gets carbon by using carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to make sugar molecules. This organism is a Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct During photosynthesis, producers use carbon dioxide to make sugar molecules. Part B Which organisms play a role in returning carbon to the atmosphere? Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: higher-level consumer. producer. primary consumer. decomposer. None of the above Consumers and decomposers, but not producers. Producers only. Decomposers only. Consumers only. Producers, consumers, and decomposers. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Producers, consumers, and decomposers all return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Part C Every carbon atom in the organic molecules that make up your body MUST recently have been part of Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct You are a consumer, and all your carbon comes ultimately from plants and other producers. Part D Imagine following a single carbon atom through the carbon cycle. Which of the following is a possible path for the carbon atom to take? Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct Carbon moves from the atmosphere into a producer (such as a plant), up the food chain, and then back to the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Part E Which process or processes return carbon to the atmosphere? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct Cellular respiration results in the release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. a higher-level consumer. a primary consumer. a decomposer. a producer. a sugar molecule made in one of your chloroplasts. The atmosphere; a plant; a higher-level consumer; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere; a plant; an herbivore; another plant; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere, a plant, a herbivore, a decomposer, then back to the atmosphere The atmosphere; a decomposer; a higher-level consumer; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere; a decomposer; then back to the atmosphere. Cellular respiration only Photosynthesis only Cellular respiration and photosynthesis Breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller organic molecules Cellular respiration and the breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller organic molecules Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Activity: The Nitrogen Cycle Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Nitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____. ANSWER: Correct Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium to nitrites. Part B _____ removes nitrogen from the atmosphere. ANSWER: Correct Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen gas to a form that can be used by plants (and other organisms). Part C Assimilation is indicated by the letter(s) _____. nitrogen gas … ammonium nitrogen gas … nitrates ammonium … nitrites nitrates … nitrogen gas ammonium … nitrogen gas Denitrification Nitrification Mineralization Nitrogen fixation Assimilation Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM ANSWER: Correct Assimilation is the uptake of nutrients into an organism. Part D Nitrogen-fixing bacteria is(are) indicated by the letter(s) _____. ANSWER: Correct Both of these pointers are indicating nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen to a form that plants can use. Part E Nitrification is indicated by the letter(s) _____. ANSWER: C B A D and E C and D B and C A and B D and E C and D A Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Nitrification is the conversion of organic nitrogen-containing compounds to nitrites and nitrates. Part F Denitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____. ANSWER: Correct Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates to nitrogen gas. Part G Which one of these is a nitrate? ANSWER: Correct NO3 – is a nitrate. Part H Which one of these is a nitrite? ANSWER: Correct This is a nitrite. GeoScience: Earth’s Water and the Hydrologic Cycle A B B and C D and E B and E nitrogen gas … nitrites nitrogen gas … ammonium nitrates … nitrogen gas ammonium … nitrogen gas nitrogen gas … nitrates NO2 – NH4 – NH2 SH NO3 – PO4 – NH2 NH4 – NO2 – NO3 – Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM When you have finished, answer the questions. Part A The largest percentage of fresh water today is located in: ANSWER: Correct Ice sheets and glaciers are the greatest single repository of fresh water: they contain 77.3% of all Earth’s fresh water and 99.357% of all Earth’s surface fresh water. Part B Earth’s oceans hold: ANSWER: Correct The oceans contain 97.22% of all water, comprising about 1.321 billion cubic kilometers of salt water. This leaves only 2.78% of all of Earth’s water as fresh water (non-oceanic). Part C Which of the following is true of the hydrologic cycle? ANSWER: Correct About 20% of the moisture evaporated from the ocean combines with 2% of land-derived moisture to produce 22% of all precipitation that falls over land. Clearly, the bulk of continental precipitation comes from the oceanic portion of the cycle. Concept Review: Eutrophication Can you sequence the steps in the eutrophication process that occurs in a body of water? Part A Drag each statement to the appropriate location in the flowchart of the eutrophication process. ANSWER: soil. ice sheets and glaciers. the rivers and lakes of the world. groundwater resources. about the same amount of water as all groundwater sources combined. most of the fresh water on Earth. the bulk of all of the water found on Earth. about the same amount of water as all Earth’s rivers and lakes combined. Atmospheric water and surface water do not mix. Most evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents. The bulk of the precipitation occurs over land. Most of the water that falls on the continents is derived from the oceans. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Concept Review: Biogeochemical Cycles Can you sort the items by which biogeochemical cycle they apply to? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 62.3%. You received 12.45 out of a possible total of 20 points. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

Chapter 07 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy BioFlix Quiz: The Carbon Cycle Watch the animation at left before answering the questions below. Part A An organism gets carbon by using carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to make sugar molecules. This organism is a Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct During photosynthesis, producers use carbon dioxide to make sugar molecules. Part B Which organisms play a role in returning carbon to the atmosphere? Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: higher-level consumer. producer. primary consumer. decomposer. None of the above Consumers and decomposers, but not producers. Producers only. Decomposers only. Consumers only. Producers, consumers, and decomposers. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Producers, consumers, and decomposers all return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Part C Every carbon atom in the organic molecules that make up your body MUST recently have been part of Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct You are a consumer, and all your carbon comes ultimately from plants and other producers. Part D Imagine following a single carbon atom through the carbon cycle. Which of the following is a possible path for the carbon atom to take? Hint 1. Review the animation or your Study Sheet for The Carbon Cycle. ANSWER: Correct Carbon moves from the atmosphere into a producer (such as a plant), up the food chain, and then back to the atmosphere during cellular respiration. Part E Which process or processes return carbon to the atmosphere? Hint 1. Review the animation. ANSWER: Correct Cellular respiration results in the release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. a higher-level consumer. a primary consumer. a decomposer. a producer. a sugar molecule made in one of your chloroplasts. The atmosphere; a plant; a higher-level consumer; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere; a plant; an herbivore; another plant; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere, a plant, a herbivore, a decomposer, then back to the atmosphere The atmosphere; a decomposer; a higher-level consumer; then back to the atmosphere. The atmosphere; a decomposer; then back to the atmosphere. Cellular respiration only Photosynthesis only Cellular respiration and photosynthesis Breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller organic molecules Cellular respiration and the breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller organic molecules Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Activity: The Nitrogen Cycle Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Nitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____. ANSWER: Correct Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium to nitrites. Part B _____ removes nitrogen from the atmosphere. ANSWER: Correct Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen gas to a form that can be used by plants (and other organisms). Part C Assimilation is indicated by the letter(s) _____. nitrogen gas … ammonium nitrogen gas … nitrates ammonium … nitrites nitrates … nitrogen gas ammonium … nitrogen gas Denitrification Nitrification Mineralization Nitrogen fixation Assimilation Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM ANSWER: Correct Assimilation is the uptake of nutrients into an organism. Part D Nitrogen-fixing bacteria is(are) indicated by the letter(s) _____. ANSWER: Correct Both of these pointers are indicating nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen to a form that plants can use. Part E Nitrification is indicated by the letter(s) _____. ANSWER: C B A D and E C and D B and C A and B D and E C and D A Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Nitrification is the conversion of organic nitrogen-containing compounds to nitrites and nitrates. Part F Denitrifying bacteria convert _____ to _____. ANSWER: Correct Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates to nitrogen gas. Part G Which one of these is a nitrate? ANSWER: Correct NO3 – is a nitrate. Part H Which one of these is a nitrite? ANSWER: Correct This is a nitrite. GeoScience: Earth’s Water and the Hydrologic Cycle A B B and C D and E B and E nitrogen gas … nitrites nitrogen gas … ammonium nitrates … nitrogen gas ammonium … nitrogen gas nitrogen gas … nitrates NO2 – NH4 – NH2 SH NO3 – PO4 – NH2 NH4 – NO2 – NO3 – Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM When you have finished, answer the questions. Part A The largest percentage of fresh water today is located in: ANSWER: Correct Ice sheets and glaciers are the greatest single repository of fresh water: they contain 77.3% of all Earth’s fresh water and 99.357% of all Earth’s surface fresh water. Part B Earth’s oceans hold: ANSWER: Correct The oceans contain 97.22% of all water, comprising about 1.321 billion cubic kilometers of salt water. This leaves only 2.78% of all of Earth’s water as fresh water (non-oceanic). Part C Which of the following is true of the hydrologic cycle? ANSWER: Correct About 20% of the moisture evaporated from the ocean combines with 2% of land-derived moisture to produce 22% of all precipitation that falls over land. Clearly, the bulk of continental precipitation comes from the oceanic portion of the cycle. Concept Review: Eutrophication Can you sequence the steps in the eutrophication process that occurs in a body of water? Part A Drag each statement to the appropriate location in the flowchart of the eutrophication process. ANSWER: soil. ice sheets and glaciers. the rivers and lakes of the world. groundwater resources. about the same amount of water as all groundwater sources combined. most of the fresh water on Earth. the bulk of all of the water found on Earth. about the same amount of water as all Earth’s rivers and lakes combined. Atmospheric water and surface water do not mix. Most evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents. The bulk of the precipitation occurs over land. Most of the water that falls on the continents is derived from the oceans. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Concept Review: Biogeochemical Cycles Can you sort the items by which biogeochemical cycle they apply to? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 62.3%. You received 12.45 out of a possible total of 20 points. Chapter 07 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

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In case the body have to stay in lower temperature for extended time period (more than 1 hour), how does the body regulate its response?

In case the body have to stay in lower temperature for extended time period (more than 1 hour), how does the body regulate its response?

Arterioles transporting blood to external capillaries beneath the surface of … Read More...
Chapter 04 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A The cells of all plants have _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Which of the following is a difference between cellular respiration and anaerobic respiration? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Which of the following are found in the cells of a dog but not in the bacteria that are found on a dog’s fur? ANSWER: chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions chloroplasts and mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions mitochondria but not chloroplasts and use proteins to power their functions chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use proteins to power their functions Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide. Only anaerobic respiration produces water. Only cellular respiration breaks down carbohydrates. Only cellular respiration uses oxygen to break down carbohydrates. membrane-enclosed nucleus, chloroplasts, and cytoplasm mitochondria, nuclei, and cytoplasm membrane-enclosed nucleus and mitochondria mitochondria and chloroplasts Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A The products of photosynthesis are the materials that react in the process of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Tissues within an organism’s body are different from each other because the cells in each tissue _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A An egg and a sperm are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 6 chemosynthesis cellular respiration osmosis anaerobic respiration are produced by different combinations of eggs and sperm activate different portions of the identical DNA remove the DNA that they do not need have different types of DNA gametes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a zygote zygotes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a gamete zygotes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a gamete gametes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a zygote Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A The growth of a population of sparrows accelerates with each generation. The chances of dying are about the same for these sparrows, regardless of age. This population of sparrows therefore demonstrates _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A A population will grow the fastest when total fertility rates are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A population will not change in size if the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A exponential growth and a type III survivorship curve exponential growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type I survivorship curve low and generation times are long high and generation times are short high and generation times are long low and generation times are short birth rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the immigration rate and the death rate equals the emigration rate death rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the death rate and the immigration rate equals the emigration rate Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM As a population increases to near its carrying capacity, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The various activities that define an organism’s role in an ecosystem are that organism’s _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Largemouth bass and rainbow trout are stocked in a small, deep 10-acre pond. The bass are most active in 20-30 °C water, and the rainbow trout prefer water at about 6-22 °C. We expect to find few places in this pond where the two species interact because they have different _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The evolutionary concept of fitness is most closely associated with _____. birth rates decline, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth increases birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates increase, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines range of tolerance habitat ecological niche fitness generation times ranges of tolerance growth rates carrying capacities Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A The ultimate source of new inherited traits in a population is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A Studies of human birth weight and infant health reveal that babies who are heavier than 10 pounds or lighter than 6 pounds have decreased survival rates. This pattern of survival is an example of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A From an evolutionary perspective, the most important property that defines a species is _____. ANSWER: feeding reproduction carrying capacity mutations adaptation survivorship natural selection mutation disruptive selection directional selection bimodal selection stabilizing selection Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A In Missouri, the marbled salamander breeds in the late fall (October-December). In the same region, the closely related spotted salamander breeds in early spring (February-March). Thus, these species are kept separate because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A Which one of the following correctly lists the levels of classification from specific to general? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In a phylogenetic tree, all of the species in one family will _____. ANSWER: the ability of a species to extend the its range its type of natural selection its dietary habits reproductive isolation behavioral isolation structural isolation temporal isolation geographic isolation genus, species, order, family, class, phylum, kingdom species, genus, class, family, order, phylum, kingdom species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. have the same scientific name have identical ecological niches be scattered throughout the tree be clustered together in the tree Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM

Chapter 04 Reading Questions Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 1 Part A The cells of all plants have _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 2 Part A Which of the following is a difference between cellular respiration and anaerobic respiration? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 16 Part A Which of the following are found in the cells of a dog but not in the bacteria that are found on a dog’s fur? ANSWER: chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions chloroplasts and mitochondria and use carbohydrates to power their functions mitochondria but not chloroplasts and use proteins to power their functions chloroplasts but not mitochondria and use proteins to power their functions Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide. Only anaerobic respiration produces water. Only cellular respiration breaks down carbohydrates. Only cellular respiration uses oxygen to break down carbohydrates. membrane-enclosed nucleus, chloroplasts, and cytoplasm mitochondria, nuclei, and cytoplasm membrane-enclosed nucleus and mitochondria mitochondria and chloroplasts Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 18 Part A The products of photosynthesis are the materials that react in the process of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 4 Part A Tissues within an organism’s body are different from each other because the cells in each tissue _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A An egg and a sperm are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 6 chemosynthesis cellular respiration osmosis anaerobic respiration are produced by different combinations of eggs and sperm activate different portions of the identical DNA remove the DNA that they do not need have different types of DNA gametes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a zygote zygotes that combine in asexual reproduction to produce a gamete zygotes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a gamete gametes that combine in sexual reproduction to produce a zygote Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Part A The growth of a population of sparrows accelerates with each generation. The chances of dying are about the same for these sparrows, regardless of age. This population of sparrows therefore demonstrates _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 7 Part A A population will grow the fastest when total fertility rates are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 20 Part A A population will not change in size if the _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 8 Part A exponential growth and a type III survivorship curve exponential growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type II survivorship curve arithmetic growth and a type I survivorship curve low and generation times are long high and generation times are short high and generation times are long low and generation times are short birth rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the immigration rate and the death rate equals the emigration rate death rate equals the emigration rate birth rate equals the death rate and the immigration rate equals the emigration rate Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM As a population increases to near its carrying capacity, _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 10 Part A The various activities that define an organism’s role in an ecosystem are that organism’s _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 22 Part A Largemouth bass and rainbow trout are stocked in a small, deep 10-acre pond. The bass are most active in 20-30 °C water, and the rainbow trout prefer water at about 6-22 °C. We expect to find few places in this pond where the two species interact because they have different _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 11 Part A The evolutionary concept of fitness is most closely associated with _____. birth rates decline, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth increases birth rates decline, death rates decline, and the overall rate of population growth declines birth rates increase, death rates increase, and the overall rate of population growth declines range of tolerance habitat ecological niche fitness generation times ranges of tolerance growth rates carrying capacities Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 12 Part A The ultimate source of new inherited traits in a population is _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 23 Part A Studies of human birth weight and infant health reveal that babies who are heavier than 10 pounds or lighter than 6 pounds have decreased survival rates. This pattern of survival is an example of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 14 Part A From an evolutionary perspective, the most important property that defines a species is _____. ANSWER: feeding reproduction carrying capacity mutations adaptation survivorship natural selection mutation disruptive selection directional selection bimodal selection stabilizing selection Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 24 Part A In Missouri, the marbled salamander breeds in the late fall (October-December). In the same region, the closely related spotted salamander breeds in early spring (February-March). Thus, these species are kept separate because of _____. ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 15 Part A Which one of the following correctly lists the levels of classification from specific to general? ANSWER: Chapter 4 Reading Quiz Question 25 Part A In a phylogenetic tree, all of the species in one family will _____. ANSWER: the ability of a species to extend the its range its type of natural selection its dietary habits reproductive isolation behavioral isolation structural isolation temporal isolation geographic isolation genus, species, order, family, class, phylum, kingdom species, genus, class, family, order, phylum, kingdom species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 19 points. have the same scientific name have identical ecological niches be scattered throughout the tree be clustered together in the tree Chapter 04 Reading Questions http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 7 5/21/2014 7:58 PM

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The type of respiration in which gases are exchanged between the blood and tissue fluid is termed Select one: breathing. external respiration. internal respiration. cellular respiration. inspiration.

The type of respiration in which gases are exchanged between the blood and tissue fluid is termed Select one: breathing. external respiration. internal respiration. cellular respiration. inspiration.

The type of respiration in which gases are exchanged between … Read More...
NADH and FADH2 are important in cellular respiration because they deliver high-energy electrons to the electron transport system. Electron transport produces _____ ATP molecule(s) per NADH molecule and _____ ATP molecules(s) per FADH2 molecule

NADH and FADH2 are important in cellular respiration because they deliver high-energy electrons to the electron transport system. Electron transport produces _____ ATP molecule(s) per NADH molecule and _____ ATP molecules(s) per FADH2 molecule

three … two
The oxygen that we breath comes from, the splitting of an oxygen molecule during respiration, the splitting of a water molecule during respiration, the splitting of a water molecule during photosynthesis, the splitting of carbon dioxide

The oxygen that we breath comes from, the splitting of an oxygen molecule during respiration, the splitting of a water molecule during respiration, the splitting of a water molecule during photosynthesis, the splitting of carbon dioxide

The oxygen that we breath comes from, the splitting of … Read More...