The second task : Tutorial Topic 7 – MIS (to be completed over 2 weeks) Describe a decision support system whose purpose is to help you decide which accommodation would be best for you whilst at college next year. Hints: You will need to decide on the factors that will influence your decision, and decide on any weightings that may apply to these factors. You will also need to supply a formula to derive ‘the best solution’, making sure it can support ‘what if’ features. Factors you might consider – affordable rent values, flat or house, sharing (how many others), location, personal circumstances etc.

The second task : Tutorial Topic 7 – MIS (to be completed over 2 weeks) Describe a decision support system whose purpose is to help you decide which accommodation would be best for you whilst at college next year. Hints: You will need to decide on the factors that will influence your decision, and decide on any weightings that may apply to these factors. You will also need to supply a formula to derive ‘the best solution’, making sure it can support ‘what if’ features. Factors you might consider – affordable rent values, flat or house, sharing (how many others), location, personal circumstances etc.

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CHM114: Exam #2 CHM 114, S2015 Exam #2, Version C 16 March 2015 Instructor: O. Graudejus Points: 100 Print Name Sign Name Student I.D. # 1. You are responsible for the information on this page. Please read it carefully. 2. Code your name and 10 digit affiliate identification number on the separate scantron answer sheet. Use only a #2 pencil 3. If you enter your ASU ID incorrectly on the scantron, a 3 point penalty will be assessed. 4. Do all calculations on the exam pages. Do not make any unnecessary marks on the answer sheet. 5. This exam consists of 25 multiple choice questions worth 4 points each and a periodic table. Make sure you have them all. 6. Choose the best answer to each of the questions and answer it on the computer-graded answer sheet. Read all responses before making a selection. 7. Read the directions carefully for each problem. 8. Avoid even casual glances at other students’ exams. 9. Stop writing and hand in your scantron answer sheet and your test promptly when instructed. LATE EXAMS MAY HAVE POINTS DEDUCTED. 10. You will have 50 minutes to complete the exam. 11. If you leave early, please do so quietly. 12. Work the easiest problems first. 13. A periodic table is attached as the last page to this exam. 14. Answers will be posted online this afternoon. Potentially useful information: K = ºC + 273.15 RH=2.18·10-18 J R=8.314 J·K-1·mol-1 1Å=10-10 m c=3·108 m/s Ephoton=h·n=h·c/l h=6.626·10-34 Js Avogadro’s Number = 6.022 × 1023 particles/mole DH°rxn =  n DHf° (products) –  n DHf° (reactants) ) 1 1 ( 2 2 f i H n n DE = R − \ -2- CHM114: Exam #2 1) Which one of the following is an incorrect orbital notation? A) 2s B) 2p C) 3f D) 3d E) 4s 2) The energy of a photon that has a frequency of 8.21 1015s 1 − × is __________ J. A) 8.08 10 50 − × B) 1.99 10 25 − × C) 5.44 10 18 − × D) 1.24×1049 E) 1.26 10 19 − × 3) The ground state electron configuration of Ga is __________. A) 1s22s23s23p64s23d104p1 B) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d104p1 C) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1 D) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104d1 E) [Ar]4s23d11 4) Of the bonds N–N, N=N, and NN, the N-N bond is __________. A) strongest/shortest B) weakest/longest C) strongest/longest D) weakest/shortest E) intermediate in both strength and length 5) Of the atoms below, __________ is the most electronegative. A) Br B) O C) Cl D) N E) F 6) Of the following, __________ cannot accommodate more than an octet of electrons. A) P B) O C) S D) Cl E) I -3- CHM 114: Exam #2 7) Which electron configuration represents a violation of Hund’s Rule? A) B) C) D) E) 8) A tin atom has 50 electrons. Electrons in the _____ subshell experience the highest effective nuclear charge. A) 1s B) 3p C) 3d D) 5s E) 5p 9) In ionic compounds, the lattice energy_____ as the magnitude of the ion charges _____ and the radii _____. A) increases, decrease, increase B) increases, increase, increase C) decreases, increase, increase D) increases, increase, decrease E) increases, decrease, decrease 10) Which of the following ionic compounds has the highest lattice energy? A) LiF B) MgO C) CsF D) CsI E) LiI -4- CHM 114: Exam #2 11) For which one of the following reactions is the value of H°rxn equal to Hf° for the product? A) 2 C (s, graphite) + 2 H2 (g)  C2H4 (g) B) N2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 NO (g) C) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (l) D) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (g) E) all of the above 12) Given the data in the table below, H rxn D ° for the reaction 3 2 3 PCl (g) + 3HCl(g)®3Cl (g) + PH (g) is __________ kJ. A) -570.37 B) -385.77 C) 570.37 D) 385.77 E) The f DH° of 2 Cl (g) is needed for the calculation. 13) Given the following reactions (1) 2 2 2NO® N +O H = -180 kJ (2) 2 2 2NO+O ®2NO H = -112 kJ the enthalpy of the reaction of nitrogen with oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide 2 2 2 N + 2O ®2NO is __________ kJ. A) 68 B) -68 C) -292 D) 292 E) -146 14) Of the following transitions in the Bohr hydrogen atom, the __________ transition results in the absorption of the lowest-energy photon. A) n = 1  n = 6 B) n = 6  n = 1 C) n = 6  n = 5 D) n = 3  n = 6 E) n = 1  n = 4 -5- CHM 114: Exam #2 15) Which equation correctly represents the electron affinity of calcium? A) Ca (g)  Ca+ (g) + e- B) Ca (g)  Ca- (g) + e- C) Ca (g) + e-  Ca- (g) D) Ca- (g)  Ca (g) + e- E) Ca+ (g) + e-  Ca (g) 16) Which of the following does not have eight valence electrons? A) Ca+ B) Rb+ C) Xe D) Br− E) All of the above have eight valence electrons. 17) The specific heat of liquid bromine is 0.226 J/g · K. The molar heat capacity (in J/mol-K) of liquid bromine is __________. A) 707 B) 36.1 C) 18.1 D) 9.05 E) 0.226 18) Given the electronegativities below, which covalent single bond is least polar? Element: H C N O F Electronegativity: 2.1 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 A) C-H B) C-F C) O-H D) O-C E) F-H 19) The bond length in an HCl molecule is 1.27 Å and the measured dipole moment is 1.08 D. What is the magnitude (in units of e) of the negative charge on Cl in HCl? (1 debye = 3.34 10 30 coulomb-meters − × ; e=1.6 10 19 coulombs − × ) A) 1.6 10 19 − × B) 0.057 C) 0.18 D) 1 E) 0.22 -6- CHM 114: Exam #2 20) The F-B-F bond angle in the BF3 molecule is approximately __________. A) 90° B) 109.5° C) 120° D) 180° E) 60° 21) Which isoelectronic series is correctly arranged in order of increasing radius? A) K+ < Ca2+ < Ar < Cl- B) Cl- < Ar < K+ < Ca2+ C) Ca2+ < Ar < K+ < Cl- D) Ca2+ < K+ < Ar < Cl- E) Ca2+ < K+ < Cl- < Ar 22) What is the electron configuration for the Fe2+ ion? A) [Ar]4s03d6 B) [Ar]4s23d4 C) [Ar]4s03d8 D) [Ar]4s23d8 E) [Ar]4s63d2 23) The formal charge on carbon in the Lewis structure of the NCS - ion is __________: A) -1 B) +1 C) +2 D) 0 E) +3 -7- CHM 114: Exam #2 24) Using the table of bond dissociation energies, the H for the following gas-phase reaction is __________ kJ. A) 291 B) 2017 C) -57 D) -356 E) -291 25) According to VSEPR theory, if there are six electron domains in the valence shell of an atom, they will be arranged in a(n) __________ geometry. A) octahedral B) linear C) tetrahedral D) trigonal planar E) trigonal bipyramidal -8- CHM 114: Exam #2

CHM114: Exam #2 CHM 114, S2015 Exam #2, Version C 16 March 2015 Instructor: O. Graudejus Points: 100 Print Name Sign Name Student I.D. # 1. You are responsible for the information on this page. Please read it carefully. 2. Code your name and 10 digit affiliate identification number on the separate scantron answer sheet. Use only a #2 pencil 3. If you enter your ASU ID incorrectly on the scantron, a 3 point penalty will be assessed. 4. Do all calculations on the exam pages. Do not make any unnecessary marks on the answer sheet. 5. This exam consists of 25 multiple choice questions worth 4 points each and a periodic table. Make sure you have them all. 6. Choose the best answer to each of the questions and answer it on the computer-graded answer sheet. Read all responses before making a selection. 7. Read the directions carefully for each problem. 8. Avoid even casual glances at other students’ exams. 9. Stop writing and hand in your scantron answer sheet and your test promptly when instructed. LATE EXAMS MAY HAVE POINTS DEDUCTED. 10. You will have 50 minutes to complete the exam. 11. If you leave early, please do so quietly. 12. Work the easiest problems first. 13. A periodic table is attached as the last page to this exam. 14. Answers will be posted online this afternoon. Potentially useful information: K = ºC + 273.15 RH=2.18·10-18 J R=8.314 J·K-1·mol-1 1Å=10-10 m c=3·108 m/s Ephoton=h·n=h·c/l h=6.626·10-34 Js Avogadro’s Number = 6.022 × 1023 particles/mole DH°rxn =  n DHf° (products) –  n DHf° (reactants) ) 1 1 ( 2 2 f i H n n DE = R − \ -2- CHM114: Exam #2 1) Which one of the following is an incorrect orbital notation? A) 2s B) 2p C) 3f D) 3d E) 4s 2) The energy of a photon that has a frequency of 8.21 1015s 1 − × is __________ J. A) 8.08 10 50 − × B) 1.99 10 25 − × C) 5.44 10 18 − × D) 1.24×1049 E) 1.26 10 19 − × 3) The ground state electron configuration of Ga is __________. A) 1s22s23s23p64s23d104p1 B) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d104p1 C) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1 D) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104d1 E) [Ar]4s23d11 4) Of the bonds N–N, N=N, and NN, the N-N bond is __________. A) strongest/shortest B) weakest/longest C) strongest/longest D) weakest/shortest E) intermediate in both strength and length 5) Of the atoms below, __________ is the most electronegative. A) Br B) O C) Cl D) N E) F 6) Of the following, __________ cannot accommodate more than an octet of electrons. A) P B) O C) S D) Cl E) I -3- CHM 114: Exam #2 7) Which electron configuration represents a violation of Hund’s Rule? A) B) C) D) E) 8) A tin atom has 50 electrons. Electrons in the _____ subshell experience the highest effective nuclear charge. A) 1s B) 3p C) 3d D) 5s E) 5p 9) In ionic compounds, the lattice energy_____ as the magnitude of the ion charges _____ and the radii _____. A) increases, decrease, increase B) increases, increase, increase C) decreases, increase, increase D) increases, increase, decrease E) increases, decrease, decrease 10) Which of the following ionic compounds has the highest lattice energy? A) LiF B) MgO C) CsF D) CsI E) LiI -4- CHM 114: Exam #2 11) For which one of the following reactions is the value of H°rxn equal to Hf° for the product? A) 2 C (s, graphite) + 2 H2 (g)  C2H4 (g) B) N2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 NO (g) C) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (l) D) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (g) E) all of the above 12) Given the data in the table below, H rxn D ° for the reaction 3 2 3 PCl (g) + 3HCl(g)®3Cl (g) + PH (g) is __________ kJ. A) -570.37 B) -385.77 C) 570.37 D) 385.77 E) The f DH° of 2 Cl (g) is needed for the calculation. 13) Given the following reactions (1) 2 2 2NO® N +O H = -180 kJ (2) 2 2 2NO+O ®2NO H = -112 kJ the enthalpy of the reaction of nitrogen with oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide 2 2 2 N + 2O ®2NO is __________ kJ. A) 68 B) -68 C) -292 D) 292 E) -146 14) Of the following transitions in the Bohr hydrogen atom, the __________ transition results in the absorption of the lowest-energy photon. A) n = 1  n = 6 B) n = 6  n = 1 C) n = 6  n = 5 D) n = 3  n = 6 E) n = 1  n = 4 -5- CHM 114: Exam #2 15) Which equation correctly represents the electron affinity of calcium? A) Ca (g)  Ca+ (g) + e- B) Ca (g)  Ca- (g) + e- C) Ca (g) + e-  Ca- (g) D) Ca- (g)  Ca (g) + e- E) Ca+ (g) + e-  Ca (g) 16) Which of the following does not have eight valence electrons? A) Ca+ B) Rb+ C) Xe D) Br− E) All of the above have eight valence electrons. 17) The specific heat of liquid bromine is 0.226 J/g · K. The molar heat capacity (in J/mol-K) of liquid bromine is __________. A) 707 B) 36.1 C) 18.1 D) 9.05 E) 0.226 18) Given the electronegativities below, which covalent single bond is least polar? Element: H C N O F Electronegativity: 2.1 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 A) C-H B) C-F C) O-H D) O-C E) F-H 19) The bond length in an HCl molecule is 1.27 Å and the measured dipole moment is 1.08 D. What is the magnitude (in units of e) of the negative charge on Cl in HCl? (1 debye = 3.34 10 30 coulomb-meters − × ; e=1.6 10 19 coulombs − × ) A) 1.6 10 19 − × B) 0.057 C) 0.18 D) 1 E) 0.22 -6- CHM 114: Exam #2 20) The F-B-F bond angle in the BF3 molecule is approximately __________. A) 90° B) 109.5° C) 120° D) 180° E) 60° 21) Which isoelectronic series is correctly arranged in order of increasing radius? A) K+ < Ca2+ < Ar < Cl- B) Cl- < Ar < K+ < Ca2+ C) Ca2+ < Ar < K+ < Cl- D) Ca2+ < K+ < Ar < Cl- E) Ca2+ < K+ < Cl- < Ar 22) What is the electron configuration for the Fe2+ ion? A) [Ar]4s03d6 B) [Ar]4s23d4 C) [Ar]4s03d8 D) [Ar]4s23d8 E) [Ar]4s63d2 23) The formal charge on carbon in the Lewis structure of the NCS - ion is __________: A) -1 B) +1 C) +2 D) 0 E) +3 -7- CHM 114: Exam #2 24) Using the table of bond dissociation energies, the H for the following gas-phase reaction is __________ kJ. A) 291 B) 2017 C) -57 D) -356 E) -291 25) According to VSEPR theory, if there are six electron domains in the valence shell of an atom, they will be arranged in a(n) __________ geometry. A) octahedral B) linear C) tetrahedral D) trigonal planar E) trigonal bipyramidal -8- CHM 114: Exam #2

ELEC153 Circuit Theory II M2A3 Lab: AC Series Circuits Introduction Previously you worked with two simple AC series circuits, R-C and R-L circuits. We continue that work in this experiment. Procedure 1. Setup the following circuit in MultiSim.The voltage source is 10 volts peak at 1000 Hz. Figure 1: Circuit for analysis using MultiSim 2. Change R1 to 1 k and C1 to 0.1 uF. Connect the oscilloscope to measure both the source voltage and the voltage across the resistor.You should have the following arrangement. Figure 2: Circuit of figure 1 connected to oscilloscope To color the wires, right click the desired wire and select “Color Segment…” and follow the instructions. Start the simulation and open the oscilloscope. You should get the following plot: Figure 3: Source voltage (red) and the voltage (blue) across the resistor The red signal is the voltage of the source and the blue is the voltage across the resistor. The colors correspond to the colors of the wires from the oscilloscope. 3. From the resulting analysis plotdetermine the peak current. To determine the peak current measure the peak voltage across the resistor and divide by the value of the resistor (1000 Ohms). Record it here. Measured Peak Current 4. Determine the peak current by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured peak current? Explain. Calculated Peak Current 5 Determine the phase shift between the current in the circuit and the source voltage. We look at the time between zero crossings to determine the phase shift between two waveforms. In our plot, the blue waveform (representing the circuit current or the voltage across the resistor) crosses zero before the red waveform (the circuit voltage). So, current is leading voltage in this circuit. This is exactly what should happen when we have a capacitive circuit. 6. To determine the phase shift, we first have to measure the time between zero crossings on the red and blue waveforms. This is done by moving the oscillator probes to the two zero crossing as is shown in the following figure Figure 4: Determining the phase shift between the two voltage waveforms We can see from the figure that the zero crossing difference (T2 – T1) is approximately 134 us. The ratio of the zero-crossing time difference to the period of the waveform determines the phase shift, as follows: Using our time values, we have: How do we know if this phase shift is correct? In step 4 when you did your manual calculations to find the peak current, you had to find the total impedance of the circuit, which was: Now, the current will be: Here, the positive angle on the current indicates it is leading the circuit voltage. 7. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Estimulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 8. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift Writeup and Submission In general, for each lab you do, you will be asked to setup certain circuits, simulate them, record the results, verify the results are correct by hand, and then discuss the solution. Your lab write-up should contain a one page, single spaced discussion of the lab experiment, what went right for you, what you had difficulty with, what you learned from the experiment, how it applies to our coursework, and any other comment you can think of. In addition, you should include screen shots from the MultiSim software and any other figure, table, or diagram as necessary.

ELEC153 Circuit Theory II M2A3 Lab: AC Series Circuits Introduction Previously you worked with two simple AC series circuits, R-C and R-L circuits. We continue that work in this experiment. Procedure 1. Setup the following circuit in MultiSim.The voltage source is 10 volts peak at 1000 Hz. Figure 1: Circuit for analysis using MultiSim 2. Change R1 to 1 k and C1 to 0.1 uF. Connect the oscilloscope to measure both the source voltage and the voltage across the resistor.You should have the following arrangement. Figure 2: Circuit of figure 1 connected to oscilloscope To color the wires, right click the desired wire and select “Color Segment…” and follow the instructions. Start the simulation and open the oscilloscope. You should get the following plot: Figure 3: Source voltage (red) and the voltage (blue) across the resistor The red signal is the voltage of the source and the blue is the voltage across the resistor. The colors correspond to the colors of the wires from the oscilloscope. 3. From the resulting analysis plotdetermine the peak current. To determine the peak current measure the peak voltage across the resistor and divide by the value of the resistor (1000 Ohms). Record it here. Measured Peak Current 4. Determine the peak current by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured peak current? Explain. Calculated Peak Current 5 Determine the phase shift between the current in the circuit and the source voltage. We look at the time between zero crossings to determine the phase shift between two waveforms. In our plot, the blue waveform (representing the circuit current or the voltage across the resistor) crosses zero before the red waveform (the circuit voltage). So, current is leading voltage in this circuit. This is exactly what should happen when we have a capacitive circuit. 6. To determine the phase shift, we first have to measure the time between zero crossings on the red and blue waveforms. This is done by moving the oscillator probes to the two zero crossing as is shown in the following figure Figure 4: Determining the phase shift between the two voltage waveforms We can see from the figure that the zero crossing difference (T2 – T1) is approximately 134 us. The ratio of the zero-crossing time difference to the period of the waveform determines the phase shift, as follows: Using our time values, we have: How do we know if this phase shift is correct? In step 4 when you did your manual calculations to find the peak current, you had to find the total impedance of the circuit, which was: Now, the current will be: Here, the positive angle on the current indicates it is leading the circuit voltage. 7. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Estimulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 8. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift Writeup and Submission In general, for each lab you do, you will be asked to setup certain circuits, simulate them, record the results, verify the results are correct by hand, and then discuss the solution. Your lab write-up should contain a one page, single spaced discussion of the lab experiment, what went right for you, what you had difficulty with, what you learned from the experiment, how it applies to our coursework, and any other comment you can think of. In addition, you should include screen shots from the MultiSim software and any other figure, table, or diagram as necessary.

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BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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Elastic Collision Write up for TA Jessica Andersen The following pages include what is expected for the PHY 112 Elastic Collision lab. Below each section heading are general tips for lab writing that can be applied to any lab in the future. Point values associated with each section are stated, as well are the points associated for topics within that section. Read through completely before beginning. Introduction ( 20 pts total ) Tips for a good Introduction section: Be thorough but do not write a five paragraph essay! Concisely present the purpose and background material. You don’t need to number equations unless you will be referring back to them. Simply explain what they apply to as you introduce them. A 2pt bullet should not correspond to more than two lines of writing in your report. – Include a statement of purpose for the lab. (5pts) – Define the necessary conditions of an Elastic Collision (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of linear momentum and derive the equation for calculating linear momentum in the x-direction and the y direction. (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of energy and derive the equation for calculating kinetic energy of the system before and after the collision. (5pts) Methods (10 pts total) Tips for a good Methods section: Don’t spend too much time on this section! Be very quick and to the point. Write as if you are giving instructions to someone else. This will sound much more professional and you won’t have to worry about the use of “I” or “we”, which can tend to make a lab report sound very informal. – Briefly describe the setup of the lab and what precautions were taken to ensure something close to an elastic collision (5pts) – What frequency was the “zapper” set to? (5pts) Results (25 pts total) Tips for a good Results section: This is an important section. It should be organized and formatted in a way that makes it very easy to read. Your tables should have borders and bolded headings where you see appropriate. Always include a brief description of each table at the opening of the section. REMEMBER, the Results section is about conveying your data in a readable and easy to understand way. • do not divide tables across pages • do not include more than 3 decimal places unless they are legitimately important – Include a table that summarizes all of the values recorded from the collision path. (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Kinetic Energy before and after the collision (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Linear Momentum in both directions before and after the collision (10pts) – Include a summary table that calculates the percent error between before collision values and after collision values. Use the before collision values as your theoretical value. (5pts) Discussion (40 pts total) Tips for a good Discussion section: This section is worth almost half of your report! I want to see that you put legitimate thought into your data and how it relates to what you learn in lecture. Show me that you understand the things we talked about in class. Be thorough, but remember that long and drawn out does not necessary achieve this. • do not present data as one large paragraph, make them smaller and easier to read • do not refer back to tables, actually state the values when asked for • you may refer back to graphs when necessary • do not use math vocabulary wrong, if you are unsure of a definition, look it up!!! – Present the percent error values for both momentum and energy calculations. (10pts) – Why was the energy and momentum BEFORE collision used as the theoretical value? (hint: It has to do with us assuming we have an Elastic Collision) (10pts) – Present the frequency of the “zapper”. What does this mean about the time that passes between each dot on the collision path? (10pts) – Discuss sources of error in this lab and how they may have affected our final result. (10pts) Appendix (5pts total) – Just staple on whatever notes you took in class.

Elastic Collision Write up for TA Jessica Andersen The following pages include what is expected for the PHY 112 Elastic Collision lab. Below each section heading are general tips for lab writing that can be applied to any lab in the future. Point values associated with each section are stated, as well are the points associated for topics within that section. Read through completely before beginning. Introduction ( 20 pts total ) Tips for a good Introduction section: Be thorough but do not write a five paragraph essay! Concisely present the purpose and background material. You don’t need to number equations unless you will be referring back to them. Simply explain what they apply to as you introduce them. A 2pt bullet should not correspond to more than two lines of writing in your report. – Include a statement of purpose for the lab. (5pts) – Define the necessary conditions of an Elastic Collision (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of linear momentum and derive the equation for calculating linear momentum in the x-direction and the y direction. (5pts) – Introduce the concept of conservation of energy and derive the equation for calculating kinetic energy of the system before and after the collision. (5pts) Methods (10 pts total) Tips for a good Methods section: Don’t spend too much time on this section! Be very quick and to the point. Write as if you are giving instructions to someone else. This will sound much more professional and you won’t have to worry about the use of “I” or “we”, which can tend to make a lab report sound very informal. – Briefly describe the setup of the lab and what precautions were taken to ensure something close to an elastic collision (5pts) – What frequency was the “zapper” set to? (5pts) Results (25 pts total) Tips for a good Results section: This is an important section. It should be organized and formatted in a way that makes it very easy to read. Your tables should have borders and bolded headings where you see appropriate. Always include a brief description of each table at the opening of the section. REMEMBER, the Results section is about conveying your data in a readable and easy to understand way. • do not divide tables across pages • do not include more than 3 decimal places unless they are legitimately important – Include a table that summarizes all of the values recorded from the collision path. (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Kinetic Energy before and after the collision (5pts) – Include a table that displays the Linear Momentum in both directions before and after the collision (10pts) – Include a summary table that calculates the percent error between before collision values and after collision values. Use the before collision values as your theoretical value. (5pts) Discussion (40 pts total) Tips for a good Discussion section: This section is worth almost half of your report! I want to see that you put legitimate thought into your data and how it relates to what you learn in lecture. Show me that you understand the things we talked about in class. Be thorough, but remember that long and drawn out does not necessary achieve this. • do not present data as one large paragraph, make them smaller and easier to read • do not refer back to tables, actually state the values when asked for • you may refer back to graphs when necessary • do not use math vocabulary wrong, if you are unsure of a definition, look it up!!! – Present the percent error values for both momentum and energy calculations. (10pts) – Why was the energy and momentum BEFORE collision used as the theoretical value? (hint: It has to do with us assuming we have an Elastic Collision) (10pts) – Present the frequency of the “zapper”. What does this mean about the time that passes between each dot on the collision path? (10pts) – Discuss sources of error in this lab and how they may have affected our final result. (10pts) Appendix (5pts total) – Just staple on whatever notes you took in class.

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Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

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Berkeley College International Economics Quiz 1 Student name: Class & Session (Type all your answers in the parenthesis) Multiple Choice Questions (75 points) 1. The person credited with the first systematic expression of the principle of comparative advantage was ( ) A. Alan Greenspan. B. John Maynard Keynes. C. David Ricardo. D. Adam Smith. 2. A regulation that sets the highest price at which it is legal to trade a good is a ( ) A. Production quota B. Price floor C. Price ceiling D. Tax ceiling 3. In Country J, it takes one hour to knit a pair of socks, and five hours to brew a gallon of cider. In Country K, it takes three hours to knit a pair of socks, and six hours to brew a gallon of cider. If trade were to open between the two countries, Ricardo would predict that ( ) A. Country J will export cider and Country K will export socks. B. Country J will export socks and Country K will export cider. C. Country J will export both socks and cider. D. Country K will export both socks and cider. 4. If Nation A can produce either 3x or 3y with one hour of labor, while nation B can produce either 1x or 1y with one hour of labor, and if labor is the only input, then ( ) A. Nation A has an absolute advantage in both goods. B. Nation B has an absolute advantage in both goods. C. Nation A has a comparative disadvantage in both goods. D. Nation A has a comparative advantage in both goods. 5. Mutually beneficial trade A. Allows both countries to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred.( ) B. Allows only the more productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. C. Allows only the less productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. D. Causes changes only in production, not consumption. 6. In the absence of trade, the consumption points available to a nation ( ) A. Are above the production possibility curve. B. Are on or inside the production possibility curve. C. Lie on the production possibility curve. D. Cannot be identified. 7. For Heckscher-Ohlin, the most important cause of the differences in relative commodity prices is the difference between countries in ( ) A. Factor endowments. B. National income. C. Technology. D. Tastes. 8. Country J has 1 million machines and 1 million workers, while country K has 2 million machines and 3 million workers. If computers are produced mostly by capital and beer is produced mostly by labor, the H-O model predicts that ( ) A. Country K will export computers in exchange for beer. B. Country J will export computers in exchange for beer. C. Country J is too small to be of economic interest to Country K. D. Computers and beer don’t mix, so trade cannot increase either country’s well-being. 9. Mexico is an unskilled labor abundant country, while the United States is a skilled labor abundant country. With the opening of trade, you would expect that, in the long run, wages for unskilled workers ( ) A. Decline in both countries. B. Decline in the United States and rise in Mexico. C. Rise in the United States and decline in Mexico. D. Rise in both countries 10. According to trade theory, if a nation has a comparative advantage in a capital-intensively produced good, and the rate of growth of capital is greater than the rate of growth of other inputs (e.g., labor), the pattern of growth which results will be ( ) A. Import replacing. B. Neutral as between capital intensive and other products. C. Export expanding. D. None of the above. 11. Arguments in favor of having developing countries focus on exporting manufactured goods include ( ) A. Strong support in industrialized countries for free trade in manufactured goods. B. Very low tariffs on manufactured textiles, apparel, and footwear in industrialized countries. C. Political preference for VERs among importing countries. D. A downward trend in the prices of primary products. 12. Which group definitely loses from international migration of labor? ( ) A. The migrants. B. The migrants’ new employers in the receiving country. C. The migrants’ old employers in the sending country. D. The migrants’ fellow workers who did not emigrate. 13. As technology advances, ( ) A. All opportunity cost decreases B. The PPF shift outward C. A country moves toward the midpoint along its PPF D. The PPF shift inward because unemployment occurs 14. If a country is operating at a point of production efficiency ( ) A. It enjoys growth when increasing production B. It produces on its production possibility frontier curve C. It must specialize in the production of a good D. It operates on its trade line 15. A cartel is ( ) A. Another name for a firm in an oligopoly B. A collusive agreement among a number of firms C. A government body that regulates an industry D. An antitrust law (Type and show your work) Practicum Question (25 points) Two countries, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, produce fruits and timber. Each island has a labor force of 1200 and the monthly productivity of each worker is as follow Basket of fruit Board feet of timber Haiti 10 5 Dominican Republic 30 10 a. Which county has an absolute advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? b. Which country has a comparative advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? c. Sketch the production possibility frontier (PPF) of both countries d. Both countries want to produce an equal amount of baskets of fruit and feet of timber. How should they allocate their workers to the two sectors? e. How can free trade move both countries beyond their respective PPF Extra credits (10 points) The demand and supply curves of the market for DVD at the local (US) market are as follow: P = 30 – Qd/2 and P= -1.5 + Qs/4 a. Find the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity when there is no international trade ( hint: solve for Qd and Qs And then make Qd=Qs to solve for Price and quantities) b. What are the equilibrium quantities when the nations trade freely at price of $15? Explain your rationale. c. How many units are exported? d. What is the resulting national gain? e. Do consumers and producers gain or lose from the free trade?

Berkeley College International Economics Quiz 1 Student name: Class & Session (Type all your answers in the parenthesis) Multiple Choice Questions (75 points) 1. The person credited with the first systematic expression of the principle of comparative advantage was ( ) A. Alan Greenspan. B. John Maynard Keynes. C. David Ricardo. D. Adam Smith. 2. A regulation that sets the highest price at which it is legal to trade a good is a ( ) A. Production quota B. Price floor C. Price ceiling D. Tax ceiling 3. In Country J, it takes one hour to knit a pair of socks, and five hours to brew a gallon of cider. In Country K, it takes three hours to knit a pair of socks, and six hours to brew a gallon of cider. If trade were to open between the two countries, Ricardo would predict that ( ) A. Country J will export cider and Country K will export socks. B. Country J will export socks and Country K will export cider. C. Country J will export both socks and cider. D. Country K will export both socks and cider. 4. If Nation A can produce either 3x or 3y with one hour of labor, while nation B can produce either 1x or 1y with one hour of labor, and if labor is the only input, then ( ) A. Nation A has an absolute advantage in both goods. B. Nation B has an absolute advantage in both goods. C. Nation A has a comparative disadvantage in both goods. D. Nation A has a comparative advantage in both goods. 5. Mutually beneficial trade A. Allows both countries to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred.( ) B. Allows only the more productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. C. Allows only the less productive country to consume a larger bundle of goods than before trade occurred. D. Causes changes only in production, not consumption. 6. In the absence of trade, the consumption points available to a nation ( ) A. Are above the production possibility curve. B. Are on or inside the production possibility curve. C. Lie on the production possibility curve. D. Cannot be identified. 7. For Heckscher-Ohlin, the most important cause of the differences in relative commodity prices is the difference between countries in ( ) A. Factor endowments. B. National income. C. Technology. D. Tastes. 8. Country J has 1 million machines and 1 million workers, while country K has 2 million machines and 3 million workers. If computers are produced mostly by capital and beer is produced mostly by labor, the H-O model predicts that ( ) A. Country K will export computers in exchange for beer. B. Country J will export computers in exchange for beer. C. Country J is too small to be of economic interest to Country K. D. Computers and beer don’t mix, so trade cannot increase either country’s well-being. 9. Mexico is an unskilled labor abundant country, while the United States is a skilled labor abundant country. With the opening of trade, you would expect that, in the long run, wages for unskilled workers ( ) A. Decline in both countries. B. Decline in the United States and rise in Mexico. C. Rise in the United States and decline in Mexico. D. Rise in both countries 10. According to trade theory, if a nation has a comparative advantage in a capital-intensively produced good, and the rate of growth of capital is greater than the rate of growth of other inputs (e.g., labor), the pattern of growth which results will be ( ) A. Import replacing. B. Neutral as between capital intensive and other products. C. Export expanding. D. None of the above. 11. Arguments in favor of having developing countries focus on exporting manufactured goods include ( ) A. Strong support in industrialized countries for free trade in manufactured goods. B. Very low tariffs on manufactured textiles, apparel, and footwear in industrialized countries. C. Political preference for VERs among importing countries. D. A downward trend in the prices of primary products. 12. Which group definitely loses from international migration of labor? ( ) A. The migrants. B. The migrants’ new employers in the receiving country. C. The migrants’ old employers in the sending country. D. The migrants’ fellow workers who did not emigrate. 13. As technology advances, ( ) A. All opportunity cost decreases B. The PPF shift outward C. A country moves toward the midpoint along its PPF D. The PPF shift inward because unemployment occurs 14. If a country is operating at a point of production efficiency ( ) A. It enjoys growth when increasing production B. It produces on its production possibility frontier curve C. It must specialize in the production of a good D. It operates on its trade line 15. A cartel is ( ) A. Another name for a firm in an oligopoly B. A collusive agreement among a number of firms C. A government body that regulates an industry D. An antitrust law (Type and show your work) Practicum Question (25 points) Two countries, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, produce fruits and timber. Each island has a labor force of 1200 and the monthly productivity of each worker is as follow Basket of fruit Board feet of timber Haiti 10 5 Dominican Republic 30 10 a. Which county has an absolute advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? b. Which country has a comparative advantage in the production of fruit? Timber? c. Sketch the production possibility frontier (PPF) of both countries d. Both countries want to produce an equal amount of baskets of fruit and feet of timber. How should they allocate their workers to the two sectors? e. How can free trade move both countries beyond their respective PPF Extra credits (10 points) The demand and supply curves of the market for DVD at the local (US) market are as follow: P = 30 – Qd/2 and P= -1.5 + Qs/4 a. Find the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity when there is no international trade ( hint: solve for Qd and Qs And then make Qd=Qs to solve for Price and quantities) b. What are the equilibrium quantities when the nations trade freely at price of $15? Explain your rationale. c. How many units are exported? d. What is the resulting national gain? e. Do consumers and producers gain or lose from the free trade?

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6. What is meant by the threshold service level of a least-cost system?

6. What is meant by the threshold service level of a least-cost system?

What is meant by the threshold service level of a … Read More...