Overview The human body can regulate its function responding to the change of its environment. Temperature is one of the factors which can modulate the body function. Refer to the related lectures and other resources; answer the followed questions (question 1-5 need at least 400 words together): Q1 In case of cold weather how does human body detect the coldness? Explain the signal detection, delivery, processing and involved cells, tissues and organs.

Overview The human body can regulate its function responding to the change of its environment. Temperature is one of the factors which can modulate the body function. Refer to the related lectures and other resources; answer the followed questions (question 1-5 need at least 400 words together): Q1 In case of cold weather how does human body detect the coldness? Explain the signal detection, delivery, processing and involved cells, tissues and organs.

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Q3. a) Draw a volume vs. temperature curve for a sample of crystalline SiO2 which is heated from room temperature to above its melting point. b) In the same figure, draw the volume vs. temperature curve when melt Sio2 is quickly cooled c) Why do some ceramics, such as SiO2, easily from glasses, whereas most metals do not?

Q3. a) Draw a volume vs. temperature curve for a sample of crystalline SiO2 which is heated from room temperature to above its melting point. b) In the same figure, draw the volume vs. temperature curve when melt Sio2 is quickly cooled c) Why do some ceramics, such as SiO2, easily from glasses, whereas most metals do not?

Vermont Technical College Electronic Applications ELT-2060 Lab 05: DC characteristics, input offset voltage and input bias current Reference: Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits Fourth edition William D. Stanley, pages 154-155 (Problems 3-21, 3-22 and Lab exercises LE 3-1 to LE 3-4) For the following exercises, make sure to record all calculations, estimations and measured results. Components: 2 741 Op Amps, 10k Ω Potentiometer, 4-10kΩ, 1kΩ , 100kΩ , 100Ω , 560kΩ , 5.6M Ω, resistors Objectives: a. Voltage offset Null Circuit and Closed-loop Differential Circuit b. Measurement of dc Input Offset Voltage c. Measurement of dc Bias and Offset Currents a. Voltage offset Null Circuit and Closed-loop Differential Circuit In this exercise, investigate the use of a null circuit to reduce the output dc offset to its minimum possible value. Refer to the “Voltage Offset Null Circuit” describe in the 741 op amp data sheet from Appendix C of your text book. Although there are no specific closed-loop configurations shown, use a closed-loop differential Amplifier shown in Figure 1. The differential nature of this type of circuit makes it particularly sensitive, therefore well suited, to illustrate the concept dc voltage offset. 1. Connect the closed-loop difference amplifier of Figure 1 with R=10k Ω and A=1. Using a 10kΩ potentiometer connect the “Voltage Offset Null Circuit” between nodes 1 and 5 as shown in the 741 data sheet. Keep in mind that a potentiometer is a three terminal device. You will need to connect the potentiometer wiper terminal to the lowest potential in the circuit -VCC. 2. Connect the two external circuit inputs (v1 and v2) to ground, measure the dc voltage. From the data sheet the expected value of offset voltage at room temperature is 2mV typical and 6mV maximum. Voltages at these levels will be hard to measure with the laboratory multimeter. 3. Adjust the potentiometer until the dc output magnitude is either zero or it’s minimum possible value. Record the minimum value of voltage attained. 5. Do not break down you difference amplifier. Next, build the non-inverting amplifier as shown in figure 2 with Ri=1k Ω and Rf =100k Ω. Attach the output of the difference amplifier to the input of the non-inverting amplifier. This will amplify your offset by 101. 6. Adjust the potentiometer until the dc output magnitude is either zero or it’s minimum possible value. Record the minimum value of voltage attained. 7. In effect we amplified the voltage offset from the difference amplifier by 101. Please describe any possible flaws in using this approach. Compare this result to what was measured in step 2. 8. Write an equation that expresses the expected output voltage Vo in terms of the two input voltages V1 and V2. 9. Apply dc input voltage for the following six combinations, compare the results to the expected values you calculate with the equation from step 8 a. V1=10V, V2=0V b. V1=0V, V2=10V c. V1=V2=10V d. V1=10mV, V2=0 e. V1=0, V2=10mV f. V1=V2=10mV b. Measurement of dc Input Offset Voltage ( Stanley Problem 3-21 page 151) A circuit and equation to measure the input offset voltage Vio is show in figure 3. With the proper selection of resistors Ri, Rf, and Rc the effects of offset due to input bias currents can be neglected. When the input terminals are both held to ground the resulting output voltage should be a direct measurement of Vio. 1. Build the circuit in Figure 3 with Ri=100 Ω and Rf=10k Ω measure and record Vo. Compare your results with the specification of input offset voltage provided in the data sheet. 2. Increase the value of Rf to 100k Ω, and measure Vo again. Did the output increase by approximately 10x the value recorded in step 1, if so explain how that validates the assumption the input bias currents are negligible. 3. Be sure to include a comparison of the measured values in steps 1 and 2. Include a discussion on how there relationship demonstrates that neglecting input bias current was a valid assumption. c. Measurement of dc Bias and Offset Currents (Stanley Problem 3-22 page 152) Consider the three circuits of figure 4 .The resistance R is chosen large so that the contribution to the output from bias currents is considerably larger than the contribution from the input offset voltages. The accompanying equations will predict the values of Ib+, Ib- and Iio. 1. Start with setting R=560k Ω and build each circuit in figure 4 one at a time. Going from one configuration to the next configuration should be quick, all that is changing is the placement of the resistors. Measure Voa, Vob and Voc for each circuit and calculate Ib+, Ib-, and Iio, compare your measurements to the values in the data sheet. 2. Increase the value of R to 5.6M Ω. Measure Voa, Vob and Voc for each circuit and calculate Ib+, Ib-, and Iio, compare your measurements to the values in the data sheet and to the results in part 1.Did the output increase by approximately 10x the value recorded in step 1, if so explain how that validates the assumption the input offset voltage effect is negligible. 3. Be sure to include a comparison of the measured values in steps 1 and 2. Include a discussion on why neglecting input offset voltage was a valid assumption. LAB write up: This lab requires a semi-formal lab report. Record all calculations, estimations, and measured results. No MultiSim will be required for this report. Please include a written English language paragraph for all lab steps that required an explanation.

Vermont Technical College Electronic Applications ELT-2060 Lab 05: DC characteristics, input offset voltage and input bias current Reference: Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits Fourth edition William D. Stanley, pages 154-155 (Problems 3-21, 3-22 and Lab exercises LE 3-1 to LE 3-4) For the following exercises, make sure to record all calculations, estimations and measured results. Components: 2 741 Op Amps, 10k Ω Potentiometer, 4-10kΩ, 1kΩ , 100kΩ , 100Ω , 560kΩ , 5.6M Ω, resistors Objectives: a. Voltage offset Null Circuit and Closed-loop Differential Circuit b. Measurement of dc Input Offset Voltage c. Measurement of dc Bias and Offset Currents a. Voltage offset Null Circuit and Closed-loop Differential Circuit In this exercise, investigate the use of a null circuit to reduce the output dc offset to its minimum possible value. Refer to the “Voltage Offset Null Circuit” describe in the 741 op amp data sheet from Appendix C of your text book. Although there are no specific closed-loop configurations shown, use a closed-loop differential Amplifier shown in Figure 1. The differential nature of this type of circuit makes it particularly sensitive, therefore well suited, to illustrate the concept dc voltage offset. 1. Connect the closed-loop difference amplifier of Figure 1 with R=10k Ω and A=1. Using a 10kΩ potentiometer connect the “Voltage Offset Null Circuit” between nodes 1 and 5 as shown in the 741 data sheet. Keep in mind that a potentiometer is a three terminal device. You will need to connect the potentiometer wiper terminal to the lowest potential in the circuit -VCC. 2. Connect the two external circuit inputs (v1 and v2) to ground, measure the dc voltage. From the data sheet the expected value of offset voltage at room temperature is 2mV typical and 6mV maximum. Voltages at these levels will be hard to measure with the laboratory multimeter. 3. Adjust the potentiometer until the dc output magnitude is either zero or it’s minimum possible value. Record the minimum value of voltage attained. 5. Do not break down you difference amplifier. Next, build the non-inverting amplifier as shown in figure 2 with Ri=1k Ω and Rf =100k Ω. Attach the output of the difference amplifier to the input of the non-inverting amplifier. This will amplify your offset by 101. 6. Adjust the potentiometer until the dc output magnitude is either zero or it’s minimum possible value. Record the minimum value of voltage attained. 7. In effect we amplified the voltage offset from the difference amplifier by 101. Please describe any possible flaws in using this approach. Compare this result to what was measured in step 2. 8. Write an equation that expresses the expected output voltage Vo in terms of the two input voltages V1 and V2. 9. Apply dc input voltage for the following six combinations, compare the results to the expected values you calculate with the equation from step 8 a. V1=10V, V2=0V b. V1=0V, V2=10V c. V1=V2=10V d. V1=10mV, V2=0 e. V1=0, V2=10mV f. V1=V2=10mV b. Measurement of dc Input Offset Voltage ( Stanley Problem 3-21 page 151) A circuit and equation to measure the input offset voltage Vio is show in figure 3. With the proper selection of resistors Ri, Rf, and Rc the effects of offset due to input bias currents can be neglected. When the input terminals are both held to ground the resulting output voltage should be a direct measurement of Vio. 1. Build the circuit in Figure 3 with Ri=100 Ω and Rf=10k Ω measure and record Vo. Compare your results with the specification of input offset voltage provided in the data sheet. 2. Increase the value of Rf to 100k Ω, and measure Vo again. Did the output increase by approximately 10x the value recorded in step 1, if so explain how that validates the assumption the input bias currents are negligible. 3. Be sure to include a comparison of the measured values in steps 1 and 2. Include a discussion on how there relationship demonstrates that neglecting input bias current was a valid assumption. c. Measurement of dc Bias and Offset Currents (Stanley Problem 3-22 page 152) Consider the three circuits of figure 4 .The resistance R is chosen large so that the contribution to the output from bias currents is considerably larger than the contribution from the input offset voltages. The accompanying equations will predict the values of Ib+, Ib- and Iio. 1. Start with setting R=560k Ω and build each circuit in figure 4 one at a time. Going from one configuration to the next configuration should be quick, all that is changing is the placement of the resistors. Measure Voa, Vob and Voc for each circuit and calculate Ib+, Ib-, and Iio, compare your measurements to the values in the data sheet. 2. Increase the value of R to 5.6M Ω. Measure Voa, Vob and Voc for each circuit and calculate Ib+, Ib-, and Iio, compare your measurements to the values in the data sheet and to the results in part 1.Did the output increase by approximately 10x the value recorded in step 1, if so explain how that validates the assumption the input offset voltage effect is negligible. 3. Be sure to include a comparison of the measured values in steps 1 and 2. Include a discussion on why neglecting input offset voltage was a valid assumption. LAB write up: This lab requires a semi-formal lab report. Record all calculations, estimations, and measured results. No MultiSim will be required for this report. Please include a written English language paragraph for all lab steps that required an explanation.

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Elemental iodine (I2) is a solid at room temperature. What is the major attractive force that exists among different I2 molecules in the solid? A) London dispersion forces B) dipole-dipole rejections C) ionic-dipole interactions D) covalent-ionic interactions E) dipole-dipole attractions

Elemental iodine (I2) is a solid at room temperature. What is the major attractive force that exists among different I2 molecules in the solid? A) London dispersion forces B) dipole-dipole rejections C) ionic-dipole interactions D) covalent-ionic interactions E) dipole-dipole attractions

A) London dispersion forces
. which of the following predictions appear(s) to follow from a model based on the assumption that rational, self-interested individuals respond to incentives? (See pages 6–7.) a. For every 10 exam points Myrna must earn in order to pass her economics course and meet her graduation requirements, she will study one additional hour for her economics test next week. b. A coin toss will best predict Leonardo’s decision about whether to purchase an expensive business suit or an inexpensive casual outfit to wear next week when he interviews for a high-paying job he is seeking. c. Celeste, who uses earnings from her regularly scheduled hours of part-time work to pay for her room and board at college, will decide to purchase and download a newly released video this week only if

. which of the following predictions appear(s) to follow from a model based on the assumption that rational, self-interested individuals respond to incentives? (See pages 6–7.) a. For every 10 exam points Myrna must earn in order to pass her economics course and meet her graduation requirements, she will study one additional hour for her economics test next week. b. A coin toss will best predict Leonardo’s decision about whether to purchase an expensive business suit or an inexpensive casual outfit to wear next week when he interviews for a high-paying job he is seeking. c. Celeste, who uses earnings from her regularly scheduled hours of part-time work to pay for her room and board at college, will decide to purchase and download a newly released video this week only if

Amy is a generally aggressive and hostile child. Imagine that Suzanne accidentally bumped into Amy in a crowded room. Based on theories related to priming and chronic accessibility, Amy would perceive Suzanne’s bump as an ________ and likely respond with ________. accident; aggression accident; an apology intentionally hostile act; an apology intentionally hostile act; aggression

Amy is a generally aggressive and hostile child. Imagine that Suzanne accidentally bumped into Amy in a crowded room. Based on theories related to priming and chronic accessibility, Amy would perceive Suzanne’s bump as an ________ and likely respond with ________. accident; aggression accident; an apology intentionally hostile act; an apology intentionally hostile act; aggression

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Materials Chemistry for Engineers 1. In the van der Waals corrections to the Ideal Gas Law: (P + a/V2)(V – b) = nRT (a) What do a and b correct for from the Ideal Gas Law? (b) How would one determine a and b experimentally? Describe a proposed experiment and data analysis method for your experiment. 2. (a) What are the assumptions of the Ideal Gas Law? How did van der Waal modify these assumptions to come up with his equation of state? (b) what is an equation of state, in general? Describe in your own words. 3. Given the following data: Material a b_____ (l2.atm/mole2) (l/mole) N2 1.39 0.03913 NH3 4.17 0.03107 Aniline 26.50 0.1369 Benzene 18.00 0.1154 (a) Plot P vs. T for each gas using the van der Waals equation of state. Assume that you have a 1 liter volume and 1 mole of gas and plot the temperature on the x-axis from room temperature to 1400 K (pressures should range from about 0 atm to about 120 atm, depending on the gas). Plot the Ideal Gas Law with the other data on one plot. Are the interactions between molecules attractive or repulsive at low temperature? How do you know? What is happening with the gases at high temperature? Is one of the gases different from the others at 1400 K? (b) Discuss the nature of the intermolecular interaction that creates the deviation from ideality for each material. Are there induced dipole-induced dipole interactions, iondipole interactions, etc. for each of the different gases? Draw their chemical structures. 4. Ethane (CH3CH3) and fluoromethane (CH3F) have the same number of electrons and are essentially the same size. However, ethane has a boiling point of 184.5 K and fluoromethane has a boiling point of 194.7 K. Explain this 10 degree difference in boiling point in terms of the van der Waals forces present. Bonus, what is the size of each molecule? Show your calculation/sources.

Materials Chemistry for Engineers 1. In the van der Waals corrections to the Ideal Gas Law: (P + a/V2)(V – b) = nRT (a) What do a and b correct for from the Ideal Gas Law? (b) How would one determine a and b experimentally? Describe a proposed experiment and data analysis method for your experiment. 2. (a) What are the assumptions of the Ideal Gas Law? How did van der Waal modify these assumptions to come up with his equation of state? (b) what is an equation of state, in general? Describe in your own words. 3. Given the following data: Material a b_____ (l2.atm/mole2) (l/mole) N2 1.39 0.03913 NH3 4.17 0.03107 Aniline 26.50 0.1369 Benzene 18.00 0.1154 (a) Plot P vs. T for each gas using the van der Waals equation of state. Assume that you have a 1 liter volume and 1 mole of gas and plot the temperature on the x-axis from room temperature to 1400 K (pressures should range from about 0 atm to about 120 atm, depending on the gas). Plot the Ideal Gas Law with the other data on one plot. Are the interactions between molecules attractive or repulsive at low temperature? How do you know? What is happening with the gases at high temperature? Is one of the gases different from the others at 1400 K? (b) Discuss the nature of the intermolecular interaction that creates the deviation from ideality for each material. Are there induced dipole-induced dipole interactions, iondipole interactions, etc. for each of the different gases? Draw their chemical structures. 4. Ethane (CH3CH3) and fluoromethane (CH3F) have the same number of electrons and are essentially the same size. However, ethane has a boiling point of 184.5 K and fluoromethane has a boiling point of 194.7 K. Explain this 10 degree difference in boiling point in terms of the van der Waals forces present. Bonus, what is the size of each molecule? Show your calculation/sources.

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Consider the problem of implementing insertion sort using a doubly-linked list instead of array. Namely, each element a of the linked list has ?elds a.previous, a.next and a.value. You are giving a stating element s of the linked list (so that s.previous = nil, s.value = A[1], s.next.value = A[2], etc.) (a) Give a pseudocode implementation of this algorithm, and analyze its running time in the T(f(n)) notation. Explain how we do not have to “bump” elements in order to create room for the next inserted elements. Is this saving asymptotically signi?cant? (b) Can we speed up the time of the implementation to O(n log n) by utilizing binary search

Consider the problem of implementing insertion sort using a doubly-linked list instead of array. Namely, each element a of the linked list has ?elds a.previous, a.next and a.value. You are giving a stating element s of the linked list (so that s.previous = nil, s.value = A[1], s.next.value = A[2], etc.) (a) Give a pseudocode implementation of this algorithm, and analyze its running time in the T(f(n)) notation. Explain how we do not have to “bump” elements in order to create room for the next inserted elements. Is this saving asymptotically signi?cant? (b) Can we speed up the time of the implementation to O(n log n) by utilizing binary search

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The second task : Tutorial Topic 7 – MIS (to be completed over 2 weeks) Describe a decision support system whose purpose is to help you decide which accommodation would be best for you whilst at college next year. Hints: You will need to decide on the factors that will influence your decision, and decide on any weightings that may apply to these factors. You will also need to supply a formula to derive ‘the best solution’, making sure it can support ‘what if’ features. Factors you might consider – affordable rent values, flat or house, sharing (how many others), location, personal circumstances etc.

The second task : Tutorial Topic 7 – MIS (to be completed over 2 weeks) Describe a decision support system whose purpose is to help you decide which accommodation would be best for you whilst at college next year. Hints: You will need to decide on the factors that will influence your decision, and decide on any weightings that may apply to these factors. You will also need to supply a formula to derive ‘the best solution’, making sure it can support ‘what if’ features. Factors you might consider – affordable rent values, flat or house, sharing (how many others), location, personal circumstances etc.

As any DSS system, my DSS system will have the … Read More...