. Pt 1. Making Observations (Introduction) Write a brief, introductory paragraph that includes general observations related to the topic. You may consider information from the news, media (tv, movies), social media, popular views, ideas from the general public, or your personal experiences. Your paragraph should specifically mention three (3) observations related to this topic and be sure to cite your sources. You should also include your thoughts on why this topic is of interest to you or relevant to society (i.e. what is the significance?). Pt 2. Apply The Content Choose five (5) terms or concepts that we have covered in this unit that are related to the chosen topic. Define each term in your own words and then write one (1) sentence that explains how it is related to the topic. The concept are: Define evolution. What was Darwin’s role in establishing the theory of evolution? What does the phrase “descent with modification” mean? How are fossils, anatomical studies, and molecular biology used to provide evidence for the theory of evolution? What is “fitness” in a biological organism? What role do mutations have in natural selection? What are the types of natural selection? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What is genetic drift? gene flow? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What forces can lead to adaptive evolution? What is the biological definition of a species? What are the three domains of living organisms? What are the six kingdoms? For each kingdom you should be able to describe the cellular structure, means of reproduction, ways of getting nutrients/food, general/adaptive features, and an example organism. How does Helicobacter pylori avoid competition? What extreme environment does a hermoacidophile occupy? What is unique about the Volvox compared to other protists? How do pitcher plants thrive in low nutrient environments? How does the puffball mushroom achieve reproductive success? What adaptations allowed plants to live on the land? What major adaptations occurred in the animal kingdom? In vertebrates? What domain, kingdom, phylum, sub phylum, and class do humans belong to? What do we share with organisms in these groups? What are the ecological levels of the biological hierarchy? What are the elements of a habitat? What are the criteria used by ecologists to measure and observe populations? What common patterns of population distribution are seen in nature? Compare the three kinds of survivorship curves? What do they show? What kind of reproductive behaviors lead to type I, II, and III survivorship curves? How does idealized population growth differ from how actual populations grow? What are factors that affect the growth of a population? How do density-dependent factors affect population growth? What are examples of density-independent factors that can affect population growth? What is a population boom? What is a population bust? Describe the boom and bust cycles often observed in nature. What kinds of competition occur in a habitat? What kinds of symbiotic relationships occur in a habitat? How do organisms avoid predation? What are the levels in a trophic structure? How can plants and animals avoid being eaten? Why is a food web a more accurate representation of the organisms in a community compared to a food chain? Why are most food chains limited to only three or four trophic levels.What are some common threats to biodiversity? What are common types of pollution? Explain why we must be concerned about even small levels of polluting chemicals in the environment. What is sustainability? How can we contribute to the sustainability of life on our planet? Pt 3. Form A Claim Write a claim statement related to the chosen topic. Consider the major question that you are addressing and then develop a statement that will guide your research and writing as you develop your scientific explanation (in Pt 4). Pt 4. Construct a Scientific Explanation Write a scientific explanation that includes evidence and reasoning to support your claim. Your explanation should demonstrate your understanding of the chosen topic using discussion and content from this course as a starting point. Your explanation should include information from a minimum of three (3) sources and one (1) of these sources must be a peer-reviewed scientific article or a review of a scientific study or studies (i.e. a primary or secondary source). You should cite your sources within the body of your explanation and include a list of references at the end (any standard formatting method is acceptable).

. Pt 1. Making Observations (Introduction) Write a brief, introductory paragraph that includes general observations related to the topic. You may consider information from the news, media (tv, movies), social media, popular views, ideas from the general public, or your personal experiences. Your paragraph should specifically mention three (3) observations related to this topic and be sure to cite your sources. You should also include your thoughts on why this topic is of interest to you or relevant to society (i.e. what is the significance?). Pt 2. Apply The Content Choose five (5) terms or concepts that we have covered in this unit that are related to the chosen topic. Define each term in your own words and then write one (1) sentence that explains how it is related to the topic. The concept are: Define evolution. What was Darwin’s role in establishing the theory of evolution? What does the phrase “descent with modification” mean? How are fossils, anatomical studies, and molecular biology used to provide evidence for the theory of evolution? What is “fitness” in a biological organism? What role do mutations have in natural selection? What are the types of natural selection? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What is genetic drift? gene flow? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What forces can lead to adaptive evolution? What is the biological definition of a species? What are the three domains of living organisms? What are the six kingdoms? For each kingdom you should be able to describe the cellular structure, means of reproduction, ways of getting nutrients/food, general/adaptive features, and an example organism. How does Helicobacter pylori avoid competition? What extreme environment does a hermoacidophile occupy? What is unique about the Volvox compared to other protists? How do pitcher plants thrive in low nutrient environments? How does the puffball mushroom achieve reproductive success? What adaptations allowed plants to live on the land? What major adaptations occurred in the animal kingdom? In vertebrates? What domain, kingdom, phylum, sub phylum, and class do humans belong to? What do we share with organisms in these groups? What are the ecological levels of the biological hierarchy? What are the elements of a habitat? What are the criteria used by ecologists to measure and observe populations? What common patterns of population distribution are seen in nature? Compare the three kinds of survivorship curves? What do they show? What kind of reproductive behaviors lead to type I, II, and III survivorship curves? How does idealized population growth differ from how actual populations grow? What are factors that affect the growth of a population? How do density-dependent factors affect population growth? What are examples of density-independent factors that can affect population growth? What is a population boom? What is a population bust? Describe the boom and bust cycles often observed in nature. What kinds of competition occur in a habitat? What kinds of symbiotic relationships occur in a habitat? How do organisms avoid predation? What are the levels in a trophic structure? How can plants and animals avoid being eaten? Why is a food web a more accurate representation of the organisms in a community compared to a food chain? Why are most food chains limited to only three or four trophic levels.What are some common threats to biodiversity? What are common types of pollution? Explain why we must be concerned about even small levels of polluting chemicals in the environment. What is sustainability? How can we contribute to the sustainability of life on our planet? Pt 3. Form A Claim Write a claim statement related to the chosen topic. Consider the major question that you are addressing and then develop a statement that will guide your research and writing as you develop your scientific explanation (in Pt 4). Pt 4. Construct a Scientific Explanation Write a scientific explanation that includes evidence and reasoning to support your claim. Your explanation should demonstrate your understanding of the chosen topic using discussion and content from this course as a starting point. Your explanation should include information from a minimum of three (3) sources and one (1) of these sources must be a peer-reviewed scientific article or a review of a scientific study or studies (i.e. a primary or secondary source). You should cite your sources within the body of your explanation and include a list of references at the end (any standard formatting method is acceptable).

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2. According to the video: Semmelweis and Pasteur: Germ Theory (5 points) a) What is childbed fever? infection of womb and cases septicimea. b) What was Semmelweis’s hypothesis as to why more women were dying of childbed fever under the doctor’s care rather than the midwives? chlorine hand wash. c) Why were Semmelweis’s ideas not accepted in 1846? no scientific reasoning. d) Why was Pasteur so concerned with finding out about disease transmission? transmission is to be studied to identify the cure or prevention. e) What industry was he working for? microbiology. f) Pasteur’s experiment led to what theory? Describe this theory. transmission principle. dna is responsible for transmission not the protein. g) Your thoughts: Can all diseases be explained by the germ theory? no, non infectious diseases cannot come under this theory.

2. According to the video: Semmelweis and Pasteur: Germ Theory (5 points) a) What is childbed fever? infection of womb and cases septicimea. b) What was Semmelweis’s hypothesis as to why more women were dying of childbed fever under the doctor’s care rather than the midwives? chlorine hand wash. c) Why were Semmelweis’s ideas not accepted in 1846? no scientific reasoning. d) Why was Pasteur so concerned with finding out about disease transmission? transmission is to be studied to identify the cure or prevention. e) What industry was he working for? microbiology. f) Pasteur’s experiment led to what theory? Describe this theory. transmission principle. dna is responsible for transmission not the protein. g) Your thoughts: Can all diseases be explained by the germ theory? no, non infectious diseases cannot come under this theory.

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Author Name: BIO 218 Natural History Paper General Formatting: (10%) • 1 Margins correct? • 1 Font correct? • 2 Double-spaced? • 2 Pages numbered? • 2 All sections included? • 2 At least 3 pages of text, not more than 5 pages? Project elements (50%) • Introduction: o 8 General background on topic and species (state scientific name!)? o 2 Goes from general to specific? • Review of Journal Articles: o 4 States topic and hypothesis/hypotheses described in articles? o 3 Reports how research was conducted? o 2 Describes specialized materials used? o 2 Discusses type(s) of data collected and how to be analyzed/compared/used? o 3 Reports what happened in the experiments? o 2 If comparisons made, discusses how they were made? o 2 Figure(s) reproduced and cited? o 2 Table(s) reproduced and cited? • Summary/Conclusion: o 10 Synthesizes the results of the experiments and ties the findings of the articles together? • Literature Cited: o 4 At least 3 journal articles (primary literature) used? o 2 References used in paper properly? o 2 References all listed in this section and formatted correctly? o 2 All references listed are in the body of the paper and all references in the body are listed in this section? *0.5% for each extra citation (>3) that is correctly used* Writing Elements (40%) • /15 Grammar or spelling errors? • /15 Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper? • /10 Appropriate content in each section? Final Paper Total ( %) = /40 Comments:

Author Name: BIO 218 Natural History Paper General Formatting: (10%) • 1 Margins correct? • 1 Font correct? • 2 Double-spaced? • 2 Pages numbered? • 2 All sections included? • 2 At least 3 pages of text, not more than 5 pages? Project elements (50%) • Introduction: o 8 General background on topic and species (state scientific name!)? o 2 Goes from general to specific? • Review of Journal Articles: o 4 States topic and hypothesis/hypotheses described in articles? o 3 Reports how research was conducted? o 2 Describes specialized materials used? o 2 Discusses type(s) of data collected and how to be analyzed/compared/used? o 3 Reports what happened in the experiments? o 2 If comparisons made, discusses how they were made? o 2 Figure(s) reproduced and cited? o 2 Table(s) reproduced and cited? • Summary/Conclusion: o 10 Synthesizes the results of the experiments and ties the findings of the articles together? • Literature Cited: o 4 At least 3 journal articles (primary literature) used? o 2 References used in paper properly? o 2 References all listed in this section and formatted correctly? o 2 All references listed are in the body of the paper and all references in the body are listed in this section? *0.5% for each extra citation (>3) that is correctly used* Writing Elements (40%) • /15 Grammar or spelling errors? • /15 Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper? • /10 Appropriate content in each section? Final Paper Total ( %) = /40 Comments:

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How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner

How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner

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Researchers recently investigated whether or not coffee prevented the development of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) in laboratory mice. The mice used in this experiment have a mutation that makes them become diabetic. Read about this research study in this article published on the Science Daily web-site New Evidence That Drinking Coffee May Reduce the Risk of Diabetes as well as the following summary: A group of 11 mice was given water, and another group of 10 mice was supplied with diluted black coffee (coffee:water 1:1) as drinking fluids for five weeks. The composition of the diets and living conditions were similar for both groups of mice. Blood glucose was monitored weekly for all mice. After five weeks, there was no change in average body weight between groups. Results indicated that blood glucose concentrations increased significantly in the mice that drank water compared with those that were supplied with coffee. Finally, blood glucose concentration in the coffee group exhibited a 30 percent decrease compared with that in the water group. In the original paper, the investigators acknowledged that the coffee for the experiment was supplied as a gift from a corporation. Then answer the following questions in your own words: 1. Identify and describe the steps of the scientific method. Which observations do you think the scientists made leading up to this research study? Given your understanding of the experimental design, formulate a specific hypothesis that is being tested in this experiment. Describe the experimental design including control and treatment group(s), and dependent and independent variables. Summarize the results and the conclusion (50 points) 2. Criticize the research described. Things to consider: Were the test subjects and treatments relevant and appropriate? Was the sample size large enough? Were the methods used appropriate? Can you think of a potential bias in a research study like this? What are the limitations of the conclusions made in this research study? Address at least two of these questions in your critique of the research study (20 points). 3. Discuss the relevance of this type of research, both for the world in general and for you personally (20 points). 4. Write answers in your own words with proper grammar and spelling (10 points)

Researchers recently investigated whether or not coffee prevented the development of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) in laboratory mice. The mice used in this experiment have a mutation that makes them become diabetic. Read about this research study in this article published on the Science Daily web-site New Evidence That Drinking Coffee May Reduce the Risk of Diabetes as well as the following summary: A group of 11 mice was given water, and another group of 10 mice was supplied with diluted black coffee (coffee:water 1:1) as drinking fluids for five weeks. The composition of the diets and living conditions were similar for both groups of mice. Blood glucose was monitored weekly for all mice. After five weeks, there was no change in average body weight between groups. Results indicated that blood glucose concentrations increased significantly in the mice that drank water compared with those that were supplied with coffee. Finally, blood glucose concentration in the coffee group exhibited a 30 percent decrease compared with that in the water group. In the original paper, the investigators acknowledged that the coffee for the experiment was supplied as a gift from a corporation. Then answer the following questions in your own words: 1. Identify and describe the steps of the scientific method. Which observations do you think the scientists made leading up to this research study? Given your understanding of the experimental design, formulate a specific hypothesis that is being tested in this experiment. Describe the experimental design including control and treatment group(s), and dependent and independent variables. Summarize the results and the conclusion (50 points) 2. Criticize the research described. Things to consider: Were the test subjects and treatments relevant and appropriate? Was the sample size large enough? Were the methods used appropriate? Can you think of a potential bias in a research study like this? What are the limitations of the conclusions made in this research study? Address at least two of these questions in your critique of the research study (20 points). 3. Discuss the relevance of this type of research, both for the world in general and for you personally (20 points). 4. Write answers in your own words with proper grammar and spelling (10 points)

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convincing writing (unlike this syllabus) is also an essential skill in any discipline. Thus, write a two-page, double-spaced paper analyzing one of the listed movies for scientific accuracy. You should outline the papers as follows. · Introduction: briefly summarize major plot points with emphasis on biological science claims. · Accuracies: Explain scientific claims made in the movie that represent accurate understanding of some scientific principle. Cite two places in the textbook that support their claims. · Inaccuracies: Explain leaps in scientific understanding made in the movie. Cite two places in the textbook that dispute their claim. · Impact on public perceptions. What impact do you think this movie has on public perceptions of the science? Positive or negative? Find 1 article online of any type that backs up your opinion.

convincing writing (unlike this syllabus) is also an essential skill in any discipline. Thus, write a two-page, double-spaced paper analyzing one of the listed movies for scientific accuracy. You should outline the papers as follows. · Introduction: briefly summarize major plot points with emphasis on biological science claims. · Accuracies: Explain scientific claims made in the movie that represent accurate understanding of some scientific principle. Cite two places in the textbook that support their claims. · Inaccuracies: Explain leaps in scientific understanding made in the movie. Cite two places in the textbook that dispute their claim. · Impact on public perceptions. What impact do you think this movie has on public perceptions of the science? Positive or negative? Find 1 article online of any type that backs up your opinion.

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Define: 41 Things Philosophy is: 1. Ignorant 2. Selfish 3. Ironic 4. Plain 5. Misunderstood 6. A failure 7. Poor 8. Unscientific 9. Unteachable 10. Foolish 11. Abnormal 12. Divine trickery 13. Egalitarian 14. A divine calling 15. Laborious 16. Countercultural 17. Uncomfortable 18. Virtuous 19. Dangerous 20. Simplistic<br />21. Polemical 22. Therapeutic 23. “conformist” 24. Embarrassi ng 25. Invulnerable 26. Annoying 27. Pneumatic 28. Apolitic al 29. Docile/teachable 30. Messianic 31. Pious 32. Impract ical 33. Happy 34. Necessary 35. Death-defying 36. Fallible 37. Immortal 38. Confident 39. Painful 40. agnostic</br

Define: 41 Things Philosophy is: 1. Ignorant 2. Selfish 3. Ironic 4. Plain 5. Misunderstood 6. A failure 7. Poor 8. Unscientific 9. Unteachable 10. Foolish 11. Abnormal 12. Divine trickery 13. Egalitarian 14. A divine calling 15. Laborious 16. Countercultural 17. Uncomfortable 18. Virtuous 19. Dangerous 20. Simplistic
21. Polemical 22. Therapeutic 23. “conformist” 24. Embarrassi ng 25. Invulnerable 26. Annoying 27. Pneumatic 28. Apolitic al 29. Docile/teachable 30. Messianic 31. Pious 32. Impract ical 33. Happy 34. Necessary 35. Death-defying 36. Fallible 37. Immortal 38. Confident 39. Painful 40. agnostic

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Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

Chapter 03 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Components and Structure of the Atom Learning Goal: To specify the basic components of the atom and describe our modern conception of its structure. Part A The atom consists of three types of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The electron is by far the lightest of the three, while the much heavier proton and neutron have masses very similar to each other. Two of the types of particles carry an electrical charge, while the third is neutral. Label the subatomic particles and appropriate charges by their relative locations. Identify the subatomic particles by dragging the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Hint 1. Which subatomic particles carry electric charge? Of the three subatomic particles, two carry equal but opposite charges. Select the two correct statements that match the subatomic particle with the appropriate charge. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Hint 2. Which subatomic particles are not found in the nucleus? Protons and electrons carry equal but opposite charges. Atomic nuclei are positively charged and are not composed of negatively charged particles. Which types of subatomic particles cannot be located within the nucleus? Select any that apply. ANSWER: ANSWER: The electron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a positive charge. The neutron carries a positive charge. The proton carries a negative charge. The electron carries a negative charge. The neutron carries a negative charge. neutrons electrons protons Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct This image represents the classical model of the atom proposed by Niels Bohr. Although this model has changed slightly as the result of modern scientific discoveries, it does help in understanding the relative locations of the subatomic particles in the atom. Notice that the protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while the electrons are located in the space surrounding the nucleus. Part B Of the three types of subatomic particles, only neutrons do not carry charge. Protons carry a positive charge, and electrons carry a negative charge. Protons and neutrons are bound in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. When the number of each type of subatomic particle in an atom changes, the characteristics defining the atom also change. Match the appropriate phrases with the type of subatomic particle that completes the defining characteristic. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Hint 1. What type of subatomic particle is lost or gained when an ion forms? For any atom of a given element to go from being neutral ( ) to being ionized ( ), what type of subatomic particle must be lost or gained? Select all that apply. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Hint 2. What type of subatomic particle identifies an element? When identifying the element classification of a particular atom, which type of subatomic particle is used? ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct The number of each type of subatomic particle plays an important role in the characteristics of the atom. The general element classification (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, etc.) is governed by the number of protons in the nucleus. If the number of protons changes in an atom, so does the type of element. The electrons are the only type of subatomic particle not in the nucleus. They orbit around the nucleus, bound by the electromagnetic force. When electrons are lost or gained by a neutral atom, the charge balance shifts, resulting in the atom becoming an ion. Ions can be either positive when electrons are lost or negative when electrons are gained. Part C In the classical view of the atom, Bohr pictured electrons orbiting the positively charged nucleus similar to how the planets orbit the Sun. While this picture was not entirely correct, it provides a good framework in which to make calculations about the energies of electrons. Different from the predictions of Newtonian mechanics, which allows any energy to be possible, Bohr described the electron orbits (now called orbitals) as having specific energies. Rank the following electron energy states according to their electron energies. Rank from highest to lowest energies. Hint 1. What are the definitions of orbital, ground state, and excited state? Define orbital, ground state, and excited state. loss of an electron loss of a proton loss of a neutron gain of an electron gain of a proton gain of a neutron electron proton neutron Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. ANSWER: Hint 2. How does the state change when an electron absorbs energy? Electrons can absorb energy either from light radiation or from collisions with other atoms. If an electron is in the first excited energy state and absorbs enough energy to go to the next higher energy state, into what state will the electron transition? ANSWER: ANSWER: the ground state the second excited state the third excited state Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy of the electron. The electron energies of each orbital are fixed. The energy required for an electron to transition between each orbital is an exact value, corresponding to the difference between the orbital energies. Any energy more or less than these precise differences cannot be used by the electron to make a transition; only the energies equal to the full values can induce a transition. Part D The Bohr model accounted for most of the general characteristics of the atom. However, the modern model based on quantum mechanics explains that, although the energy of each orbital is fixed, the orbital radius is actually an average distance. The result is a “cloud” where the electron is most likely to be located. The following is an image of an atom of hydrogen, consisting of one proton, zero neutrons, and one electron. When an electron is excited to different energy levels, the radius from the nucleus also changes. Rank the following electron energy states according to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. Rank from largest to smallest distances. Hint 1. What is the relationship between electron orbital distance and electron energy? Rank the following general electron energies from largest to smallest electron orbital distances. Rank from largest to smallest orbital distances. ANSWER: ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Excited states refer to the energy state of an electron. The higher the state, the higher the energy and the greater the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Due to the attractive force between the negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus, the electron requires greater energies to overcome this attraction and achieve orbits at greater distances. Concept Review: The pH Scale Can you classify solutions as acidic, neutral, or basic? Part A Decide whether each label describes a solution that is acidic, neutral, or basic, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Activity: Carbohydrates Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Glycogen is _____. ANSWER: Correct Animals store energy in the form of glycogen. a polysaccharide found in animals a source of saturated fat a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls the form in which plants store sugars a transport protein that carries oxygen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part B glucose + glucose —> _____ by _____. ANSWER: Correct Maltose is the disaccharide formed when two glucose molecules are linked by dehydration synthesis. Part C Which of these is a source of lactose? ANSWER: Correct Lactose is the sugar found in milk. Part D Which of these is a polysaccharide? ANSWER: Correct Cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of many monomers. Part E _____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. ANSWER: maltose + water … dehydration synthesis lactose + water … hydrolysis starch + water … dehydration synthesis sucrose + water … dehydration synthesis cellulose + water … hydrolysis potatoes sugar beets sugar cane starch milk sucrose lactose glucose galactose cellulose Cellulose Lactose Starch Glucose Glycogen Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Cellulose, a component of plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound found on earth. Activity: Protein Structure Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Proteins are polymers of _____. ANSWER: Correct Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Part B What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ANSWER: Correct The amino acids of a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Part C Which of these illustrates the secondary structure of a protein? ANSWER: nucleotides CH2O units glycerol hydrocarbons amino acids ionic hydrogen hydrophobic S—S peptide Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a protein’s secondary structure. Part D The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ANSWER: Correct Electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms leave hydrogen atoms with partial positive charges. Part E Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. ANSWER: bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 10 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Peptide bonds link together the amino acids of a protein’s primary structure. Activity: Lipids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these is NOT a lipid? ANSWER: Correct RNA is a nucleic acid Part B This figure is an example of a(n) _____. ANSWER: Correct The fatty acid tails lack double bonds. steroids phospholipid RNA cholesterol wax steroid unsaturated fat nucleic acid protein saturated fat Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 11 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Part C Which of these is a phospholipid? ANSWER: Correct Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and fatty acids. Part D Which of these is rich in unsaturated fats? ANSWER: Correct Olive oil is a plant oil, and most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fats. Part E beef fat lard butter olive oil a fat that is solid at room temperature Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 12 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role _____. ANSWER: Correct Cholesterol is an important component of animal cell membranes. Concept Review: Types of Macromolecules Can you identify characteristics of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates? Part A Decide whether each label describes proteins, nucleic acids, or carbohydrates, and then drag it into the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Earth’s Interior Layers Can you identify characteristics of Earth’s interior layers? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: as a component of animal cell membranes in calcium and phosphate metabolism All of cholesterol’s effects cause the body harm. as the most abundant male sex hormone as the primary female sex hormone Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 13 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 99.6%. You received 31.87 out of a possible total of 32 points. Chapter 03 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 14 of 14 5/21/2014 8:02 PM

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EGR 140 Scientific Programming Assignment # 7 Spring 2017 Use MATLAB to solve each problem by writing script files; copy and paste the script file AND the results in the Command Window and/or plot in the Figure Window to a WORD document that has your name and section in the headers of each page and the page number in each footer. Edit the output to remove extra lines and empty spaces. The script files SHOULD have comments for easy readability; take a print out of the Word file and staple before submission. Due by 3 PM on April 11, 2017. Write a used-defined function that calculates the average and the standard deviation of a list of numbers. Use the function to calculate the average and the standard deviation of the following list of grades: 80 75 91 60 79 89 65 80 95 50 81 Note: The average x_ave (or mean) of a given set of n number x_1,x_2,…..,x_n is given by: x_ave=(x_1+x_2+x_3+⋯+x_n)/n The standard deviation is given by: σ=√((∑_(i=1)^(i=n)▒(x_i-x_ave )^2 )/(n-1)) DO not use built-in functions to calculate the mean and the standard deviation. Write a user-defined function that arranges the digits of a given (positive) number in a row vector in the same order as they appear in the number; the function should also arrange the digits in the decimal part in a different vector. For example, if the number is 2645.12, the vectors should be [2 6 4 5] and [1 2]. The whole number can be from 0 to 10 digits long and the decimal part 0 to 6. Check the validity of the function using a few numbers of your choice. A fenced enclosure consists of a rectangle of length L and width 2R, and a semicircle of radius R, as shown in Figure. The enclosure is to be built to have an area A of 1600 ft2. The cost of the fence is $40 per foot for the curved portion, and $30 per foot for the straight sides. Determine the values of R and L required to minimize the total cost of the fence and the minimum cost using calculus approach. A water tank consists of a cylindrical part of radius r and height h, and a hemispherical top. The tank is to be constructed to hold 500 meter3 of fluid when filled. The cost to construct the cylindrical part of the tank is $300 per square meter of the surface area; the hemispherical part costs $400 per square meter. Determine the radius that results in the least cost and compute the corresponding height and the cost using graphical approach. Verify your results using the calculus approach. A ceramic tile has the design shown in the figure. The shaded area is painted black and the rest of the tile is white. The border line between the red and the white areas follows the equation: y=Asin(x) Determine A such that the area of the white and black colors will be the same.

EGR 140 Scientific Programming Assignment # 7 Spring 2017 Use MATLAB to solve each problem by writing script files; copy and paste the script file AND the results in the Command Window and/or plot in the Figure Window to a WORD document that has your name and section in the headers of each page and the page number in each footer. Edit the output to remove extra lines and empty spaces. The script files SHOULD have comments for easy readability; take a print out of the Word file and staple before submission. Due by 3 PM on April 11, 2017. Write a used-defined function that calculates the average and the standard deviation of a list of numbers. Use the function to calculate the average and the standard deviation of the following list of grades: 80 75 91 60 79 89 65 80 95 50 81 Note: The average x_ave (or mean) of a given set of n number x_1,x_2,…..,x_n is given by: x_ave=(x_1+x_2+x_3+⋯+x_n)/n The standard deviation is given by: σ=√((∑_(i=1)^(i=n)▒(x_i-x_ave )^2 )/(n-1)) DO not use built-in functions to calculate the mean and the standard deviation. Write a user-defined function that arranges the digits of a given (positive) number in a row vector in the same order as they appear in the number; the function should also arrange the digits in the decimal part in a different vector. For example, if the number is 2645.12, the vectors should be [2 6 4 5] and [1 2]. The whole number can be from 0 to 10 digits long and the decimal part 0 to 6. Check the validity of the function using a few numbers of your choice. A fenced enclosure consists of a rectangle of length L and width 2R, and a semicircle of radius R, as shown in Figure. The enclosure is to be built to have an area A of 1600 ft2. The cost of the fence is $40 per foot for the curved portion, and $30 per foot for the straight sides. Determine the values of R and L required to minimize the total cost of the fence and the minimum cost using calculus approach. A water tank consists of a cylindrical part of radius r and height h, and a hemispherical top. The tank is to be constructed to hold 500 meter3 of fluid when filled. The cost to construct the cylindrical part of the tank is $300 per square meter of the surface area; the hemispherical part costs $400 per square meter. Determine the radius that results in the least cost and compute the corresponding height and the cost using graphical approach. Verify your results using the calculus approach. A ceramic tile has the design shown in the figure. The shaded area is painted black and the rest of the tile is white. The border line between the red and the white areas follows the equation: y=Asin(x) Determine A such that the area of the white and black colors will be the same.

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