RMU Professional Workplace Communication/Talerico Questions for LA Reading 1: “Simplicity,” William Zinsser, 201-206 “The Maker’s Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts,” Donald M. Murray, 194-198 Please read the two articles—“Simplicity” and “The Maker’s Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts.” Then, answer the following questions in complete sentences, typed and double-spaced (every line); use 12-point type. The answers are due in class on Tuesday, September 8, when we will discuss them. “Simplicity,” William Zinsser, 201-206 1. What document or set of instructions have you read that you found wordy and difficult to read? How did you handle the situation? 2. What does Zinsser mean when he writes, “Our national tendency is to inflate and thereby sound important” (201)? Why is writing often like this? 3. What does the author say is the secret of good writing? Why is this secret important? 4. How can we, according to Zinsser, write clearly and simply? 5. Why is clear writing so important to today’s readers? 6. What two questions must the writer always ask? How might asking these questions during your writing—and when you are finished writing—improve your drafts? “The Maker’s Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts,” Donald M. Murray, 194-198.
 7. Murray lists many qualities of professional writers. What are three of them? 8. Why would science-fiction writer Ray Bradbury put away for one year a manuscript he has written, and then reread it “as a stranger” (195)? What would be the value of this? 9. For each of the following quotes by professional writers, write one sentence that summarizes the main point the writer is making: a) Nancy Hale: A writer “should be critical of everything that seems to him most delightful in his style. He should excise what he most admires because he wouldn’t thus admire it if he weren’t…in a sense protecting it from criticism” (195). b) John Ciardi: “The last act of the writing must be to become one’s own reader. It is, I suppose, a schizophrenic process, to begin passionately and to end critically, to begin hot and to end cold; and more important to be passion-hot and critic-cold at the same time” (195) c) Eleanor Estes: “The writer must survey his work critically, coolly, as though he were a stranger to it. He must be willing to prune, expertly and hard-heartedly. At the end of each revision, a manuscript may look…worked over, torn apart, pinned together, added to, deleted from, words changed and words changed back. Yet the book must maintain its orginal freshness and spontaneity” (195). d) Roald Dahl: “Good writing is essentially rewriting” (196). 10. Why do most readers, as Murray states, “underestimate the amount of rewriting it usually takes to produce spontaneous reading” (195)? Do you fit into this category? 11. List the 8 things the author says writers look for in creating their drafts. For each item on your list, write one sentence explaining what it means. 12. What are some of the things Murray says writers begin to learn by writing? Have you ever experienced any of these things when you were writing? Explain your answer. 13. What does Murray means when he states, “A piece of writing is never finished” (198)?

RMU Professional Workplace Communication/Talerico Questions for LA Reading 1: “Simplicity,” William Zinsser, 201-206 “The Maker’s Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts,” Donald M. Murray, 194-198 Please read the two articles—“Simplicity” and “The Maker’s Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts.” Then, answer the following questions in complete sentences, typed and double-spaced (every line); use 12-point type. The answers are due in class on Tuesday, September 8, when we will discuss them. “Simplicity,” William Zinsser, 201-206 1. What document or set of instructions have you read that you found wordy and difficult to read? How did you handle the situation? 2. What does Zinsser mean when he writes, “Our national tendency is to inflate and thereby sound important” (201)? Why is writing often like this? 3. What does the author say is the secret of good writing? Why is this secret important? 4. How can we, according to Zinsser, write clearly and simply? 5. Why is clear writing so important to today’s readers? 6. What two questions must the writer always ask? How might asking these questions during your writing—and when you are finished writing—improve your drafts? “The Maker’s Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts,” Donald M. Murray, 194-198.
 7. Murray lists many qualities of professional writers. What are three of them? 8. Why would science-fiction writer Ray Bradbury put away for one year a manuscript he has written, and then reread it “as a stranger” (195)? What would be the value of this? 9. For each of the following quotes by professional writers, write one sentence that summarizes the main point the writer is making: a) Nancy Hale: A writer “should be critical of everything that seems to him most delightful in his style. He should excise what he most admires because he wouldn’t thus admire it if he weren’t…in a sense protecting it from criticism” (195). b) John Ciardi: “The last act of the writing must be to become one’s own reader. It is, I suppose, a schizophrenic process, to begin passionately and to end critically, to begin hot and to end cold; and more important to be passion-hot and critic-cold at the same time” (195) c) Eleanor Estes: “The writer must survey his work critically, coolly, as though he were a stranger to it. He must be willing to prune, expertly and hard-heartedly. At the end of each revision, a manuscript may look…worked over, torn apart, pinned together, added to, deleted from, words changed and words changed back. Yet the book must maintain its orginal freshness and spontaneity” (195). d) Roald Dahl: “Good writing is essentially rewriting” (196). 10. Why do most readers, as Murray states, “underestimate the amount of rewriting it usually takes to produce spontaneous reading” (195)? Do you fit into this category? 11. List the 8 things the author says writers look for in creating their drafts. For each item on your list, write one sentence explaining what it means. 12. What are some of the things Murray says writers begin to learn by writing? Have you ever experienced any of these things when you were writing? Explain your answer. 13. What does Murray means when he states, “A piece of writing is never finished” (198)?

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BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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Excel Review Assignment #1 – ISM3011 Ask before/after/during class or come into office/online hours if you have questions on any of this. Refer to the syllabus on Academic Dishonesty and group/individual work and allowable help for all projects – also remember it’s your responsibility to protect your work. Before you start — read this whole assignment and use your optional text and/or review the tutorials as necessary on Canvas or www.bwarner.org/tips. A project overview for each project is also available. Part 1 – Create / Download / Parts • Create a blank workbook. Name it using your Last name followed by your initials and _ 1EX (underscore then 1EX). For Example: WarnerBL_1EX .xlsx. Either extension is fine. • Download the Word file Ex1 Data1-F15.docx and copy/paste Word table from the file into the 2nd worksheet in your workbook. Name the tab ‘2014 Sales’. • Download the Word file Ex1 Data2-F15.docx and copy/paste Word table from the file into the 3rd worksheet in your workbook. Name the tab ‘2015 Sales’. • Adjust the column widths of both Sales worksheets so that no data is cut off. • Do not add any formulas or cells to the Sales worksheets Part 2 – Summary Worksheet • Create a summary sheet from the Sales worksheets. Name the worksheet ‘Summary’. Build two summaries on this worksheet. Summary 1: Comparison of Sales by Month and Summary 2: Comparison of Sales by Store ID. • Use the project overview as a guide for the format. Use colors, borders and backgrounds to make the worksheet look professional. o Include the following:  Month and Store ID headings that reference the 2014 Sales worksheet. This means if ‘January’ is changed to ‘Jan’ in the 2014 Sales worksheet, the summary worksheet heading will also change. Do the same with the Store ID and 2014 Sales worksheet.  Formulas that reference the 2014 and 2015 Sales worksheets. If the Sales worksheets change, the summary worksheet should also adjust automatically.  Correct format for all book totals (commas, no decimal places)  Correct % change formulas in both tables. This is how much the totals have changed compared to the 2014 totals.  Correct format for all % change (% sign, 1 decimal place).  Use borders and background colors on the column & row headings for both tables of data • On the summary worksheet, use conditional formatting to highlight any % change cell that greater than zero with a bright color background. If the % change is negative, display the value with a red font and no background color. o There should be only two conditional formats set on each cell. o **Note – to do the conditional formatting steps, you can set the conditional formatting for one cell and then use the format painter to apply to other appropriate cells. If the values are all changed, the conditional formatting should still work. Once you have it working, check by changing some values & see if the conditional formatting changes correctly. Return to the original values/formulas in the cell before you submit. If you don’t use the format painter for this be sure you still try it out & understand how it works. Part 3 – Chart • Create 2 column graphs displaying Totals by Month and Totals by Store ID. Include: • Titles on both chart as well as labeling on the x and the y axis. • Color fonts for the title and axis labels (not dark blue or black) • Large font for the title (at least 16 point) • Include a legend • Format the background (chart area/walls) of the graph with a texture – use one that is easy to see. • Be sure that if any headings or numbers in the worksheets change, these changes are automatically reflected in your chart. • Add a star or banner shape between the two charts and add your name. Be sure the text is part of the shape (not a shape and a separate text box). Part 4 – Finishing Up • Be sure your worksheet tabs are named correctly and if possible, make each worksheet tab a distinctly different color. If your version of Excel doesn’t allow this, don’t worry about it. But do delete any additional worksheets in the workbook. • Create a title in the first row of your summary worksheet. Use the merge and center feature (across all columns with data) and a larger font & different font color (not blue or black). Also add a background color. Add a comment with your email address and the date your spreadsheet was created. • Below the title, add a row with the current date (use the today or now formula) so it is updated whenever the spreadsheet is opened). • Check your formulas, be sure they are correct and make sense. For example, if you are subtracting 2 numbers don’t use the SUM formulas (sum is for adding). Excel may figure out what you mean, but we want the formulas to be used correctly (show that you understand how to use them). • Check your worksheet for errors! Potential errors in cells show up as small green triangles in the top left corner of each cell. Do a little Googling on error checking for your version of Excel and be sure you have error checking turned on and that you reconcile each error so they don’t display when we open your project for grading. Sample: Project Submission Instructions / Notes: • Office/online hours get busy as deadlines approach. If you procrastinate and wait until the last days to work on your project, you may not be able to get all the help you want. • The only way we can fairly grade the projects is if we check for each requirement. Please go through the instructions before you submit & be sure you have done each one correctly so you don’t miss out on points. Compare your solution to the project overview. • Submitting: o Remember to leave all of the internal file properties intact for your project, if they are modified or deleted, you project won’t be accepted (see syllabus for more on this). o Read and follow the instructions in the Assignments section of Canvas on uploading and checking your upload. If you follow these instructions you can ensure that your project is uploaded correctly (and is the correct project). Be sure that Access / Excel are closed before you try to upload your project files. o If your project doesn’t upload correctly before the due date, it will be considered late and be assessed the late penalty – even it was finished on time. This is the only way we can ensure that students check their Canvas submissions. • Technology problems relating to your home computer (Windows based or Mac), internet connection or slow Canvas access are not valid excuses for late/missing work, unless Canvas is down for 6+ hours on the due date. Computers at USF computer labs and the library are available; leave enough time to access them as needed. Also give yourself enough time that if a TA can’t answer a question, you’ll have time to contact me & I can either help you or make an allowance in your grade. If you wait until the last days, I may not be able to do either.

Excel Review Assignment #1 – ISM3011 Ask before/after/during class or come into office/online hours if you have questions on any of this. Refer to the syllabus on Academic Dishonesty and group/individual work and allowable help for all projects – also remember it’s your responsibility to protect your work. Before you start — read this whole assignment and use your optional text and/or review the tutorials as necessary on Canvas or www.bwarner.org/tips. A project overview for each project is also available. Part 1 – Create / Download / Parts • Create a blank workbook. Name it using your Last name followed by your initials and _ 1EX (underscore then 1EX). For Example: WarnerBL_1EX .xlsx. Either extension is fine. • Download the Word file Ex1 Data1-F15.docx and copy/paste Word table from the file into the 2nd worksheet in your workbook. Name the tab ‘2014 Sales’. • Download the Word file Ex1 Data2-F15.docx and copy/paste Word table from the file into the 3rd worksheet in your workbook. Name the tab ‘2015 Sales’. • Adjust the column widths of both Sales worksheets so that no data is cut off. • Do not add any formulas or cells to the Sales worksheets Part 2 – Summary Worksheet • Create a summary sheet from the Sales worksheets. Name the worksheet ‘Summary’. Build two summaries on this worksheet. Summary 1: Comparison of Sales by Month and Summary 2: Comparison of Sales by Store ID. • Use the project overview as a guide for the format. Use colors, borders and backgrounds to make the worksheet look professional. o Include the following:  Month and Store ID headings that reference the 2014 Sales worksheet. This means if ‘January’ is changed to ‘Jan’ in the 2014 Sales worksheet, the summary worksheet heading will also change. Do the same with the Store ID and 2014 Sales worksheet.  Formulas that reference the 2014 and 2015 Sales worksheets. If the Sales worksheets change, the summary worksheet should also adjust automatically.  Correct format for all book totals (commas, no decimal places)  Correct % change formulas in both tables. This is how much the totals have changed compared to the 2014 totals.  Correct format for all % change (% sign, 1 decimal place).  Use borders and background colors on the column & row headings for both tables of data • On the summary worksheet, use conditional formatting to highlight any % change cell that greater than zero with a bright color background. If the % change is negative, display the value with a red font and no background color. o There should be only two conditional formats set on each cell. o **Note – to do the conditional formatting steps, you can set the conditional formatting for one cell and then use the format painter to apply to other appropriate cells. If the values are all changed, the conditional formatting should still work. Once you have it working, check by changing some values & see if the conditional formatting changes correctly. Return to the original values/formulas in the cell before you submit. If you don’t use the format painter for this be sure you still try it out & understand how it works. Part 3 – Chart • Create 2 column graphs displaying Totals by Month and Totals by Store ID. Include: • Titles on both chart as well as labeling on the x and the y axis. • Color fonts for the title and axis labels (not dark blue or black) • Large font for the title (at least 16 point) • Include a legend • Format the background (chart area/walls) of the graph with a texture – use one that is easy to see. • Be sure that if any headings or numbers in the worksheets change, these changes are automatically reflected in your chart. • Add a star or banner shape between the two charts and add your name. Be sure the text is part of the shape (not a shape and a separate text box). Part 4 – Finishing Up • Be sure your worksheet tabs are named correctly and if possible, make each worksheet tab a distinctly different color. If your version of Excel doesn’t allow this, don’t worry about it. But do delete any additional worksheets in the workbook. • Create a title in the first row of your summary worksheet. Use the merge and center feature (across all columns with data) and a larger font & different font color (not blue or black). Also add a background color. Add a comment with your email address and the date your spreadsheet was created. • Below the title, add a row with the current date (use the today or now formula) so it is updated whenever the spreadsheet is opened). • Check your formulas, be sure they are correct and make sense. For example, if you are subtracting 2 numbers don’t use the SUM formulas (sum is for adding). Excel may figure out what you mean, but we want the formulas to be used correctly (show that you understand how to use them). • Check your worksheet for errors! Potential errors in cells show up as small green triangles in the top left corner of each cell. Do a little Googling on error checking for your version of Excel and be sure you have error checking turned on and that you reconcile each error so they don’t display when we open your project for grading. Sample: Project Submission Instructions / Notes: • Office/online hours get busy as deadlines approach. If you procrastinate and wait until the last days to work on your project, you may not be able to get all the help you want. • The only way we can fairly grade the projects is if we check for each requirement. Please go through the instructions before you submit & be sure you have done each one correctly so you don’t miss out on points. Compare your solution to the project overview. • Submitting: o Remember to leave all of the internal file properties intact for your project, if they are modified or deleted, you project won’t be accepted (see syllabus for more on this). o Read and follow the instructions in the Assignments section of Canvas on uploading and checking your upload. If you follow these instructions you can ensure that your project is uploaded correctly (and is the correct project). Be sure that Access / Excel are closed before you try to upload your project files. o If your project doesn’t upload correctly before the due date, it will be considered late and be assessed the late penalty – even it was finished on time. This is the only way we can ensure that students check their Canvas submissions. • Technology problems relating to your home computer (Windows based or Mac), internet connection or slow Canvas access are not valid excuses for late/missing work, unless Canvas is down for 6+ hours on the due date. Computers at USF computer labs and the library are available; leave enough time to access them as needed. Also give yourself enough time that if a TA can’t answer a question, you’ll have time to contact me & I can either help you or make an allowance in your grade. If you wait until the last days, I may not be able to do either.

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1 | P a g e Lecture #2: Abortion (Warren) While studying this topic, we will ask whether it is morally permissible to intentionally terminate a pregnancy and, if so, whether certain restrictions should be placed upon such practices. Even though we will most often be speaking of terminating a fetus, biologists make further classifications: the zygote is the single cell resulting from the fusion of the egg and the sperm; the morula is the cluster of cells that travels through the fallopian tubes; the blastocyte exists once an outer shell of cells has formed around an inner group of cells; the embryo exists once the cells begin to take on specific functions (around the 15th day); the fetus comes into existence in the 8th week when the embryo gains a basic structural resemblance to the adult. Given these distinctions, there are certain kinds of non-fetal abortion—such as usage of RU-486 (the morning-after “abortion pill”)—though most of the writers we will study refer to fetal abortions. So now let us consider the “Classical Argument against Abortion”, which has been very influential: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is an innocent person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. (Note that this argument has received various formulations, including those from Warren and Thomson which differ from the above. For this course, we will refer to the above formulation as the “Classical Argument”.) Before evaluating this argument, we should talk about terminology: A person is a member of the moral community; i.e., someone who has rights and/or duties. ‘Persons’ is the plural of ‘person’. ‘Person’ can be contrasted with ‘human being’; a human being is anyone who is genetically human (i.e., a member of Homo sapiens). ‘People’ (or ‘human beings’) is the plural of ‘human being’. Why does this matter? First, not all persons are human beings. For example, consider an alien from another planet who mentally resembled us. If he were to visit Earth, it would be morally reprehensible to kick him or to set him on fire because of the pain and suffering that these acts would cause. And, similarly, the alien would be morally condemnable if he were to propagate such acts on us; he has a moral duty not to act in those ways (again, assuming a certain mental resemblance to us). So, even though this alien is not a human being, he is nevertheless a person with the associative rights and/or duties. 2 | P a g e And, more controversially, maybe not all human beings are persons. For example, anencephalic infants—i.e., ones born without cerebral cortexes and therefore with severely limited cognitive abilities—certainly do not have duties since they are not capable of rational thought and autonomous action. Some philosophers have even argued that they do not have rights. Now let us return to the Classical Argument. It is valid insofar as, if the premises are true, then the conclusion has to be true. But maybe it commits equivocation, which is to say that it uses the same word in multiple senses; equivocation is an informal fallacy (i.e., attaches to arguments that are formally valid but otherwise fallacious). Consider the following: P1) I put my money in the bank. P2) The bank borders the river. C) I put my money somewhere that borders the river. This argument equivocates since ‘bank’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used to represent a financial institution and, in P2, it is used to represent a geological feature. Returning to the classical argument, it could be argued that ‘person’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used in its appropriate moral sense and, in P2, it is inappropriately used instead of ‘human being’. The critic might suggest that a more accurate way to represent the argument would be as follows: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a human being. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. This argument is obviously invalid. So one way to criticize the Classical Argument is to say that it conflates two different concepts—viz., ‘person’ and ‘human being’—and therefore commits equivocation. However, the more straightforward way to attack the Classical Argument is just to deny its second premise and thus contend that the argument is unsound. This is the approach that Mary Anne Warren takes in “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”. Why does Warren think that the second premise is false? Remember that we defined a person as “a member of the moral community.” And we said that an alien, for example, could be afforded moral status even though it is not a human being. Why do we think that this alien should not be tortured or set on fire? Warren thinks that, intuitively, we think that membership in the moral community is based upon possession of the following traits: 3 | P a g e 1. Consciousness of objects and events external and/or internal to the being and especially the capacity to feel pain; 2. Reasoning or rationality (i.e., the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); 3. Self-motivated activity (i.e., activity which is relatively independent of either genetic or direct external control); 4. Capacity to communicate (not necessarily verbal or linguistic); and 5. Possession of self-concepts and self-awareness. Warren then admits that, though all of the items on this list look promising, we need not require that a person have all of the items on this list. (4) is perhaps the most expendable: imagine someone who is fully paralyzed as well as deaf, these incapacities, which preclude communication, are not sufficient to justify torture. Similarly, we might be able to imagine certain psychological afflictions that negate (5) without compromising personhood. Warren suspects that (1) and (2) are might be sufficient to confer personhood, and thinks that (1)-(3) “quite probably” are sufficient. Note that, if she is right, we would not be able to torture chimps, let us say, but we could set plants on fire (and most likely ants as well). However, given Warren’s aims, she does not need to specify which of these traits are necessary or sufficient for personhood; all that she wants to observe is that the fetus has none of them! Therefore, regardless of which traits we want to require, Warren thinks that the fetus is not a person. Therefore she thinks that the Classical Argument is unsound and should be rejected. Even if we accept Warren’s refutation of the second premise, we might be inclined to say that, while the fetus is not (now) a person, it is a potential person: the fetus will hopefully mature into a being that possesses all five of the traits on Warren’s list. We might then propose the following adjustment to the Classical Argument: P1) It is wrong to kill all innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. However, this argument is invalid. Warren grants that potentiality might serve as a prima facie reason (i.e., a reason that has some moral weight but which might be outweighed by other considerations) not to abort a fetus, but potentiality alone is insufficient to grant the fetus a moral right against being terminated. By analogy, consider the following argument: 4 | P a g e P1) The President has the right to declare war. P2) Mary is a potential President. C) Mary has the right to declare war. This argument is invalid since the premises are both true and the conclusion is false. By parity, the following argument is also invalid: P1) A person has a right to life. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) A fetus has a right to life. Thus Warren thinks that considerations of potentiality are insufficient to undermine her argument that fetuses—which are potential persons but, she thinks, not persons—do not have a right to life.

1 | P a g e Lecture #2: Abortion (Warren) While studying this topic, we will ask whether it is morally permissible to intentionally terminate a pregnancy and, if so, whether certain restrictions should be placed upon such practices. Even though we will most often be speaking of terminating a fetus, biologists make further classifications: the zygote is the single cell resulting from the fusion of the egg and the sperm; the morula is the cluster of cells that travels through the fallopian tubes; the blastocyte exists once an outer shell of cells has formed around an inner group of cells; the embryo exists once the cells begin to take on specific functions (around the 15th day); the fetus comes into existence in the 8th week when the embryo gains a basic structural resemblance to the adult. Given these distinctions, there are certain kinds of non-fetal abortion—such as usage of RU-486 (the morning-after “abortion pill”)—though most of the writers we will study refer to fetal abortions. So now let us consider the “Classical Argument against Abortion”, which has been very influential: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is an innocent person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. (Note that this argument has received various formulations, including those from Warren and Thomson which differ from the above. For this course, we will refer to the above formulation as the “Classical Argument”.) Before evaluating this argument, we should talk about terminology: A person is a member of the moral community; i.e., someone who has rights and/or duties. ‘Persons’ is the plural of ‘person’. ‘Person’ can be contrasted with ‘human being’; a human being is anyone who is genetically human (i.e., a member of Homo sapiens). ‘People’ (or ‘human beings’) is the plural of ‘human being’. Why does this matter? First, not all persons are human beings. For example, consider an alien from another planet who mentally resembled us. If he were to visit Earth, it would be morally reprehensible to kick him or to set him on fire because of the pain and suffering that these acts would cause. And, similarly, the alien would be morally condemnable if he were to propagate such acts on us; he has a moral duty not to act in those ways (again, assuming a certain mental resemblance to us). So, even though this alien is not a human being, he is nevertheless a person with the associative rights and/or duties. 2 | P a g e And, more controversially, maybe not all human beings are persons. For example, anencephalic infants—i.e., ones born without cerebral cortexes and therefore with severely limited cognitive abilities—certainly do not have duties since they are not capable of rational thought and autonomous action. Some philosophers have even argued that they do not have rights. Now let us return to the Classical Argument. It is valid insofar as, if the premises are true, then the conclusion has to be true. But maybe it commits equivocation, which is to say that it uses the same word in multiple senses; equivocation is an informal fallacy (i.e., attaches to arguments that are formally valid but otherwise fallacious). Consider the following: P1) I put my money in the bank. P2) The bank borders the river. C) I put my money somewhere that borders the river. This argument equivocates since ‘bank’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used to represent a financial institution and, in P2, it is used to represent a geological feature. Returning to the classical argument, it could be argued that ‘person’ is being used in two different senses: in P1 it is used in its appropriate moral sense and, in P2, it is inappropriately used instead of ‘human being’. The critic might suggest that a more accurate way to represent the argument would be as follows: P1) It is wrong to kill innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a human being. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. This argument is obviously invalid. So one way to criticize the Classical Argument is to say that it conflates two different concepts—viz., ‘person’ and ‘human being’—and therefore commits equivocation. However, the more straightforward way to attack the Classical Argument is just to deny its second premise and thus contend that the argument is unsound. This is the approach that Mary Anne Warren takes in “On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion”. Why does Warren think that the second premise is false? Remember that we defined a person as “a member of the moral community.” And we said that an alien, for example, could be afforded moral status even though it is not a human being. Why do we think that this alien should not be tortured or set on fire? Warren thinks that, intuitively, we think that membership in the moral community is based upon possession of the following traits: 3 | P a g e 1. Consciousness of objects and events external and/or internal to the being and especially the capacity to feel pain; 2. Reasoning or rationality (i.e., the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); 3. Self-motivated activity (i.e., activity which is relatively independent of either genetic or direct external control); 4. Capacity to communicate (not necessarily verbal or linguistic); and 5. Possession of self-concepts and self-awareness. Warren then admits that, though all of the items on this list look promising, we need not require that a person have all of the items on this list. (4) is perhaps the most expendable: imagine someone who is fully paralyzed as well as deaf, these incapacities, which preclude communication, are not sufficient to justify torture. Similarly, we might be able to imagine certain psychological afflictions that negate (5) without compromising personhood. Warren suspects that (1) and (2) are might be sufficient to confer personhood, and thinks that (1)-(3) “quite probably” are sufficient. Note that, if she is right, we would not be able to torture chimps, let us say, but we could set plants on fire (and most likely ants as well). However, given Warren’s aims, she does not need to specify which of these traits are necessary or sufficient for personhood; all that she wants to observe is that the fetus has none of them! Therefore, regardless of which traits we want to require, Warren thinks that the fetus is not a person. Therefore she thinks that the Classical Argument is unsound and should be rejected. Even if we accept Warren’s refutation of the second premise, we might be inclined to say that, while the fetus is not (now) a person, it is a potential person: the fetus will hopefully mature into a being that possesses all five of the traits on Warren’s list. We might then propose the following adjustment to the Classical Argument: P1) It is wrong to kill all innocent persons. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) It is wrong to kill a fetus. However, this argument is invalid. Warren grants that potentiality might serve as a prima facie reason (i.e., a reason that has some moral weight but which might be outweighed by other considerations) not to abort a fetus, but potentiality alone is insufficient to grant the fetus a moral right against being terminated. By analogy, consider the following argument: 4 | P a g e P1) The President has the right to declare war. P2) Mary is a potential President. C) Mary has the right to declare war. This argument is invalid since the premises are both true and the conclusion is false. By parity, the following argument is also invalid: P1) A person has a right to life. P2) A fetus is a potential person. C) A fetus has a right to life. Thus Warren thinks that considerations of potentiality are insufficient to undermine her argument that fetuses—which are potential persons but, she thinks, not persons—do not have a right to life.

In making ethical decision, mental health counselors should abide by all but which if these principles ? a) Beneficience and nonmaleficence b) Justice and fidelity c) Common sense and autonomy d) Personal gain

In making ethical decision, mental health counselors should abide by all but which if these principles ? a) Beneficience and nonmaleficence b) Justice and fidelity c) Common sense and autonomy d) Personal gain

answer d