Do an internet search to find the weirdest animal ( 25 animals) Information need included: 1- name of animals. 2-description. (Your own words) 3-why do you thing it’s weird?

Do an internet search to find the weirdest animal ( 25 animals) Information need included: 1- name of animals. 2-description. (Your own words) 3-why do you thing it’s weird?

S.no Name of the animal Description and Reasons of thinking … Read More...
Homework #8  Consider the veracity or falsehood of each of the following statements. For bonus, argue for those that you believe are true while providing a counterexample for those that you believe are false.  If the first and third rows of A are equal, then det A 0.  If P is a projection, then uCP if and only if Pu  u.  If P is a projection, and detP  0, then P  I .  If A has determinant 10, then 1 A has determinant 1 10 .  If B is invertible, 1 1 det(A B ) det A (detB) .  If P is a projection, and R  2P I , then 2 R  I .  If P is a projection, and P  I , then detP  0 .  Short Computations. All of the following do not involve long computations:  Suppose 1 2 1 5 1 8 A                  and 1 9 2 4 3 1 A                   . Compute 7 13 19 A         .  Compute               0 8 7 1 0 2 3 4 5 3 0 9 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 9 3 2 0 det .  Use Cramer’s Rule to find 5 x (hint: you do not need your calculator). 1 2 3 4 5 5x 2x 8x x 3x 13 1 3 3x 5x 0 1 3 5 3x 3x 3x 9 1 2 3 5 3x 2x x 2x 7 1 3 x 4x 0 Let A 1 2 3 4 1 3 4 6 2 5 13 15 4 10 15 31 . Given is that det A  61. Do the following:  1 1 2 4 2 3 5 10 3 4 13 15 4 6 15 31 det  det2A  1 3 4 6 2 4 6 8 2 5 13 15 4 10 15 31 det  1 3 4 6 2 5 13 15 4 10 15 31 1 2 3 4 det  Consider the matrix A  0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 1           . Use row (or column) expansion to compute det(xI A) .  The matrix 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 2 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 6 P is the projection matrix for the column space of matrix A. This matrix A is also known to be of full rank. Answer the following, giving reasons for your answers.  Find a transparent basis and the dimension for the column space of P.  Find a basis and the dimension for the column space of A .  What size is the matrix A ?  Find a transparent basis and the dimension for the null space of P.  Find a transparent basis and the dimension for the row space of P.  Find a basis and the dimension for the null space of A.  For which of the following b can you find a solution to the system Ax b ? This does not mean you should find a solution, only whether one could or not. 10 17 19 14 10 17 19 14 13 10 17 19 14 13 23 1 1 1 1 1 1 .  It is known that certain vector u is a solution to the system Ax c . Give all solutions to Ax c .  It is also known that 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ax does not have a solution. How would you change the constant vector so that there would be a solution? Extra Problems.  Fill in the blank with the best possible expression to complete the sentence truthfully. Only that one will be counted correct. 1. matrix with two equal columns will have zero determinant. 1 2 3 Some Every No 2. If A is invertible, then A commute with its inverse. 1 2 3 must always can will not 3. If A is 6  9 , then the columns of A be linearly independent. While in AT , the columns be linearly independent. 1 2 3 can have to cannot 4. Let A be square, and suppose Ax  0 has a nontrivial solution. Then detA equal 0. 1 2 3 may cannot must 5. Let A and B be 3 3. Then det (AB) equal det(A)det(B) . 1 2 3 could must couldn’t 6. Let A be square and suppose detA  0. Then have an inverse 1 2 3 will not may must always 7. Let A and B be 2  2 . Then det (A B) equal det(A)  det(B) . 1 2 3 could must could not 8. exist a 6  6 matrix all of whose entries are whole numbers and its determinant is 2 5 . 1 2 3 There does There does not There might Bonus: Consider the matrix 0 0 1 0 2 0 n 0 . Give its determinant as a function of n.

Homework #8  Consider the veracity or falsehood of each of the following statements. For bonus, argue for those that you believe are true while providing a counterexample for those that you believe are false.  If the first and third rows of A are equal, then det A 0.  If P is a projection, then uCP if and only if Pu  u.  If P is a projection, and detP  0, then P  I .  If A has determinant 10, then 1 A has determinant 1 10 .  If B is invertible, 1 1 det(A B ) det A (detB) .  If P is a projection, and R  2P I , then 2 R  I .  If P is a projection, and P  I , then detP  0 .  Short Computations. All of the following do not involve long computations:  Suppose 1 2 1 5 1 8 A                  and 1 9 2 4 3 1 A                   . Compute 7 13 19 A         .  Compute               0 8 7 1 0 2 3 4 5 3 0 9 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 9 3 2 0 det .  Use Cramer’s Rule to find 5 x (hint: you do not need your calculator). 1 2 3 4 5 5x 2x 8x x 3x 13 1 3 3x 5x 0 1 3 5 3x 3x 3x 9 1 2 3 5 3x 2x x 2x 7 1 3 x 4x 0 Let A 1 2 3 4 1 3 4 6 2 5 13 15 4 10 15 31 . Given is that det A  61. Do the following:  1 1 2 4 2 3 5 10 3 4 13 15 4 6 15 31 det  det2A  1 3 4 6 2 4 6 8 2 5 13 15 4 10 15 31 det  1 3 4 6 2 5 13 15 4 10 15 31 1 2 3 4 det  Consider the matrix A  0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 1           . Use row (or column) expansion to compute det(xI A) .  The matrix 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 2 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 6 P is the projection matrix for the column space of matrix A. This matrix A is also known to be of full rank. Answer the following, giving reasons for your answers.  Find a transparent basis and the dimension for the column space of P.  Find a basis and the dimension for the column space of A .  What size is the matrix A ?  Find a transparent basis and the dimension for the null space of P.  Find a transparent basis and the dimension for the row space of P.  Find a basis and the dimension for the null space of A.  For which of the following b can you find a solution to the system Ax b ? This does not mean you should find a solution, only whether one could or not. 10 17 19 14 10 17 19 14 13 10 17 19 14 13 23 1 1 1 1 1 1 .  It is known that certain vector u is a solution to the system Ax c . Give all solutions to Ax c .  It is also known that 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ax does not have a solution. How would you change the constant vector so that there would be a solution? Extra Problems.  Fill in the blank with the best possible expression to complete the sentence truthfully. Only that one will be counted correct. 1. matrix with two equal columns will have zero determinant. 1 2 3 Some Every No 2. If A is invertible, then A commute with its inverse. 1 2 3 must always can will not 3. If A is 6  9 , then the columns of A be linearly independent. While in AT , the columns be linearly independent. 1 2 3 can have to cannot 4. Let A be square, and suppose Ax  0 has a nontrivial solution. Then detA equal 0. 1 2 3 may cannot must 5. Let A and B be 3 3. Then det (AB) equal det(A)det(B) . 1 2 3 could must couldn’t 6. Let A be square and suppose detA  0. Then have an inverse 1 2 3 will not may must always 7. Let A and B be 2  2 . Then det (A B) equal det(A)  det(B) . 1 2 3 could must could not 8. exist a 6  6 matrix all of whose entries are whole numbers and its determinant is 2 5 . 1 2 3 There does There does not There might Bonus: Consider the matrix 0 0 1 0 2 0 n 0 . Give its determinant as a function of n.

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Chapter 10 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 18, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy A One-Dimensional Inelastic Collision Block 1, of mass = 3.70 , moves along a frictionless air track with speed = 15.0 . It collides with block 2, of mass = 19.0 , which was initially at rest. The blocks stick together after the collision. Part A Find the magnitude of the total initial momentum of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m1 kg v1 m/s m2 kg pi Part B Find , the magnitude of the final velocity of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is the change in the two-block system’s kinetic energy due to the collision? Express your answer numerically in joules. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: pi = kg m/s vf vf = m/s K = Kfinal − Kinitial K = J Conservation of Energy Ranking Task Six pendulums of various masses are released from various heights above a tabletop, as shown in the figures below. All the pendulums have the same length and are mounted such that at the vertical position their lowest points are the height of the tabletop and just do not strike the tabletop when released. Assume that the size of each bob is negligible. Part A Rank each pendulum on the basis of its initial gravitational potential energy (before being released) relative to the tabletop. Rank from largest to smallest To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m h Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Momentum and Kinetic Energy Consider two objects (Object 1 and Object 2) moving in the same direction on a frictionless surface. Object 1 moves with speed and has mass . Object 2 moves with speed and has mass . Part A Which object has the larger magnitude of its momentum? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Which object has the larger kinetic energy? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: v1 = v m1 = 2m v2 = 2v m2 = m Object 1 has the greater magnitude of its momentum. Object 2 has the greater magnitude of its momentum. Both objects have the same magnitude of their momenta. Object 1 has the greater kinetic energy. Object 2 has the greater kinetic energy. The objects have the same kinetic energy. Projectile Motion and Conservation of Energy Ranking Task Part A Six baseball throws are shown below. In each case the baseball is thrown at the same initial speed and from the same height above the ground. Assume that the effects of air resistance are negligible. Rank these throws according to the speed of the baseball the instant before it hits the ground. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: H PSS 10.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 10.1 for conservation of mechanical energy problems. Tarzan, in one tree, sights Jane in another tree. He grabs the end of a vine with length 20 that makes an angle of 45 with the vertical, steps off his tree limb, and swings down and then up to Jane’s open arms. When he arrives, his vine makes an angle of 30 with the vertical. Determine whether he gives her a tender embrace or knocks her off her limb by calculating Tarzan’s speed just before he reaches Jane. You can ignore air resistance and the mass of the vine. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 10.1 Conservation of mechanical energy MODEL: Choose a system without friction or other losses of mechanical energy. m   VISUALIZE: Draw a before-and-after pictorial representation. Define symbols that will be used in the problem, list known values, and identify what you’re trying to find. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the law of conservation of mechanical energy: . ASSESS: Check that your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question. Model The problem does not involve friction, nor are there losses of mechanical energy, so conservation of mechanical energy applies. Model Tarzan and the vine as a pendulum. Visualize Part A Which of the following sketches can be used in drawing a before-and-after pictorial representation? ANSWER: Kf + Uf = Ki + Ui Solve Part B What is Tarzan’s speed just before he reaches Jane? Express your answer in meters per second to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Assess Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Bungee Jumping Diagram A Diagram B Diagram C Diagram D vf vf = m/s Kate, a bungee jumper, wants to jump off the edge of a bridge that spans a river below. Kate has a mass , and the surface of the bridge is a height above the water. The bungee cord, which has length when unstretched, will first straighten and then stretch as Kate falls. Assume the following: The bungee cord behaves as an ideal spring once it begins to stretch, with spring constant . Kate doesn’t actually jump but simply steps off the edge of the bridge and falls straight downward. Kate’s height is negligible compared to the length of the bungee cord. Hence, she can be treated as a point particle. Use for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Part A How far below the bridge will Kate eventually be hanging, once she stops oscillating and comes finally to rest? Assume that she doesn’t touch the water. Express the distance in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Spinning Mass on a Spring An object of mass is attached to a spring with spring constant whose unstretched length is , and whose far end is fixed to a shaft that is rotating with angular speed . Neglect gravity and assume that the mass rotates with angular speed as shown. When solving this problem use an inertial coordinate system, as drawn here. m h L k g d = M k L Part A Given the angular speed , find the radius at which the mass rotates without moving toward or away from the origin. Express the radius in terms of , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C R( ) k L M R( ) = This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± Baby Bounce with a Hooke One of the pioneers of modern science, Sir Robert Hooke (1635-1703), studied the elastic properties of springs and formulated the law that bears his name. Hooke found the relationship among the force a spring exerts, , the distance from equilibrium the end of the spring is displaced, , and a number called the spring constant (or, sometimes, the force constant of the spring). According to Hooke, the force of the spring is directly proportional to its displacement from equilibrium, or . In its scalar form, this equation is simply . The negative sign indicates that the force that the spring exerts and its displacement have opposite directions. The value of depends on the geometry and the material of the spring; it can be easily determined experimentally using this scalar equation. Toy makers have always been interested in springs for the entertainment value of the motion they produce. One well-known application is a baby bouncer,which consists of a harness seat for a toddler, attached to a spring. The entire contraption hooks onto the top of a doorway. The idea is for the baby to hang in the seat with his or her feet just touching the ground so that a good push up will get the baby bouncing, providing potentially hours of entertainment. F  x k F = −kx F = −kx k Part A The following chart and accompanying graph depict an experiment to determine the spring constant for a baby bouncer. Displacement from equilibrium, ( ) Force exerted on the spring, ( ) 0 0 0.005 2.5 0.010 5.0 0.015 7.5 0.020 10 What is the spring constant of the spring being tested for the baby bouncer? Express your answer to two significant figures in newtons per meter. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Shooting a ball into a box Two children are trying to shoot a marble of mass into a small box using a spring-loaded gun that is fixed on a table and shoots horizontally from the edge of the table. The edge of the table is a height above the top of the box (the height of which is negligibly small), and the center of the box is a distance from the edge of the table. x m F N k k = N/m m H d The spring has a spring constant . The first child compresses the spring a distance and finds that the marble falls short of its target by a horizontal distance . Part A By what distance, , should the second child compress the spring so that the marble lands in the middle of the box? (Assume that height of the box is negligible, so that there is no chance that the marble will hit the side of the box before it lands in the bottom.) Express the distance in terms of , , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). k x1 d12 x2 m k g H d x2 = Elastic Collision in One Dimension Block 1, of mass , moves across a frictionless surface with speed . It collides elastically with block 2, of mass , which is at rest ( ). After the collision, block 1 moves with speed , while block 2 moves with speed . Assume that , so that after the collision, the two objects move off in the direction of the first object before the collision. Part A This collision is elastic. What quantities, if any, are conserved in this collision? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the final speed of block 1? m1 ui m2 vi = 0 uf vf m1 > m2 kinetic energy only momentum only kinetic energy and momentum uf Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is the final speed of block 2? Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Ballistic Pendulum In a ballistic pendulum an object of mass is fired with an initial speed at a pendulum bob. The bob has a mass , which is suspended by a rod of length and negligible mass. After the collision, the pendulum and object stick together and swing to a maximum angular displacement as shown . uf m1 m2 ui uf = vf vf m1 m2 ui vf = m v0 M L  Part A Find an expression for , the initial speed of the fired object. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and and the acceleration due to gravity, . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B An experiment is done to compare the initial speed of bullets fired from different handguns: a 9.0 and a .44 caliber. The guns are fired into a 10- pendulum bob of length . Assume that the 9.0- bullet has a mass of 6.0 and the .44-caliber bullet has a mass of 12 . If the 9.0- bullet causes the pendulum to swing to a maximum angular displacement of 4.3 and the .44-caliber bullet causes a displacement of 10.1 , find the ratio of the initial speed of the 9.0- bullet to the speed of the .44-caliber bullet, . Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: v0 m M L  g v0 = mm kg L mm g g mm   mm (v /( 0 )9.0 v0)44 Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. (v0 )9.0/(v0 )44 =

Chapter 10 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 18, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy A One-Dimensional Inelastic Collision Block 1, of mass = 3.70 , moves along a frictionless air track with speed = 15.0 . It collides with block 2, of mass = 19.0 , which was initially at rest. The blocks stick together after the collision. Part A Find the magnitude of the total initial momentum of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m1 kg v1 m/s m2 kg pi Part B Find , the magnitude of the final velocity of the two-block system. Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is the change in the two-block system’s kinetic energy due to the collision? Express your answer numerically in joules. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: pi = kg m/s vf vf = m/s K = Kfinal − Kinitial K = J Conservation of Energy Ranking Task Six pendulums of various masses are released from various heights above a tabletop, as shown in the figures below. All the pendulums have the same length and are mounted such that at the vertical position their lowest points are the height of the tabletop and just do not strike the tabletop when released. Assume that the size of each bob is negligible. Part A Rank each pendulum on the basis of its initial gravitational potential energy (before being released) relative to the tabletop. Rank from largest to smallest To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: m h Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Momentum and Kinetic Energy Consider two objects (Object 1 and Object 2) moving in the same direction on a frictionless surface. Object 1 moves with speed and has mass . Object 2 moves with speed and has mass . Part A Which object has the larger magnitude of its momentum? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Which object has the larger kinetic energy? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: v1 = v m1 = 2m v2 = 2v m2 = m Object 1 has the greater magnitude of its momentum. Object 2 has the greater magnitude of its momentum. Both objects have the same magnitude of their momenta. Object 1 has the greater kinetic energy. Object 2 has the greater kinetic energy. The objects have the same kinetic energy. Projectile Motion and Conservation of Energy Ranking Task Part A Six baseball throws are shown below. In each case the baseball is thrown at the same initial speed and from the same height above the ground. Assume that the effects of air resistance are negligible. Rank these throws according to the speed of the baseball the instant before it hits the ground. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: H PSS 10.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 10.1 for conservation of mechanical energy problems. Tarzan, in one tree, sights Jane in another tree. He grabs the end of a vine with length 20 that makes an angle of 45 with the vertical, steps off his tree limb, and swings down and then up to Jane’s open arms. When he arrives, his vine makes an angle of 30 with the vertical. Determine whether he gives her a tender embrace or knocks her off her limb by calculating Tarzan’s speed just before he reaches Jane. You can ignore air resistance and the mass of the vine. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 10.1 Conservation of mechanical energy MODEL: Choose a system without friction or other losses of mechanical energy. m   VISUALIZE: Draw a before-and-after pictorial representation. Define symbols that will be used in the problem, list known values, and identify what you’re trying to find. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the law of conservation of mechanical energy: . ASSESS: Check that your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question. Model The problem does not involve friction, nor are there losses of mechanical energy, so conservation of mechanical energy applies. Model Tarzan and the vine as a pendulum. Visualize Part A Which of the following sketches can be used in drawing a before-and-after pictorial representation? ANSWER: Kf + Uf = Ki + Ui Solve Part B What is Tarzan’s speed just before he reaches Jane? Express your answer in meters per second to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Assess Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Bungee Jumping Diagram A Diagram B Diagram C Diagram D vf vf = m/s Kate, a bungee jumper, wants to jump off the edge of a bridge that spans a river below. Kate has a mass , and the surface of the bridge is a height above the water. The bungee cord, which has length when unstretched, will first straighten and then stretch as Kate falls. Assume the following: The bungee cord behaves as an ideal spring once it begins to stretch, with spring constant . Kate doesn’t actually jump but simply steps off the edge of the bridge and falls straight downward. Kate’s height is negligible compared to the length of the bungee cord. Hence, she can be treated as a point particle. Use for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Part A How far below the bridge will Kate eventually be hanging, once she stops oscillating and comes finally to rest? Assume that she doesn’t touch the water. Express the distance in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Spinning Mass on a Spring An object of mass is attached to a spring with spring constant whose unstretched length is , and whose far end is fixed to a shaft that is rotating with angular speed . Neglect gravity and assume that the mass rotates with angular speed as shown. When solving this problem use an inertial coordinate system, as drawn here. m h L k g d = M k L Part A Given the angular speed , find the radius at which the mass rotates without moving toward or away from the origin. Express the radius in terms of , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C R( ) k L M R( ) = This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± Baby Bounce with a Hooke One of the pioneers of modern science, Sir Robert Hooke (1635-1703), studied the elastic properties of springs and formulated the law that bears his name. Hooke found the relationship among the force a spring exerts, , the distance from equilibrium the end of the spring is displaced, , and a number called the spring constant (or, sometimes, the force constant of the spring). According to Hooke, the force of the spring is directly proportional to its displacement from equilibrium, or . In its scalar form, this equation is simply . The negative sign indicates that the force that the spring exerts and its displacement have opposite directions. The value of depends on the geometry and the material of the spring; it can be easily determined experimentally using this scalar equation. Toy makers have always been interested in springs for the entertainment value of the motion they produce. One well-known application is a baby bouncer,which consists of a harness seat for a toddler, attached to a spring. The entire contraption hooks onto the top of a doorway. The idea is for the baby to hang in the seat with his or her feet just touching the ground so that a good push up will get the baby bouncing, providing potentially hours of entertainment. F  x k F = −kx F = −kx k Part A The following chart and accompanying graph depict an experiment to determine the spring constant for a baby bouncer. Displacement from equilibrium, ( ) Force exerted on the spring, ( ) 0 0 0.005 2.5 0.010 5.0 0.015 7.5 0.020 10 What is the spring constant of the spring being tested for the baby bouncer? Express your answer to two significant figures in newtons per meter. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Shooting a ball into a box Two children are trying to shoot a marble of mass into a small box using a spring-loaded gun that is fixed on a table and shoots horizontally from the edge of the table. The edge of the table is a height above the top of the box (the height of which is negligibly small), and the center of the box is a distance from the edge of the table. x m F N k k = N/m m H d The spring has a spring constant . The first child compresses the spring a distance and finds that the marble falls short of its target by a horizontal distance . Part A By what distance, , should the second child compress the spring so that the marble lands in the middle of the box? (Assume that height of the box is negligible, so that there is no chance that the marble will hit the side of the box before it lands in the bottom.) Express the distance in terms of , , , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). k x1 d12 x2 m k g H d x2 = Elastic Collision in One Dimension Block 1, of mass , moves across a frictionless surface with speed . It collides elastically with block 2, of mass , which is at rest ( ). After the collision, block 1 moves with speed , while block 2 moves with speed . Assume that , so that after the collision, the two objects move off in the direction of the first object before the collision. Part A This collision is elastic. What quantities, if any, are conserved in this collision? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the final speed of block 1? m1 ui m2 vi = 0 uf vf m1 > m2 kinetic energy only momentum only kinetic energy and momentum uf Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What is the final speed of block 2? Express in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Ballistic Pendulum In a ballistic pendulum an object of mass is fired with an initial speed at a pendulum bob. The bob has a mass , which is suspended by a rod of length and negligible mass. After the collision, the pendulum and object stick together and swing to a maximum angular displacement as shown . uf m1 m2 ui uf = vf vf m1 m2 ui vf = m v0 M L  Part A Find an expression for , the initial speed of the fired object. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , , and and the acceleration due to gravity, . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B An experiment is done to compare the initial speed of bullets fired from different handguns: a 9.0 and a .44 caliber. The guns are fired into a 10- pendulum bob of length . Assume that the 9.0- bullet has a mass of 6.0 and the .44-caliber bullet has a mass of 12 . If the 9.0- bullet causes the pendulum to swing to a maximum angular displacement of 4.3 and the .44-caliber bullet causes a displacement of 10.1 , find the ratio of the initial speed of the 9.0- bullet to the speed of the .44-caliber bullet, . Express your answer numerically. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: v0 m M L  g v0 = mm kg L mm g g mm   mm (v /( 0 )9.0 v0)44 Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. (v0 )9.0/(v0 )44 =

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1 REQUIREMENTS You will need to complete the following tasks and deliver your finding in a written report by August 6th. Research the six scenarios given below in option 1 for added capacity to uncover any additional costs/benefits to society these options might pose. Write a two page summary describing each scenario. Discuss the pros and cons of each scenario, including such items as renewable sources of fuel, environmental factors, etc. Give examples of each type of project by name and location and indicate the sources of your information. Please use either IEEE or APA style. Do an economic analysis of the six scenarios. Use a 20-year period and assume an inflation rate of 4 percent. Include your calculations and any assumptions in the report. Also answer the following questions: Which scenario is the best from an economic basis? Are there any other considerations, such as environmental/health/social issues, which should be considered? Which scenario have you selected based on the answers to a and b? What is the estimated timeframe to implement the different options? (base your timelines on existing projects of similar size if possible, use MS Project/Project Libre to generate the timelines) Make a recommendation regarding the best option for the utility. 2 Situations A utility company in one of the western states is considering the addition of 50 megawatts of generating capacity to meet expected demands for electrical energy by the year 2025. The three options that the utility has are: Add generating capacity. Constructing one of the scenarios below would do this. Purchase power from Canada under terms of a 20-year contract. Do neither of the above. This assumes that brownouts will occur during high demand periods. The utility presently has 200 megawatts of installed capacity and generates an average of 1.2 billion kilowatt-hours annually. Maximum generation capability is 1.3 billion kW-hours. By the year 2025, this reserve of 100,000,000 kW-hours will be used. 2.1 OPTION 1 – ADD GENERATING CAPACITY For this option there are six possible scenarios: Hydroelectric dam. Initial cost is $ 50 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 1.7 million. Project life is 30 years before a major rebuild is required. Wind farm. Initial cost is $ 28 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.5 million. Project life is 12 years. At this time new equipment will be required. Solar power. Initial cost is $ 32 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 1.1 million. Project life is 10 years. Natural gas turbines. Initial cost is $ 14 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $2.0 million. Project life is 12 years. Nuclear plant. Initial cost is $ 70 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.0 million. Project life is 25 years. Coal-fired turbines. Initial cost is $ 35 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.7 million. Project life is 28 years. 2.2 OPTION 2 – BUY POWER FROM CANADA The annual additional energy requirement is 350,000,000 kilowatt-hours. The cost of energy from Canada is 1.48 cents per kilowatt-hour for the first year. The price will be escalated at 4 percent annually for the 20-year contract period. 2.3 OPTION 3 – DO NOTHING Local municipalities are very opposed to this option since companies may have to close down for short periods of time. Also, it would be very difficult to attract new businesses. If nothing is done, by the year 2025 it is anticipated that some companies will be without power for short periods of time during the summer months. These are known as brownouts. It is estimated, based on historical data that these outages will occur once a week during July and August for periods of 6 hours.

1 REQUIREMENTS You will need to complete the following tasks and deliver your finding in a written report by August 6th. Research the six scenarios given below in option 1 for added capacity to uncover any additional costs/benefits to society these options might pose. Write a two page summary describing each scenario. Discuss the pros and cons of each scenario, including such items as renewable sources of fuel, environmental factors, etc. Give examples of each type of project by name and location and indicate the sources of your information. Please use either IEEE or APA style. Do an economic analysis of the six scenarios. Use a 20-year period and assume an inflation rate of 4 percent. Include your calculations and any assumptions in the report. Also answer the following questions: Which scenario is the best from an economic basis? Are there any other considerations, such as environmental/health/social issues, which should be considered? Which scenario have you selected based on the answers to a and b? What is the estimated timeframe to implement the different options? (base your timelines on existing projects of similar size if possible, use MS Project/Project Libre to generate the timelines) Make a recommendation regarding the best option for the utility. 2 Situations A utility company in one of the western states is considering the addition of 50 megawatts of generating capacity to meet expected demands for electrical energy by the year 2025. The three options that the utility has are: Add generating capacity. Constructing one of the scenarios below would do this. Purchase power from Canada under terms of a 20-year contract. Do neither of the above. This assumes that brownouts will occur during high demand periods. The utility presently has 200 megawatts of installed capacity and generates an average of 1.2 billion kilowatt-hours annually. Maximum generation capability is 1.3 billion kW-hours. By the year 2025, this reserve of 100,000,000 kW-hours will be used. 2.1 OPTION 1 – ADD GENERATING CAPACITY For this option there are six possible scenarios: Hydroelectric dam. Initial cost is $ 50 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 1.7 million. Project life is 30 years before a major rebuild is required. Wind farm. Initial cost is $ 28 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.5 million. Project life is 12 years. At this time new equipment will be required. Solar power. Initial cost is $ 32 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 1.1 million. Project life is 10 years. Natural gas turbines. Initial cost is $ 14 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $2.0 million. Project life is 12 years. Nuclear plant. Initial cost is $ 70 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.0 million. Project life is 25 years. Coal-fired turbines. Initial cost is $ 35 million. Annual operating and maintenance cost is $ 2.7 million. Project life is 28 years. 2.2 OPTION 2 – BUY POWER FROM CANADA The annual additional energy requirement is 350,000,000 kilowatt-hours. The cost of energy from Canada is 1.48 cents per kilowatt-hour for the first year. The price will be escalated at 4 percent annually for the 20-year contract period. 2.3 OPTION 3 – DO NOTHING Local municipalities are very opposed to this option since companies may have to close down for short periods of time. Also, it would be very difficult to attract new businesses. If nothing is done, by the year 2025 it is anticipated that some companies will be without power for short periods of time during the summer months. These are known as brownouts. It is estimated, based on historical data that these outages will occur once a week during July and August for periods of 6 hours.

1 REQUIREMENTS You will need to complete the following tasks … Read More...
Please write a short paragraph of introduction. Include your name and major and some background information that is interesting and will help us get to know you. In a separate paragraph, please describe an event that has recently been in the news with ethical implications.

Please write a short paragraph of introduction. Include your name and major and some background information that is interesting and will help us get to know you. In a separate paragraph, please describe an event that has recently been in the news with ethical implications.

Introduction News:   Drones: Deadly robots or useful machines?   … Read More...
Chapter 6 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, March 14, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy PSS 6.1 Equilibrium Problems Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 6.1 for equilibrium problems. A pair of students are lifting a heavy trunk on move-in day. Using two ropes tied to a small ring at the center of the top of the trunk, they pull the trunk straight up at a constant velocity . Each rope makes an angle with respect to the vertical. The gravitational force acting on the trunk has magnitude . Find the tension in each rope. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 6.1 Equilibrium problems MODEL: Make simplifying assumptions. VISUALIZE: Establish a coordinate system, define symbols, and identify what the problem is asking you to find. This is the process of translating words into symbols. Identify all forces acting on the object, and show them on a free-body diagram. These elements form the pictorial representation of the problem. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on Newton’s first law: . The vector sum of the forces is found directly from the free-body diagram. v  FG T F  = = net i F  i 0 ASSESS: Check if your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question. Model The trunk is moving at a constant velocity. This means that you can model it as a particle in dynamic equilibrium and apply the strategy above. Furthermore, you can ignore the masses of the ropes and the ring because it is reasonable to assume that their combined weight is much less than the weight of the trunk. Visualize Part A The most convenient coordinate system for this problem is one in which the y axis is vertical and the ropes both lie in the xy plane, as shown below. Identify the forces acting on the trunk, and then draw a free-body diagram of the trunk in the diagram below. The black dot represents the trunk as it is lifted by the students. Draw the vectors starting at the black dot. The location and orientation of the vectors will be graded. The length of the vectors will not be graded. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Solve Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Assess Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). A Gymnast on a Rope A gymnast of mass 70.0 hangs from a vertical rope attached to the ceiling. You can ignore the weight of the rope and assume that the rope does not stretch. Use the value for the acceleration of gravity. Part A Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast hangs motionless on the rope. Express your answer in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast climbs the rope at a constant rate. Express your answer in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. kg 9.81m/s2 T T = N T ANSWER: Part C Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast climbs up the rope with an upward acceleration of magnitude 1.10 . Express your answer in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast slides down the rope with a downward acceleration of magnitude 1.10 . Express your answer in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: T = N T m/s2 T = N T m/s2 T = N Applying Newton’s 2nd Law Learning Goal: To learn a systematic approach to solving Newton’s 2nd law problems using a simple example. Once you have decided to solve a problem using Newton’s 2nd law, there are steps that will lead you to a solution. One such prescription is the following: Visualize the problem and identify special cases. Isolate each body and draw the forces acting on it. Choose a coordinate system for each body. Apply Newton’s 2nd law to each body. Write equations for the constraints and other given information. Solve the resulting equations symbolically. Check that your answer has the correct dimensions and satisfies special cases. If numbers are given in the problem, plug them in and check that the answer makes sense. Think about generalizations or simplfications of the problem. As an example, we will apply this procedure to find the acceleration of a block of mass that is pulled up a frictionless plane inclined at angle with respect to the horizontal by a perfect string that passes over a perfect pulley to a block of mass that is hanging vertically. Visualize the problem and identify special cases First examine the problem by drawing a picture and visualizing the motion. Apply Newton’s 2nd law, , to each body in your mind. Don’t worry about which quantities are given. Think about the forces on each body: How are these consistent with the direction of the acceleration for that body? Can you think of any special cases that you can solve quickly now and use to test your understanding later? m2  m1 F = ma One special case in this problem is if , in which case block 1 would simply fall freely under the acceleration of gravity: . Part A Consider another special case in which the inclined plane is vertical ( ). In this case, for what value of would the acceleration of the two blocks be equal to zero? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables and . ANSWER: Isolate each body and draw the forces acting on it A force diagram should include only real forces that act on the body and satisfy Newton’s 3rd law. One way to check if the forces are real is to detrmine whether they are part of a Newton’s 3rd law pair, that is, whether they result from a physical interaction that also causes an opposite force on some other body, which may not be part of the problem. Do not decompose the forces into components, and do not include resultant forces that are combinations of other real forces like centripetal force or fictitious forces like the “centrifugal” force. Assign each force a symbol, but don’t start to solve the problem at this point. Part B Which of the four drawings is a correct force diagram for this problem? = 0 m2 = −g a 1 j ^  = /2 m1 m2 g m1 = ANSWER: Choose a coordinate system for each body Newton’s 2nd law, , is a vector equation. To add or subtract vectors it is often easiest to decompose each vector into components. Whereas a particular set of vector components is only valid in a particular coordinate system, the vector equality holds in any coordinate system, giving you freedom to pick a coordinate system that most simplifies the equations that result from the component equations. It’s generally best to pick a coordinate system where the acceleration of the system lies directly on one of the coordinate axes. If there is no acceleration, then pick a coordinate system with as many unknowns as possible along the coordinate axes. Vectors that lie along the axes appear in only one of the equations for each component, rather than in two equations with trigonometric prefactors. Note that it is sometimes advantageous to use different coordinate systems for each body in the problem. In this problem, you should use Cartesian coordinates and your axes should be stationary with respect to the inclined plane. Part C Given the criteria just described, what orientation of the coordinate axes would be best to use in this problem? In the answer options, “tilted” means with the x axis oriented parallel to the plane (i.e., at angle to the horizontal), and “level” means with the x axis horizontal. ANSWER: Apply Newton’s 2nd law to each body a b c d F  = ma  tilted for both block 1 and block 2 tilted for block 1 and level for block 2 level for block 1 and tilted for block 2 level for both block 1 and block 2 Part D What is , the sum of the x components of the forces acting on block 2? Take forces acting up the incline to be positive. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables tension , , the magnitude of the acceleration of gravity , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Lifting a Bucket A 6- bucket of water is being pulled straight up by a string at a constant speed. F2x T m2 g  m2a2x =F2x = kg Part A What is the tension in the rope? ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Friction Force on a Dancer on a Drawbridge A dancer is standing on one leg on a drawbridge that is about to open. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between the drawbridge and the dancer’s foot are and , respectively. represents the normal force exerted on the dancer by the bridge, and represents the gravitational force exerted on the dancer, as shown in the drawing . For all the questions, we can assume that the bridge is a perfectly flat surface and lacks the curvature characteristic of most bridges. about 42 about 60 about 78 0 because the bucket has no acceleration. N N N N μs μk n F  g Part A Before the drawbridge starts to open, it is perfectly level with the ground. The dancer is standing still on one leg. What is the x component of the friction force, ? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and/or . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B The drawbridge then starts to rise and the dancer continues to stand on one leg. The drawbridge stops just at the point where the dancer is on the verge of slipping. What is the magnitude of the frictional force now? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and/or . The angle should not appear in your answer. F  f n μs μk Ff = Ff n μs μk  You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Then, because the bridge is old and poorly designed, it falls a little bit and then jerks. This causes the person to start to slide down the bridge at a constant speed. What is the magnitude of the frictional force now? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and/or . The angle should not appear in your answer. ANSWER: Part D The bridge starts to come back down again. The dancer stops sliding. However, again because of the age and design of the bridge it never makes it all the way down; rather it stops half a meter short. This half a meter corresponds to an angle degree (see the diagram, which has the angle exaggerated). What is the force of friction now? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and . Ff = Ff n μs μk  Ff =   1 Ff  n Fg You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Kinetic Friction Ranking Task Below are eight crates of different mass. The crates are attached to massless ropes, as indicated in the picture, where the ropes are marked by letters. Each crate is being pulled to the right at the same constant speed. The coefficient of kinetic friction between each crate and the surface on which it slides is the same for all eight crates. Ff = Part A Rank the ropes on the basis of the force each exerts on the crate immediately to its left. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Pushing a Block Learning Goal: To understand kinetic and static friction. A block of mass lies on a horizontal table. The coefficient of static friction between the block and the table is . The coefficient of kinetic friction is , with . Part A m μs μk μk < μs If the block is at rest (and the only forces acting on the block are the force due to gravity and the normal force from the table), what is the magnitude of the force due to friction? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Suppose you want to move the block, but you want to push it with the least force possible to get it moving. With what force must you be pushing the block just before the block begins to move? Express the magnitude of in terms of some or all the variables , , and , as well as the acceleration due to gravity . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Suppose you push horizontally with half the force needed to just make the block move. What is the magnitude of the friction force? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and , as well as the acceleration due to gravity . You did not open hints for this part. Ffriction = F F μs μk m g F = μs μk m g ANSWER: Part D Suppose you push horizontally with precisely enough force to make the block start to move, and you continue to apply the same amount of force even after it starts moving. Find the acceleration of the block after it begins to move. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and , as well as the acceleration due to gravity . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. Ffriction = a μs μk m g a =

Chapter 6 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, March 14, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy PSS 6.1 Equilibrium Problems Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 6.1 for equilibrium problems. A pair of students are lifting a heavy trunk on move-in day. Using two ropes tied to a small ring at the center of the top of the trunk, they pull the trunk straight up at a constant velocity . Each rope makes an angle with respect to the vertical. The gravitational force acting on the trunk has magnitude . Find the tension in each rope. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 6.1 Equilibrium problems MODEL: Make simplifying assumptions. VISUALIZE: Establish a coordinate system, define symbols, and identify what the problem is asking you to find. This is the process of translating words into symbols. Identify all forces acting on the object, and show them on a free-body diagram. These elements form the pictorial representation of the problem. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on Newton’s first law: . The vector sum of the forces is found directly from the free-body diagram. v  FG T F  = = net i F  i 0 ASSESS: Check if your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question. Model The trunk is moving at a constant velocity. This means that you can model it as a particle in dynamic equilibrium and apply the strategy above. Furthermore, you can ignore the masses of the ropes and the ring because it is reasonable to assume that their combined weight is much less than the weight of the trunk. Visualize Part A The most convenient coordinate system for this problem is one in which the y axis is vertical and the ropes both lie in the xy plane, as shown below. Identify the forces acting on the trunk, and then draw a free-body diagram of the trunk in the diagram below. The black dot represents the trunk as it is lifted by the students. Draw the vectors starting at the black dot. The location and orientation of the vectors will be graded. The length of the vectors will not be graded. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Solve Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Assess Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). A Gymnast on a Rope A gymnast of mass 70.0 hangs from a vertical rope attached to the ceiling. You can ignore the weight of the rope and assume that the rope does not stretch. Use the value for the acceleration of gravity. Part A Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast hangs motionless on the rope. Express your answer in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast climbs the rope at a constant rate. Express your answer in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. kg 9.81m/s2 T T = N T ANSWER: Part C Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast climbs up the rope with an upward acceleration of magnitude 1.10 . Express your answer in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D Calculate the tension in the rope if the gymnast slides down the rope with a downward acceleration of magnitude 1.10 . Express your answer in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: T = N T m/s2 T = N T m/s2 T = N Applying Newton’s 2nd Law Learning Goal: To learn a systematic approach to solving Newton’s 2nd law problems using a simple example. Once you have decided to solve a problem using Newton’s 2nd law, there are steps that will lead you to a solution. One such prescription is the following: Visualize the problem and identify special cases. Isolate each body and draw the forces acting on it. Choose a coordinate system for each body. Apply Newton’s 2nd law to each body. Write equations for the constraints and other given information. Solve the resulting equations symbolically. Check that your answer has the correct dimensions and satisfies special cases. If numbers are given in the problem, plug them in and check that the answer makes sense. Think about generalizations or simplfications of the problem. As an example, we will apply this procedure to find the acceleration of a block of mass that is pulled up a frictionless plane inclined at angle with respect to the horizontal by a perfect string that passes over a perfect pulley to a block of mass that is hanging vertically. Visualize the problem and identify special cases First examine the problem by drawing a picture and visualizing the motion. Apply Newton’s 2nd law, , to each body in your mind. Don’t worry about which quantities are given. Think about the forces on each body: How are these consistent with the direction of the acceleration for that body? Can you think of any special cases that you can solve quickly now and use to test your understanding later? m2  m1 F = ma One special case in this problem is if , in which case block 1 would simply fall freely under the acceleration of gravity: . Part A Consider another special case in which the inclined plane is vertical ( ). In this case, for what value of would the acceleration of the two blocks be equal to zero? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables and . ANSWER: Isolate each body and draw the forces acting on it A force diagram should include only real forces that act on the body and satisfy Newton’s 3rd law. One way to check if the forces are real is to detrmine whether they are part of a Newton’s 3rd law pair, that is, whether they result from a physical interaction that also causes an opposite force on some other body, which may not be part of the problem. Do not decompose the forces into components, and do not include resultant forces that are combinations of other real forces like centripetal force or fictitious forces like the “centrifugal” force. Assign each force a symbol, but don’t start to solve the problem at this point. Part B Which of the four drawings is a correct force diagram for this problem? = 0 m2 = −g a 1 j ^  = /2 m1 m2 g m1 = ANSWER: Choose a coordinate system for each body Newton’s 2nd law, , is a vector equation. To add or subtract vectors it is often easiest to decompose each vector into components. Whereas a particular set of vector components is only valid in a particular coordinate system, the vector equality holds in any coordinate system, giving you freedom to pick a coordinate system that most simplifies the equations that result from the component equations. It’s generally best to pick a coordinate system where the acceleration of the system lies directly on one of the coordinate axes. If there is no acceleration, then pick a coordinate system with as many unknowns as possible along the coordinate axes. Vectors that lie along the axes appear in only one of the equations for each component, rather than in two equations with trigonometric prefactors. Note that it is sometimes advantageous to use different coordinate systems for each body in the problem. In this problem, you should use Cartesian coordinates and your axes should be stationary with respect to the inclined plane. Part C Given the criteria just described, what orientation of the coordinate axes would be best to use in this problem? In the answer options, “tilted” means with the x axis oriented parallel to the plane (i.e., at angle to the horizontal), and “level” means with the x axis horizontal. ANSWER: Apply Newton’s 2nd law to each body a b c d F  = ma  tilted for both block 1 and block 2 tilted for block 1 and level for block 2 level for block 1 and tilted for block 2 level for both block 1 and block 2 Part D What is , the sum of the x components of the forces acting on block 2? Take forces acting up the incline to be positive. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables tension , , the magnitude of the acceleration of gravity , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Lifting a Bucket A 6- bucket of water is being pulled straight up by a string at a constant speed. F2x T m2 g  m2a2x =F2x = kg Part A What is the tension in the rope? ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Friction Force on a Dancer on a Drawbridge A dancer is standing on one leg on a drawbridge that is about to open. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between the drawbridge and the dancer’s foot are and , respectively. represents the normal force exerted on the dancer by the bridge, and represents the gravitational force exerted on the dancer, as shown in the drawing . For all the questions, we can assume that the bridge is a perfectly flat surface and lacks the curvature characteristic of most bridges. about 42 about 60 about 78 0 because the bucket has no acceleration. N N N N μs μk n F  g Part A Before the drawbridge starts to open, it is perfectly level with the ground. The dancer is standing still on one leg. What is the x component of the friction force, ? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and/or . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B The drawbridge then starts to rise and the dancer continues to stand on one leg. The drawbridge stops just at the point where the dancer is on the verge of slipping. What is the magnitude of the frictional force now? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and/or . The angle should not appear in your answer. F  f n μs μk Ff = Ff n μs μk  You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Then, because the bridge is old and poorly designed, it falls a little bit and then jerks. This causes the person to start to slide down the bridge at a constant speed. What is the magnitude of the frictional force now? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and/or . The angle should not appear in your answer. ANSWER: Part D The bridge starts to come back down again. The dancer stops sliding. However, again because of the age and design of the bridge it never makes it all the way down; rather it stops half a meter short. This half a meter corresponds to an angle degree (see the diagram, which has the angle exaggerated). What is the force of friction now? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and . Ff = Ff n μs μk  Ff =   1 Ff  n Fg You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Kinetic Friction Ranking Task Below are eight crates of different mass. The crates are attached to massless ropes, as indicated in the picture, where the ropes are marked by letters. Each crate is being pulled to the right at the same constant speed. The coefficient of kinetic friction between each crate and the surface on which it slides is the same for all eight crates. Ff = Part A Rank the ropes on the basis of the force each exerts on the crate immediately to its left. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Pushing a Block Learning Goal: To understand kinetic and static friction. A block of mass lies on a horizontal table. The coefficient of static friction between the block and the table is . The coefficient of kinetic friction is , with . Part A m μs μk μk < μs If the block is at rest (and the only forces acting on the block are the force due to gravity and the normal force from the table), what is the magnitude of the force due to friction? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Suppose you want to move the block, but you want to push it with the least force possible to get it moving. With what force must you be pushing the block just before the block begins to move? Express the magnitude of in terms of some or all the variables , , and , as well as the acceleration due to gravity . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Suppose you push horizontally with half the force needed to just make the block move. What is the magnitude of the friction force? Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and , as well as the acceleration due to gravity . You did not open hints for this part. Ffriction = F F μs μk m g F = μs μk m g ANSWER: Part D Suppose you push horizontally with precisely enough force to make the block start to move, and you continue to apply the same amount of force even after it starts moving. Find the acceleration of the block after it begins to move. Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and , as well as the acceleration due to gravity . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. Ffriction = a μs μk m g a =

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Important Instructions for submitting this, and all subsequent projects: • Name your project .m file as follows: proj4fml.m where the “4” refers to the project number and fml are your first, middle, and last initials. • Inside the project.m file, you MUST have a comment section at the beginning with the following information: A short description of the project, your name, and Bengal ID number, and a listing of all the relevant variables (those that the user sees when using the project), and their meaning. • You will upload the proj4fml.m file to the provided link, on or before the due date and time. NOTE: The upload link will become inactive after the expiration of this due date and time, and you will NOT receive ANY credit for late submissions. Project 4 Instructions: Your program should allow the user to run it as many times as wished. Use an appropriate loop. Your program should implement the following tasks: 1) Display to the user the purpose of this program 2) In this program you will be converting temperature entered by the user in degree Fahrenheit to a) Degree Celsius b) Degree Kelvin c) Rankine or d) Réaumur 3) The formulae for conversion is as follows; Fahrenheit to Celsius C = (F – 32) / 1.8 Fahrenheit to Kelvin K = (F + 459.67) / 1.8 Fahrenheit to Rankine Ra = F + 459.67 Fahrenheit to Réaumur Re = (F – 32) / 2.25 4) You will create a main file which will call any one of the 4 functions. The name of the function files that you will create are as follows; F2C, F2K, F2Ra and F2Re where the actual calculation of the selected conversion will be computed. 5) Each of the function files will have temperature in Fahrenheit as the input argument and the corresponding conversion as its output argument. 6) The program is to run as many times as the user wishes. 7) At the end of the program display an output statement which has the user input (temperature) and the corresponding conversion.

Important Instructions for submitting this, and all subsequent projects: • Name your project .m file as follows: proj4fml.m where the “4” refers to the project number and fml are your first, middle, and last initials. • Inside the project.m file, you MUST have a comment section at the beginning with the following information: A short description of the project, your name, and Bengal ID number, and a listing of all the relevant variables (those that the user sees when using the project), and their meaning. • You will upload the proj4fml.m file to the provided link, on or before the due date and time. NOTE: The upload link will become inactive after the expiration of this due date and time, and you will NOT receive ANY credit for late submissions. Project 4 Instructions: Your program should allow the user to run it as many times as wished. Use an appropriate loop. Your program should implement the following tasks: 1) Display to the user the purpose of this program 2) In this program you will be converting temperature entered by the user in degree Fahrenheit to a) Degree Celsius b) Degree Kelvin c) Rankine or d) Réaumur 3) The formulae for conversion is as follows; Fahrenheit to Celsius C = (F – 32) / 1.8 Fahrenheit to Kelvin K = (F + 459.67) / 1.8 Fahrenheit to Rankine Ra = F + 459.67 Fahrenheit to Réaumur Re = (F – 32) / 2.25 4) You will create a main file which will call any one of the 4 functions. The name of the function files that you will create are as follows; F2C, F2K, F2Ra and F2Re where the actual calculation of the selected conversion will be computed. 5) Each of the function files will have temperature in Fahrenheit as the input argument and the corresponding conversion as its output argument. 6) The program is to run as many times as the user wishes. 7) At the end of the program display an output statement which has the user input (temperature) and the corresponding conversion.

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Scenario: You are to design synchronous and asynchronous circuits that will allow the following requirements to be met. Tasks: 1. Packet number checking A synchronous sequential machine is to have a single input line and a single output line. The circuit is to receive messages of 4-bit words coded in binary (least significant bit first). The purpose of the circuit is to detect whether the number coming in is a prime number (divisible by only itself and 1). Thus, the output is to become 1 whenever a 4-bit word does represent a valid prime number. At the end of each word the machine is to return to the reset starting state. Steps: 1) Draw a State Diagram (Mealy) and check for redundancies 2) Then assign binary State Identifiers. 3) Make a Next State Truth Table (NSTT) 4) Select a bistable type 5) Determine expressions for the bistable inputs 6) Determine expressions for the outputs 2. Monitoring System A monitoring system sends 1s positive going pulses to a device to ensure that it is operating correctly. The device will respond by lowering its normally high line as soon as it receives the pulse then raising the line again within the 1s if working correctly. If the device line doesn’t respond correctly or respond at all then an alarm must occur. 1) Carry out a design for the asynchronous system that will realise the requirements up to the point where internal conditions are designated to the lines in the merged table. 2) Explain what the designer would have to do to ensure the system was hazard free and the output was as short as possible.

Scenario: You are to design synchronous and asynchronous circuits that will allow the following requirements to be met. Tasks: 1. Packet number checking A synchronous sequential machine is to have a single input line and a single output line. The circuit is to receive messages of 4-bit words coded in binary (least significant bit first). The purpose of the circuit is to detect whether the number coming in is a prime number (divisible by only itself and 1). Thus, the output is to become 1 whenever a 4-bit word does represent a valid prime number. At the end of each word the machine is to return to the reset starting state. Steps: 1) Draw a State Diagram (Mealy) and check for redundancies 2) Then assign binary State Identifiers. 3) Make a Next State Truth Table (NSTT) 4) Select a bistable type 5) Determine expressions for the bistable inputs 6) Determine expressions for the outputs 2. Monitoring System A monitoring system sends 1s positive going pulses to a device to ensure that it is operating correctly. The device will respond by lowering its normally high line as soon as it receives the pulse then raising the line again within the 1s if working correctly. If the device line doesn’t respond correctly or respond at all then an alarm must occur. 1) Carry out a design for the asynchronous system that will realise the requirements up to the point where internal conditions are designated to the lines in the merged table. 2) Explain what the designer would have to do to ensure the system was hazard free and the output was as short as possible.

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Relection I Question: How does the short movie “The Necktie” typify Marx’s theory of alienation found in Rinehart? Can you relate the situation in the Necktie to the behaviour experiments found the Dan Ariely presentation? Use the text and films to put forth an idea. Your piece should be approximately two pages long. You should use APA for your answer and it should be in essay format. I have posted a short APA guide as well. Links to short films: ! http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_ariely_what_makes_us_feel_good_about_our_ work?language=en#t-­‐167402 ! https://www.nfb.ca/film/necktie/

Relection I Question: How does the short movie “The Necktie” typify Marx’s theory of alienation found in Rinehart? Can you relate the situation in the Necktie to the behaviour experiments found the Dan Ariely presentation? Use the text and films to put forth an idea. Your piece should be approximately two pages long. You should use APA for your answer and it should be in essay format. I have posted a short APA guide as well. Links to short films: ! http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_ariely_what_makes_us_feel_good_about_our_ work?language=en#t-­‐167402 ! https://www.nfb.ca/film/necktie/

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