1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs … Read More...
What about individuals who may suffer from a dual diagnosis? What services are available for them?

What about individuals who may suffer from a dual diagnosis? What services are available for them?

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1. The reaction time of a driver to visual stimulus is normally distributed with a mean of 0.2 seconds and a standard deviation of 0.1 seconds. 1‐1. (2 points) What is the probability that a reaction requires more than 0.5 seconds? 1‐2. (2 points) What is the probability that a reaction requires between 0.4 and 0.5 seconds? 1‐3. (2 points) What is the reaction time that is exceeded 95% of the time? 2. Spherical Uniform Distribution (Google! You do not have to explain why): 2‐1. (2 points) How can we pick a set of random points uniformly distributed on the unit circle x12 + x 2=1? 2‐2. (2 points) How can we pick a set of random points uniformly distributed on the 4‐dimensional unit 2 2 2 2 2 sphere x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 =1? 3. The random variable X has a binomial distribution with n = 19 and p = 0.4. Determine the following probabilities. (You may use computer. But, you have to show the formula.) 3‐1. (2 points) P(X ≤ 12) 3‐2. (2 points) P(X ≥ 18) 3‐3. (2 points) P(13 ≤ X < 15) 4. (2 points) Show the mean and the variance of the triangular distribution with lower limit a, upper limit b and mode c, where a < b and a ≤ c ≤ b. (You must show why.) 5. (2 points) An electronic office product contains 5000 electronic components. Assume that the probability that each component operates without failure during the useful life of the product is 0.999, and assume that the components fail independently. Approximate the probability that 10 or more of the original 5000 components fail during the useful life of the product. 6. Consider the following system made up of functional components in parallel and series. C2 0.80 C1 0.90 C4 0.95 C3 0.85 6‐1. (2 points) What is the probability that the system operates? 6‐2. (2 points) What is the probability that the system fails due to the components in series? Assume parallel components do not fail. 6‐3. (2 points) What is the probability that the system fails due to the components in parallel? Assume series components do not fail. 6‐4. (2 points) Compute and compare the probabilities that the system fails when the probability that component C1 functions is improved to a value of 0.95 and when the probability that component C2 functions is improved to a value of 0.85. Which improvement increases the system reliability more? 7. (2 points) Suppose that the joint distribution of X and Y has probability density function f(x, y) = 0.25xy for 0 < x < 2 and 0 < y < 2. Compute V(2X + 3Y). (Show all your work.)

1. The reaction time of a driver to visual stimulus is normally distributed with a mean of 0.2 seconds and a standard deviation of 0.1 seconds. 1‐1. (2 points) What is the probability that a reaction requires more than 0.5 seconds? 1‐2. (2 points) What is the probability that a reaction requires between 0.4 and 0.5 seconds? 1‐3. (2 points) What is the reaction time that is exceeded 95% of the time? 2. Spherical Uniform Distribution (Google! You do not have to explain why): 2‐1. (2 points) How can we pick a set of random points uniformly distributed on the unit circle x12 + x 2=1? 2‐2. (2 points) How can we pick a set of random points uniformly distributed on the 4‐dimensional unit 2 2 2 2 2 sphere x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 =1? 3. The random variable X has a binomial distribution with n = 19 and p = 0.4. Determine the following probabilities. (You may use computer. But, you have to show the formula.) 3‐1. (2 points) P(X ≤ 12) 3‐2. (2 points) P(X ≥ 18) 3‐3. (2 points) P(13 ≤ X < 15) 4. (2 points) Show the mean and the variance of the triangular distribution with lower limit a, upper limit b and mode c, where a < b and a ≤ c ≤ b. (You must show why.) 5. (2 points) An electronic office product contains 5000 electronic components. Assume that the probability that each component operates without failure during the useful life of the product is 0.999, and assume that the components fail independently. Approximate the probability that 10 or more of the original 5000 components fail during the useful life of the product. 6. Consider the following system made up of functional components in parallel and series. C2 0.80 C1 0.90 C4 0.95 C3 0.85 6‐1. (2 points) What is the probability that the system operates? 6‐2. (2 points) What is the probability that the system fails due to the components in series? Assume parallel components do not fail. 6‐3. (2 points) What is the probability that the system fails due to the components in parallel? Assume series components do not fail. 6‐4. (2 points) Compute and compare the probabilities that the system fails when the probability that component C1 functions is improved to a value of 0.95 and when the probability that component C2 functions is improved to a value of 0.85. Which improvement increases the system reliability more? 7. (2 points) Suppose that the joint distribution of X and Y has probability density function f(x, y) = 0.25xy for 0 < x < 2 and 0 < y < 2. Compute V(2X + 3Y). (Show all your work.)

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Speech of Introduction Example Outline I. Introduction A. Acknowledge Audience: Good morning/afternoon alumni, faculty, students and friends of Troy University. B. Acknowledge Occasion: Welcome to Troy University’s WWII Symposium C. Attention getter: (title, accomplishment, quote, joke, adjectives, etc.) I’m proud to introduce a man who is fondly referred to as the “Walking Encyclopedia of Film” D. Thesis: I’d like to introduce the fascinating Dr. Jim Vickrey E. Preview: We’ll examine his multi-dimensional career and his love of the big screen. (Note: Preview and main points in the body should match in number and sequence.) II. Body A. Career 1. Previous Chair of the Department of Speech & Theatre- Troy 2. Current Professor of Communication Studies- Troy/Montgomery 3. Lawyer 4. Mediator 5. Radio Commentator 6. Speaker & Writer Transition: (Statement to smoothly move you from point to point). Now that we’ve discussed his multi-dimensional career, let’s his love of the big screen. ***B. Film 1. Number of films- over 5,000 2. Radio talk show a. Film reviewer b. Film critic Note: One of your main points should make your speaker credible to talk about his/her topic. Dr. Vickrey is credible to talk about WWII films, because he has his own radio talk show where he critiques and reviews film. Do not make your person credible by stating that they are majoring in the topic or taking classes. They could be straight “F” students for all we know. Use experience, awards, honors, etc. to build credibility. III. Conclusion A. Cue: In conclusion . . . B. Review: Now that you have some idea of the multi-talents and multi-career interests of our distinguished speaker. C. Welcome/Topic: Please help me welcome Dr. Jim Vickrey addressing American Film & WWII.

Speech of Introduction Example Outline I. Introduction A. Acknowledge Audience: Good morning/afternoon alumni, faculty, students and friends of Troy University. B. Acknowledge Occasion: Welcome to Troy University’s WWII Symposium C. Attention getter: (title, accomplishment, quote, joke, adjectives, etc.) I’m proud to introduce a man who is fondly referred to as the “Walking Encyclopedia of Film” D. Thesis: I’d like to introduce the fascinating Dr. Jim Vickrey E. Preview: We’ll examine his multi-dimensional career and his love of the big screen. (Note: Preview and main points in the body should match in number and sequence.) II. Body A. Career 1. Previous Chair of the Department of Speech & Theatre- Troy 2. Current Professor of Communication Studies- Troy/Montgomery 3. Lawyer 4. Mediator 5. Radio Commentator 6. Speaker & Writer Transition: (Statement to smoothly move you from point to point). Now that we’ve discussed his multi-dimensional career, let’s his love of the big screen. ***B. Film 1. Number of films- over 5,000 2. Radio talk show a. Film reviewer b. Film critic Note: One of your main points should make your speaker credible to talk about his/her topic. Dr. Vickrey is credible to talk about WWII films, because he has his own radio talk show where he critiques and reviews film. Do not make your person credible by stating that they are majoring in the topic or taking classes. They could be straight “F” students for all we know. Use experience, awards, honors, etc. to build credibility. III. Conclusion A. Cue: In conclusion . . . B. Review: Now that you have some idea of the multi-talents and multi-career interests of our distinguished speaker. C. Welcome/Topic: Please help me welcome Dr. Jim Vickrey addressing American Film & WWII.

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Evaluation Methodology , Fall 2015 EVALUATION PROPOSAL GUIDELINES The evaluation proposal is a major application of knowledge assignment for this course. The proposal should represent your cumulative knowledge of evaluation research methodology. You may be required to submit part of this assignment in sequential stages. If so, you will be provided, in writing, the due dates for the various aspects of the proposal. The date for the submission of the entire proposal is indicated in your course outline. The below components must be included in the proposal. I. Introduction (maximum 10 pages) A. Description of the Program and Organization (the Evaluand) (In this section, be sure to describe who, what, when, and how long the program has been in place; describe the program, types of people involved in the program, and the types of services offered; briefly discussed need for program as determined by program managers) I. Organizational Overview 1. Program Mission, Goals, SMART Objectives, Activities, Resources 2. Organizational Context of the Program II. Program Logic Model of Evaluand (insert program logic model from your previous assignment, attending to feedback from instructor and classmates) III. Significance of the Program and the Evaluation Discuss the Rationale of the Evaluation B. Evaluation Goals, Objectives, and Stakeholders Objectives of the Evaluation Study Description of Key Direct and Indirect Evaluation Stakeholders (e.g., clients, agents, beneficiaries, etc.) Potential Constraints and Barriers of the Evaluation Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) C. Evaluation Approach, Questions and/or Hypotheses Evaluation Approach/Guiding Framework Evaluation Questions (at least three process and three outcome questions) Describe How Evaluation Questions Will Be Generated II. Methodology (maximum 10 pages) A. Participants Target Population/Sample Plan (describe the target population/sample from whom you intend to obtain collect data; justify sampling procedures by relating them to stakeholder characteristics, evaluation questions and criteria, and constraints of the evaluation) Handling Respondents’ Confidentiality and Ethical Concerns (include Informed Consent Form) B. Instrumentation Data Collection Instruments/Measures Describe Measures, Justify Choices, Address Issues of Validity, Reliability, and Cultural/Contextual Relevance; Rationale for Selection of Instruments C. Evaluation Design Data Collection Procedures (Research Design – Qualitative, Quantitative, Mixed Methods) Explain Choice for Data Collection Methods Selected D. Data Map (set up a data map or summary table to show how each step of the evaluation is related to each other); see example below) Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) Table 1. Data Map of Evaluation of the Kids House Afterschool Program (An Illustrative Example) Evaluation Questions Methodology Data Collection Strategy Timeline Does the program provide individual tutoring to the children in the community three days per week, as intended? (process question) Document analysis Evaluator will review copies of program’s weekly service delivery records Ongoing Has the program reached it intended target population? (process question) Document analysis Evaluator will review documents describing the children being served Six weeks after program start How satisfied are the children and their parents (guardian) with the Kids house Program? Qualitative Focus group interviews with the children in the program and separately with their parents (guardian) Ongoing after two weeks program start Did the children in the Kids House Program demonstrate significant improvements in reading? Quantitative Pretest/Posttest Questionnaire Pretest at first session Posttest at last session E. Projected Statistical Analysis of Data F. Data Collection Schedule (Timetable) (must be described in chart form) G. Standards for Evaluation (describe how your proposed evaluation will meet the Program Evaluation Standards – utility, feasibility, propriety, accuracy, accountability and the AEA Guiding Principles for Evaluation) III. Evaluation Products and Communication Plan (maximum two pages) A. Listing of Deliverable or Products Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) B. Communicating Results: The Evaluation Report (describe plan for communicating evaluation findings during the evaluation and at the end of the evaluation – orally? written report? combination? who will you involve in a discussion of the findings and why) . C. Potential Use of Findings for Aiding Direct and Indirect Stakeholders IV. Staffing, Management Plan, and Budget (maximum two pages) A. Describe tasks, deadlines, and who completes them? B. Describe the time, money, and other resources required for addressing your evaluation questions C. Include a narrative a budget and time schedule in table format V. References (minimum of three sources) VI. Appendices (include copies of instruments, consent forms, etc.) VII. Reflective Journaling (Separate Document) Using a diary format, describe// explain what you have learned about yourself and the evaluation profession by taking this course and writing this proposal Other Important Proposal Guidelines A. Typed, double space, 12 point font; one-inch margins on all sides B. Include title page, table of contents, and (if applicable) listing of figures and/or tables C. Maximum of 25 pages (excluding cover page, references, appendices) D. Proper and complete citation for all materials and sources using the American Psychological Association Style Manual (latest edition). Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (cont’d.) E. As a general rule, sources (unless a classic) must be within the past decade and statistical/demographic data no earlier than 2009

Evaluation Methodology , Fall 2015 EVALUATION PROPOSAL GUIDELINES The evaluation proposal is a major application of knowledge assignment for this course. The proposal should represent your cumulative knowledge of evaluation research methodology. You may be required to submit part of this assignment in sequential stages. If so, you will be provided, in writing, the due dates for the various aspects of the proposal. The date for the submission of the entire proposal is indicated in your course outline. The below components must be included in the proposal. I. Introduction (maximum 10 pages) A. Description of the Program and Organization (the Evaluand) (In this section, be sure to describe who, what, when, and how long the program has been in place; describe the program, types of people involved in the program, and the types of services offered; briefly discussed need for program as determined by program managers) I. Organizational Overview 1. Program Mission, Goals, SMART Objectives, Activities, Resources 2. Organizational Context of the Program II. Program Logic Model of Evaluand (insert program logic model from your previous assignment, attending to feedback from instructor and classmates) III. Significance of the Program and the Evaluation Discuss the Rationale of the Evaluation B. Evaluation Goals, Objectives, and Stakeholders Objectives of the Evaluation Study Description of Key Direct and Indirect Evaluation Stakeholders (e.g., clients, agents, beneficiaries, etc.) Potential Constraints and Barriers of the Evaluation Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) C. Evaluation Approach, Questions and/or Hypotheses Evaluation Approach/Guiding Framework Evaluation Questions (at least three process and three outcome questions) Describe How Evaluation Questions Will Be Generated II. Methodology (maximum 10 pages) A. Participants Target Population/Sample Plan (describe the target population/sample from whom you intend to obtain collect data; justify sampling procedures by relating them to stakeholder characteristics, evaluation questions and criteria, and constraints of the evaluation) Handling Respondents’ Confidentiality and Ethical Concerns (include Informed Consent Form) B. Instrumentation Data Collection Instruments/Measures Describe Measures, Justify Choices, Address Issues of Validity, Reliability, and Cultural/Contextual Relevance; Rationale for Selection of Instruments C. Evaluation Design Data Collection Procedures (Research Design – Qualitative, Quantitative, Mixed Methods) Explain Choice for Data Collection Methods Selected D. Data Map (set up a data map or summary table to show how each step of the evaluation is related to each other); see example below) Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) Table 1. Data Map of Evaluation of the Kids House Afterschool Program (An Illustrative Example) Evaluation Questions Methodology Data Collection Strategy Timeline Does the program provide individual tutoring to the children in the community three days per week, as intended? (process question) Document analysis Evaluator will review copies of program’s weekly service delivery records Ongoing Has the program reached it intended target population? (process question) Document analysis Evaluator will review documents describing the children being served Six weeks after program start How satisfied are the children and their parents (guardian) with the Kids house Program? Qualitative Focus group interviews with the children in the program and separately with their parents (guardian) Ongoing after two weeks program start Did the children in the Kids House Program demonstrate significant improvements in reading? Quantitative Pretest/Posttest Questionnaire Pretest at first session Posttest at last session E. Projected Statistical Analysis of Data F. Data Collection Schedule (Timetable) (must be described in chart form) G. Standards for Evaluation (describe how your proposed evaluation will meet the Program Evaluation Standards – utility, feasibility, propriety, accuracy, accountability and the AEA Guiding Principles for Evaluation) III. Evaluation Products and Communication Plan (maximum two pages) A. Listing of Deliverable or Products Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (continued) B. Communicating Results: The Evaluation Report (describe plan for communicating evaluation findings during the evaluation and at the end of the evaluation – orally? written report? combination? who will you involve in a discussion of the findings and why) . C. Potential Use of Findings for Aiding Direct and Indirect Stakeholders IV. Staffing, Management Plan, and Budget (maximum two pages) A. Describe tasks, deadlines, and who completes them? B. Describe the time, money, and other resources required for addressing your evaluation questions C. Include a narrative a budget and time schedule in table format V. References (minimum of three sources) VI. Appendices (include copies of instruments, consent forms, etc.) VII. Reflective Journaling (Separate Document) Using a diary format, describe// explain what you have learned about yourself and the evaluation profession by taking this course and writing this proposal Other Important Proposal Guidelines A. Typed, double space, 12 point font; one-inch margins on all sides B. Include title page, table of contents, and (if applicable) listing of figures and/or tables C. Maximum of 25 pages (excluding cover page, references, appendices) D. Proper and complete citation for all materials and sources using the American Psychological Association Style Manual (latest edition). Evaluation Methodology Evaluation Proposal Guidelines (cont’d.) E. As a general rule, sources (unless a classic) must be within the past decade and statistical/demographic data no earlier than 2009

CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

CAUSAL ANALYSIS GUIDELINES: According to John J. Ruskiewicz and Jay T. Dolmage, “We all analyze and explain things daily. Someone asks, ‘Why?’ We reply, ‘Because . . .’ and then offer reasons and rationales” (138). This type of thinking is at the core of the causal analysis. You will write a causal analysis which explores, through carefully examined research and logical analysis, certain causes or factors which contribute to an issue or problematic situation, based on the topic you choose to write on. Your causal analysis should explore more than one type of cause, such as necessary causes, sufficient causes, precipitating causes, proximate causes, remote causes, reciprocal causes, contributing factors, and chains of causes, as outlined in our course text in the chapter devoted to Causal Analyses. Your project should also reflect significant critical thinking skills. In addition to the actual causal analysis essay, you will be also create an annotated bibliography. These process elements will help you organize and focus your ideas and research in a beneficial way. The following is an organizational structure that outlines the chronology and content of your Causal Analysis: I. Introduction: In one (or at the most two) paragraph(s) introduce your topic. Give a brief overview of your topic and thesis in a few sentences. your evaluative claim and your causal claim. It should be specific, logical, and clear. II. History/Background to Current Situation: This section should take as much space as needed—a few to several paragraphs. Discuss the significant and relevant history of your topic up to the current situation and how it came to be. Use research as needed to give precise and accurate background for context in making your later causal argument. Comment on your research as well, so that you don’t lose your voice. As you explore other points of view, your own point of view will evolve in significant ways. III. Evaluative Claim: Once you have given a brief history/background of the current situation, evaluate the situation, the topic, as it is at present. Again, use research as appropriate to support your judgments. While this section of your essay could run anywhere from one to three paragraphs, typically one paragraph is the norm, as you are basically passing judgment on the situation, arguing evaluatively. This is an argument of pathos and logos, predominantly. IV. Causal Argument: This is the longest portion of your essay, the “meat,” the heart of your work. Once you have detailed the history/background to current situation and evaluated the current situation, you are ready to present your causal analysis. Demonstrate a link between the current situation and the causes for its negative condition. Of course, you will use current significant and relevant research to support your causal claim, and you will want to find the most dominant and pervasive logical causes, utilizing research, for the current situation as possible. These will connect forward as well to your proposal. Remember to use specific supporting detail/examples, and to analyze all of your research causally, thoroughly, and with clarity. NOTE: SECTIONS THREE AND FOUR ABOVE ARE INTERCHANGEABLE. IN OTHER WORDS, IF YOU FEEL YOU CAN PRESENT A BETTER ARGUMENT BY SHOWING CAUSES FIRST AND THEN EVALUATING THE CURRENT SITUATION, THAT CAN WORK JUST AS WELL AS THE ORDER OUTLINED ABOVE. I WILL LEAVE IT UP TO YOU AS THE WRITER TO ESTABLISH WHICH ORDER WORKS MOST EFFECTIVELY. V. Counterargument/Conditions of Rebuttal and Rebuttal: There will be those who disagree with you so you will want to acknowledge their points of view. What are their assumptions about this topic? What questions do they raise for consideration? Acknowledging other points of view gives your essay credibility and shows that you have been fair and broad in your inquiry and presentation. (You will need at least one credible source to represent at least one counterargument.) Then explain how you have considered this counterargument, but still find your own analysis to be more logical and accurate; this is your rebuttal. VI. Conclusion: Summarize the meaningful conclusions you have drawn clearly and precisely, remembering to resummarize your thesis. Give your specific proposal here as well. This will become your transition paragraph between the causal analysis and the proposal, so you must state your proposal precisely to pave the way for the proposal argument in full to come. Keep in mind these critical thinking outcomes: • Pursue the best information via reliable research (no Internet web sites should be used—Use the library electronic databases, such as ____, for academic research. • Engage in broad and deep inquiry • Analyze different points of view • Examine and challenge your own underlying assumptions as you undergo this exciting journey in scholarship. Please also reflect on these questions as you progress through your research and project work: About yourself: • What assumptions (beliefs) did you have about this topic coming into the project? • Have some of those assumptions been challenged? Have some been validated? • What questions do you still have about your issue? • What questions have you been able to answer through your research? About your audience: • What questions might your audience have about your topic? What points of view do they represent? • What information do you want to provide to help answer those questions? • How can you address a diverse audience so that its members will be moved to see your own point of view as significant and worth consideration? • How has pursuing the best information in a fair and honest, ethical, and logical manner allowed you to show respect for your audience as well as yourself as a thinker? Documentation Style: MLA format for paper format, in-text citations, works cited page, and annotated bibliography format. Paper Length: 6-8 double-spaced pages. Annotated Bibliography: At least 4 sources, formatted in MLA style. List of Sources Page: At least 5-8 sources used; formatted in MLA style. Warning: Plagiarism is punishable with an “F,” so be sure to document your research carefully. Causal Analysis Topics Choose one: • Causes of bullying • Causes of gun violence in schools • Causes of obesity in children • Causes of lying / Reasons why people lie • Causes of the fear of darkness Write in the 3rd-person point of view (using pronouns such as he, she, they, etc.). Do not write in the 1st- person (I, me, etc.) or 2nd-person (you, your) point of view.

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Please write clearly, show all work in an organized fashion, and circle answers. 1) Using the data shown in Figures 6.14 (at 25oC) and 6.21, combine both curves onto one plot, being careful to correctly plot the modulus, yield strength, tensile (ultimate) strength, and ductility. Discuss how the modulus, yield strength, and ductility compare for pure iron (figure 6.14) vs. the alloy steel. 2) The equation for the effect of grain size on yield strength is given by: y = I +kD-0.5 where y is the yield stress, I is the intrinsic resistance of the lattice to dislocation motion, k is the “blocking parameter” which measures the effectiveness of grain boundaries in blocking dislocation motion, and D is the grain diameter. Use this equation to determine the change in yield strength of a typical steel when the grain size is increased from 10micron to 50 micron (1 micron = 10-6 m), due to grain growth. . I = 150 MN/m2 and k = 0.70 MN/m1.5 . 3) Using the data shown in Callister Figure 7.19, draw an approximate stress-strain curve for the 1040 steel at 0% cold work and at 30% cold work, clearly indicating the yield strength, ductility, and tensile strength of the steel before and after cold-working (Young’s modulus of steel E = 250 MPa). 4) A fatigue test is carried out on a steel having an ultimate strength of 289 MPa. The number of cycles required to break the specimen at different stresses are given below: Stress Amplitude Fatigue Life (MPa) (cycles) 223 4.5 x 104 209 2.4 x 105 192 8.0 x 105 178 1.5 x 106 175 2.7 x 106 168 7.8 x 106 168 >1.0 x 107 (did not break) 165 >2.6 x 107 162 >2.2 x 107 a) Plot the data on linear-log scale, preferably with a computerized figure-plotting program. b) Determine the average fatigue strength at 106 cycles (hint: use curve-fitting software to fit the line). c) What is the ratio of the fatigue strength at 106 cycles to the ultimate strength? e) If you plan to use this material for 108 cycles, what is the maximum fatigue strength you would recommend (assuming 20% fluctuations in stress amplitude). Callister Homework Problems: 7.22, 8.4, 8.12 (see next page)

Please write clearly, show all work in an organized fashion, and circle answers. 1) Using the data shown in Figures 6.14 (at 25oC) and 6.21, combine both curves onto one plot, being careful to correctly plot the modulus, yield strength, tensile (ultimate) strength, and ductility. Discuss how the modulus, yield strength, and ductility compare for pure iron (figure 6.14) vs. the alloy steel. 2) The equation for the effect of grain size on yield strength is given by: y = I +kD-0.5 where y is the yield stress, I is the intrinsic resistance of the lattice to dislocation motion, k is the “blocking parameter” which measures the effectiveness of grain boundaries in blocking dislocation motion, and D is the grain diameter. Use this equation to determine the change in yield strength of a typical steel when the grain size is increased from 10micron to 50 micron (1 micron = 10-6 m), due to grain growth. . I = 150 MN/m2 and k = 0.70 MN/m1.5 . 3) Using the data shown in Callister Figure 7.19, draw an approximate stress-strain curve for the 1040 steel at 0% cold work and at 30% cold work, clearly indicating the yield strength, ductility, and tensile strength of the steel before and after cold-working (Young’s modulus of steel E = 250 MPa). 4) A fatigue test is carried out on a steel having an ultimate strength of 289 MPa. The number of cycles required to break the specimen at different stresses are given below: Stress Amplitude Fatigue Life (MPa) (cycles) 223 4.5 x 104 209 2.4 x 105 192 8.0 x 105 178 1.5 x 106 175 2.7 x 106 168 7.8 x 106 168 >1.0 x 107 (did not break) 165 >2.6 x 107 162 >2.2 x 107 a) Plot the data on linear-log scale, preferably with a computerized figure-plotting program. b) Determine the average fatigue strength at 106 cycles (hint: use curve-fitting software to fit the line). c) What is the ratio of the fatigue strength at 106 cycles to the ultimate strength? e) If you plan to use this material for 108 cycles, what is the maximum fatigue strength you would recommend (assuming 20% fluctuations in stress amplitude). Callister Homework Problems: 7.22, 8.4, 8.12 (see next page)

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Take Home Exam 3: Special Note Before Starting the Exam: If you scan your solutions to the exam and save it as a pdf or image file and put it on dropbox and I can not read it or open it, you will not receive credit for the exam. Furthermore, if you write the solutions up in word, latex ect. and give me a print out, which does not include all the pages you will not get credit for the missing pages. Also if your folder on dropbox is not clearly labeled and I can not find your exam then you will not get credit for the exam. Finally, please make sure you put your name on the exam!! Math 2100 Exam 3, Out of Class, Due by December 8th, 2015 at 5:00 pm. Name: Problem 1. (15 points) A random variable is said to have the (standard) Cauchy distribution if its PDF is given by f (x) = 1 π 1 1+ x2 , −∞< x <∞ This problem uses computer simulations to demonstrate that a) samples from this distribution often have extreme outliers (a consequence of the heavy tails of the distribution), and b) the sample mean is prone to the same type of outliers. Below is a graph of the pdf a) (5 points) The R commands x=rcauchy(500); summary(x) generate a random sample of size 500 from the Cauchy distribution and display the sample’s five number summary; Report the five number summary and the interquartile range, and comment on whether or not the smallest and largest numbers generated from this sample of 500 are outliers. Repeat this 10 times. b) (5 points) The R commands m=matrix(rcauchy(50000), nrow=500); xb=apply(m,1,mean);summary(xb) generate the matrix m that has 500 rows, each of which is a sample of size n=100 from the Cauchy distribution, compute the 500 sample means and store them in xb. and display the five number summary xb. Repeat these commands 10 times, and report the 10 sets of five number summaries. Compare with the 10 sets of five number summaries from part (a), and comment on whether or not the distribution of the averages seems to be more prone to extreme outliers as that of the individual observations. c) (5 points) Why does this happen? (hint: try to calculate E(X) and V(X) for this distribution) and does the LLN and CLT apply for samples from a Cauchy distribution? Hint: E(X) is undefined for this distribution unless you use the Cauchy Principle Value as such for the mean lim a→∞ xf (x)dx −a a∫ In addition x2 1+ x2 dx = x2 +1−1 1+ x2 dx = 1− 1 1+ x2 " # $ % & ' ∫ ∫ ∫ dx 1 1+ x2 dx = tan−1 ∫ x +C Problem 2. (5 points) A marketing expert for a pasta-making company believes that 40% of pasta lovers prefer lasagna. If 9 out of 20 pasta lovers choose lasagna over other pastas, what can be concluded about the expert's claim? Use a 0.05 level of significance. Problem 3. (10 points) A coin is tossed 20 times, resulting in 5 heads. Is this sufficient evidence to reject the hypothesis that the coin is balanced in favor of the alternative that heads occur less than 50% of the time (essentially is this significant evidence to claim that the coin is unbalanced in favor of tails)? Use a 0.05 level of significance. Problem 4. (25 points) Since the chemical benzene may cause cancer, the federal government has set the maximum allowable benzene concentration in the workplace at 1 part per million (1 ppm) Suppose that a steel manufacturing plant is under investigation for possible violations regarding benzene level. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) will analyze 14 air samples over a one-month period. Assume normality of the population from which the samples were drawn. a) (3 points) What is an appropriate null hypothesis for this scenario? (Give this in symbols) b) (3 points) What is an appropriate alternative hypothesis for this scenario? (Give this in symbols) c) (3 points) What kind of hypothesis test is this: left-tailed, right-tailed or two-tailed? Explain how you picked your answer. d) (3 points) Is this a one-sample t-test or a one-sample test using a normal distribution? Explain how you picked your answer. e) (4 points) If the test using this sample of size 14 is to be done at the 1% significance level, calculate the critical value(s) and describe the rejection region(s) for the test statistic. Show your work. f) (5 points) OHSA finds the following for their sample of size 14: a mean benzene level of 1.51 ppm and a standard deviation of 1.415 ppm. What should be concluded at the 1% significance level? Support your answer with calculation(s) and reasoning. g) (4 points) Calculate the p-value for this test and verify that this answer would lead to the same conclusion you made in part f. Problem 5. (15 points) A normally distributed random variable Y possesses a mean of μ = 20 and a standard deviation of σ = 5. A random sample of n = 31 observations is to be selected. Let X be the sample average. (X in this problem is really x _ ) a)(5 points) Describe the sampling distribution of X (i.e. describe the distribution of X and give μx, σx ) b) (5 points) Find the z-score of x = 22 c) (5 points) Find P(X ≥ 22) = Problem 6. (10 points) A restaurants receipts show that the cost of customers' dinners has a distribution with a mean of $54 and a standard deviation of $18. What is the probability that the next 100 customers will spend a total of at least $5800 on dinner? Problem 7. (10 points) The operations manager of a large production plant would like to estimate the mean amount of time a worker takes to assemble a new electronic component. Assume that the standard deviation of this assembly time is 3.6 minutes and is normally distributed. a) (3 points) After observing 120 workers assembling similar devices, the manager noticed that their average time was 16.2 minutes. Construct a 92% confidence interval for the mean assembly time. b) (2 points) How many workers should be involved in this study in order to have the mean assembly time estimated up to ± 15 seconds with 92% confidence? c) (5 points) Construct a 92% confidence interval if instead of observing 120 workers assembling similar devices, rather the manager observes 25 workers and notice their average time was 16.2 minutes with a standard deviation of 4.0 minutes. Problem 8. (10 points): A manufacturer of candy must monitor the temperature at which the candies are baked. Too much variation will cause inconsistency in the taste of the candy. Past records show that the standard deviation of the temperature has been 1.2oF . A random sample of 30 batches of candy is selected, and the sample standard deviation of the temperature is 2.1oF . a. (5 points) At the 0.05 level of significance, is there evidence that the population standard deviation has increased above 1.2oF ? b. (3 points) What assumption do you need to make in order to perform this test? c. (2 points) Compute the p-value in (a) and interpret its meaning.

Take Home Exam 3: Special Note Before Starting the Exam: If you scan your solutions to the exam and save it as a pdf or image file and put it on dropbox and I can not read it or open it, you will not receive credit for the exam. Furthermore, if you write the solutions up in word, latex ect. and give me a print out, which does not include all the pages you will not get credit for the missing pages. Also if your folder on dropbox is not clearly labeled and I can not find your exam then you will not get credit for the exam. Finally, please make sure you put your name on the exam!! Math 2100 Exam 3, Out of Class, Due by December 8th, 2015 at 5:00 pm. Name: Problem 1. (15 points) A random variable is said to have the (standard) Cauchy distribution if its PDF is given by f (x) = 1 π 1 1+ x2 , −∞< x <∞ This problem uses computer simulations to demonstrate that a) samples from this distribution often have extreme outliers (a consequence of the heavy tails of the distribution), and b) the sample mean is prone to the same type of outliers. Below is a graph of the pdf a) (5 points) The R commands x=rcauchy(500); summary(x) generate a random sample of size 500 from the Cauchy distribution and display the sample’s five number summary; Report the five number summary and the interquartile range, and comment on whether or not the smallest and largest numbers generated from this sample of 500 are outliers. Repeat this 10 times. b) (5 points) The R commands m=matrix(rcauchy(50000), nrow=500); xb=apply(m,1,mean);summary(xb) generate the matrix m that has 500 rows, each of which is a sample of size n=100 from the Cauchy distribution, compute the 500 sample means and store them in xb. and display the five number summary xb. Repeat these commands 10 times, and report the 10 sets of five number summaries. Compare with the 10 sets of five number summaries from part (a), and comment on whether or not the distribution of the averages seems to be more prone to extreme outliers as that of the individual observations. c) (5 points) Why does this happen? (hint: try to calculate E(X) and V(X) for this distribution) and does the LLN and CLT apply for samples from a Cauchy distribution? Hint: E(X) is undefined for this distribution unless you use the Cauchy Principle Value as such for the mean lim a→∞ xf (x)dx −a a∫ In addition x2 1+ x2 dx = x2 +1−1 1+ x2 dx = 1− 1 1+ x2 " # $ % & ' ∫ ∫ ∫ dx 1 1+ x2 dx = tan−1 ∫ x +C Problem 2. (5 points) A marketing expert for a pasta-making company believes that 40% of pasta lovers prefer lasagna. If 9 out of 20 pasta lovers choose lasagna over other pastas, what can be concluded about the expert's claim? Use a 0.05 level of significance. Problem 3. (10 points) A coin is tossed 20 times, resulting in 5 heads. Is this sufficient evidence to reject the hypothesis that the coin is balanced in favor of the alternative that heads occur less than 50% of the time (essentially is this significant evidence to claim that the coin is unbalanced in favor of tails)? Use a 0.05 level of significance. Problem 4. (25 points) Since the chemical benzene may cause cancer, the federal government has set the maximum allowable benzene concentration in the workplace at 1 part per million (1 ppm) Suppose that a steel manufacturing plant is under investigation for possible violations regarding benzene level. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) will analyze 14 air samples over a one-month period. Assume normality of the population from which the samples were drawn. a) (3 points) What is an appropriate null hypothesis for this scenario? (Give this in symbols) b) (3 points) What is an appropriate alternative hypothesis for this scenario? (Give this in symbols) c) (3 points) What kind of hypothesis test is this: left-tailed, right-tailed or two-tailed? Explain how you picked your answer. d) (3 points) Is this a one-sample t-test or a one-sample test using a normal distribution? Explain how you picked your answer. e) (4 points) If the test using this sample of size 14 is to be done at the 1% significance level, calculate the critical value(s) and describe the rejection region(s) for the test statistic. Show your work. f) (5 points) OHSA finds the following for their sample of size 14: a mean benzene level of 1.51 ppm and a standard deviation of 1.415 ppm. What should be concluded at the 1% significance level? Support your answer with calculation(s) and reasoning. g) (4 points) Calculate the p-value for this test and verify that this answer would lead to the same conclusion you made in part f. Problem 5. (15 points) A normally distributed random variable Y possesses a mean of μ = 20 and a standard deviation of σ = 5. A random sample of n = 31 observations is to be selected. Let X be the sample average. (X in this problem is really x _ ) a)(5 points) Describe the sampling distribution of X (i.e. describe the distribution of X and give μx, σx ) b) (5 points) Find the z-score of x = 22 c) (5 points) Find P(X ≥ 22) = Problem 6. (10 points) A restaurants receipts show that the cost of customers' dinners has a distribution with a mean of $54 and a standard deviation of $18. What is the probability that the next 100 customers will spend a total of at least $5800 on dinner? Problem 7. (10 points) The operations manager of a large production plant would like to estimate the mean amount of time a worker takes to assemble a new electronic component. Assume that the standard deviation of this assembly time is 3.6 minutes and is normally distributed. a) (3 points) After observing 120 workers assembling similar devices, the manager noticed that their average time was 16.2 minutes. Construct a 92% confidence interval for the mean assembly time. b) (2 points) How many workers should be involved in this study in order to have the mean assembly time estimated up to ± 15 seconds with 92% confidence? c) (5 points) Construct a 92% confidence interval if instead of observing 120 workers assembling similar devices, rather the manager observes 25 workers and notice their average time was 16.2 minutes with a standard deviation of 4.0 minutes. Problem 8. (10 points): A manufacturer of candy must monitor the temperature at which the candies are baked. Too much variation will cause inconsistency in the taste of the candy. Past records show that the standard deviation of the temperature has been 1.2oF . A random sample of 30 batches of candy is selected, and the sample standard deviation of the temperature is 2.1oF . a. (5 points) At the 0.05 level of significance, is there evidence that the population standard deviation has increased above 1.2oF ? b. (3 points) What assumption do you need to make in order to perform this test? c. (2 points) Compute the p-value in (a) and interpret its meaning.

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Research Paper (125 points): 1. Students will write a minimum 6 page research paper, using the topic of their choice and approved by Mrs. Herr. 2. The following information will be due by Monday July 22nd at 12:30 p.m. (See the handout via blackboard…10 points):  Your topic  Hypothesis  Thesis  2 sources (works cited entries) 3. You cannot use first or second person in this paper. • 1st person= I, me, we, • 2nd person= you • 3rd person=he, she, him, her, they, them 4. Students will use at least 5 outside sources (no more than 8) to support their paper. • Remember: Wikipedia is not considered a trustworthy source in my class. 5. Students must have at least 2 direct quotes in their paper; you can use 2 quotes from the same source or whatever works best for your paper. Note: you can use more than 2 quotes in your paper, however 2 is just a minimum. 6. Students must include a “Works Cited” page to properly show the sources they paraphrased, summarized, and/or “quoted” throughout the paper. • Works Cited page must be page 7 or above. • If you turn in a final draft that has less than the required pages, I will not grade it, resulting in a 0/125.

Research Paper (125 points): 1. Students will write a minimum 6 page research paper, using the topic of their choice and approved by Mrs. Herr. 2. The following information will be due by Monday July 22nd at 12:30 p.m. (See the handout via blackboard…10 points):  Your topic  Hypothesis  Thesis  2 sources (works cited entries) 3. You cannot use first or second person in this paper. • 1st person= I, me, we, • 2nd person= you • 3rd person=he, she, him, her, they, them 4. Students will use at least 5 outside sources (no more than 8) to support their paper. • Remember: Wikipedia is not considered a trustworthy source in my class. 5. Students must have at least 2 direct quotes in their paper; you can use 2 quotes from the same source or whatever works best for your paper. Note: you can use more than 2 quotes in your paper, however 2 is just a minimum. 6. Students must include a “Works Cited” page to properly show the sources they paraphrased, summarized, and/or “quoted” throughout the paper. • Works Cited page must be page 7 or above. • If you turn in a final draft that has less than the required pages, I will not grade it, resulting in a 0/125.

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