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EEGR 221 MATLAB Project 1 Basic Signals Fall 2015 Due date: 10/5/15 1. (a) Plot ?1(?) = ?(?+1)−?(?−5) where -7 < t < 7 seconds. Use millisecond units. (b) Plot ? = 5 ??? (??)[ ?(?+1)−?(?−5)] 2. (a) Plot x2(t) exactly as shown in this figure. Include the same titles and labels for the signal. Hint: Find the amplitude equations as function of time and insert those to your MATLAB script to create and plot this signal. (b) Decompose x2(t) into its even and odd components and plot x2e(t) and x2o(t). (c) Plot x2e(t) + x2o(t) and verify that x2e(t) + x2o(t) = x2(t). How to report the results? For each plot you must label x and y axis and have a title for the plot. Following commands could be used. heaviside, plot, axis, ylabel, ylabel, title, fliplr, etc … At the command prompt of MATLAB you can type >> help [command name] to get help with any command. Plot all of the signal for t between -7 and 7 seconds. Save your commands in an m-file with your name in the name field. (e.g. John_Scott.m) and append the code to the end of your report. Your report must be organized and your solution for each question mu st be clearly marked by the number of the question. Example 2.a or 2.b, … In each part the problem should be clearly identified. Type the problem statement in each section. Show the plots of input and output signals. Draw conclusions based on your plots and in problem 3 discuss why the property is not satisfied based on your plots. Turn in a hard copy of your report in class. This report must include a cover page with the name of both student partners.
In LogicWorks: a) Implement a D Flip-flop with preset and clear signals using only combinational logic (AND, OR, NAND, NOR, INV/NOT, etc). (2pts) b) Create a part for your D flip-flop. (2pt) c) Implement a 5-bit register using your D flip-flop part. (4pts) d) Create a part for your 5-bit register from part (c). (4pts)
ELEC153 Circuit Theory II M2A4 Lab: AC Parallel Circuits Introduction In this experiment we work with AC parallel circuits. As we did in the AC series circuits lab, the results obtained through Transient Analysis in MultiSim will be verified by manual calculations. Procedure 1. Figure 1 is the circuit we want to analyze.The voltage source is 24 volts peak at 1000 Hz. Figure 1: AC parallel circuit used for analysis using MultiSim Unlike the series circuit, there is no resistor in series with the voltage source that allows us to plot the current by taking advantage of its in-phase relationship. So, in order to measure the current produced by the source (total current) add a 1 Ohm resistor in series with the source. This small resistor will not affect the calculations. Figure 2: Arrangement for analyzing the current waveforms 2. Run the simulations and with the oscilloscope measure both the source voltage and the voltage across the resistor. You should get a plot similar to the following graph: Figure 3: Source voltage (red) and source current (blue) waveforms 3. From the resulting analysis plot, determine the peak current. Record it here. Measured Peak Current 4. Determine the peak current by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured peak current? Explain. Calculated Peak Current 5. Calculate the phase-shift. Using the method presented in the last lab, measure the time difference at the zero-crossing of the two signals. Record it here. Time difference 6. From the resulting calculation, determine the phase shift by using the following formula Record it here. Measured Phase Shift 7. Determine the phase shift by calculation. Record it here. Does it match the measured phase shift? Explain. Calculated Phase Shift 8. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Re-simulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 9. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift 10. Replace the capacitor with a 0.8 H inductor. Set the source frequency back to 1000 Hz. Perform Transient Analysis and measure the current amplitude and phase shift. Record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 11. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift 12. Change the frequency of the voltage source to 5000 Hz. Re-simulate and perform a Transient Analysis to find the new circuit current and phase angle. Measure them and record them here: Measured Current Measured Phase Shift 13. Perform the manual calculations needed to find the circuit current and phase shift. Record the calculated values here. Do they match the measured values within reason? What has happened to the circuit with an increase in frequency? Calculated Current Calculated Phase Shift Write-up and Submission In general, for each lab you do, you will be asked to setup certain circuits, simulate them, record the results, verify the results are correct by hand, and then discuss the solution. Your lab write-up should contain a one page, single spaced discussion of the lab experiment, what went right for you, what you had difficulty with, what you learned from the experiment, how it applies to our coursework, and any other comment you can think of. In addition, you should include screen shots from the MultiSim software and any other figure, table, or diagram as necessary.
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-1- Department of Engineering ELE3DDE: Electronic Design Automation – 2015 Assignment: Traffic Light Controller: Design, Synthesis and Test DUE: Code Submission and Demonstration, Wednesday, September 9 Report, 2pm Monday, September 14 Students will work on this assignment individually – developing their own design and producing their own independent report Task: A traffic signal controller is required for an intersection of two cross roads in a busy town centre that also has considerable pedestrian traffic. All four approaches to the intersection have standard traffic lights (Red, Amber and Green) and a traffic sensor (active low), which can detect the presence of approaching traffic. Assume that when a car passes over a sensor, it produces a low signal for approximately three (3) seconds. Thus a constant stream of traffic would produce a continuous low signal (i.e. assume that debouncing for these sensors has already been performed in the sensor circuitry). The intersection also has pedestrian crossing signals (Walk, Don’t Walk (flashing), and Don’t Walk (constantly illuminated), and pedestrian call buttons (simple push button switches) at each of the four crossing points. As a digital design engineer, you have been asked to produce an FPGA prototype for the Traffic Light Controller and assigned the following tasks (i) Produce a VHDL design for the Traffic Light Controller meeting the specifications outlined below. (ii) Produce a test bench for your VHDL design and via simulation confirm that your design functions correctly. (iii) Produce a space efficient, fully tested working prototype, suitable for demonstration to the client. (i.e. implement your design in the ALTERA, Cyclone II FPGA on the ALTERA DE2 board). (iv) Produce a report of your work, including a discussion on the efficiency of your design. (v) All code generated for you design must be included in your report. If you have pages and pages of VHDL code (particularly if you generated them with HDL Designer), these should be included in your report as an appendix. Prototype. The design will be implemented using the ALTERA, Cyclone II (EP2C35F672C6) device on the ALTERA DE2 board. See Appendix or DE2 Board Manual for device I/O pins. The four traffic lights will be represented via the 7-segment displays HEX7 – HEX4, with segment ‘a’ representing a red light, segment ‘g’ representing a yellow light and segment ‘d’ representing a green light. With the traffic sensors in the road represented by four slide switches (SW17, SW15, SW13 & SW11). The emergency Amber flash switch should be connected to slide switch SW3. -2- The pedestrian call buttons will be represented by the push buttons, KEY0, KEY1, KEY2 and KEY3. With 7-segment displays HEX3 – HEX0 used to represent the pedestrian signals for the crossing of the intersection, in the following manner: Walk (segment ‘d’ on), Don’t Walk – flashing (segment ‘a’ flashing), and Don’t Walk (segment ‘a’ on continuously). For timing the development board has a 50MHz clock. Shown above is a diagram of a seven-segment display indicating how segments ‘a’, ‘g’ and ‘d’ are used to represent the red, yellow and green lights, of a traffic light, respectively on HEX7 – HEX4. While below shows seven-segment display indicating how segments ‘a’ and ‘d’ are used to indicate Don’t Walk and Walk respectively on HEX3 – HEX0. Design Specifications – Basic Design. The road traffic lights are to operate using the sequence RedGreenAmberRed according to the timing and requirements outlined below. Whenever the lights for one road are Green or Amber the crossroad must always display a red signal. All traffic lights must display a red signal for two seconds between changeovers. In their inactive state all pedestrian signals will display “Don’t Walk – continuous” (segment ‘a’ continuously on), independent of the changes in the traffic signals. The pedestrian signal can be activated following a pedestrian call being registered (by an appropriate push button(s) being pressed) and will operate in the sequence “Walk” “Don’t Walk – flash” “Don’t Walk – continuous” with the timing and requirements outlined below. As this intersection carries considerable pedestrian traffic the town planners have decided that the traffic sequence will contain a dedicated pedestrian crossing only period, where pedestrians may walk between any two points of the intersection (including through the middle of the intersection). Rather than embedding the pedestrian crossing sequences in with the road traffic sequence – as you are probably more familiar with. Thus whenever any traffic flow enabling signal is active (i.e. Green or Amber on) the pedestrian signals will be inactive (i.e. “Don’t Walk – continuous”) and vice versa, whenever the pedestrian signals are active (“Walk” or “Don’t Walk – flash”) all road traffic lights remain red. a d e f g c b a d e f g c b -3- Traffic Light sequence and timing When all automotive sensors are inactive the default sequence is: Green Road 1 14 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 14 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec For both Roads 1 & 2, if any traffic is detected after the road has been showing green for 9 seconds, then the Green time will be extended by a further 10 seconds (i.e. making the Green time 24 seconds for that road, on that sequence. The amber and red/red times remain at 4 and 2 seconds respectively – for all sequences. Thus if both Road 1 and Road 2 have heavy traffic (i.e. traffic still detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Also, should Road 1 have heavy traffic and Road 2 have only light or no traffic (i.e. no traffic detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 14 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec And alternatively, should Road 2 have heavy traffic and Road 1 have only light or no traffic (i.e. no traffic detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 14 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec When a pedestrian crossing sequence is required this is always inserted after the Road 2 sequence, following the 2 seconds of red in both directions. Pushing a pedestrian crossing button (outside of the “Walk” period) will register a “pedestrian call” and a pedestrian crossing sequence will be inserted as soon as the next Road 2 sequence is complete. Should a pedestrian call be registered at only one site, then the pedestrian crossing sequence will be: -4- : Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 18 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 : : Alternatively, should a pedestrian call be registered at more than one site, then the “Walk” portion of the pedestrian crossing sequence will be extended by a further 8 seconds, thus: : Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 26 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 : : All pedestrian calls will be cleared as soon as the “Walk” (‘d’ on) signal is activated, and will not register again until the “Walk” (‘d’ on) signal is no longer active. Any pedestrian calls (i.e. a pedestrian button push) made during the “Don’t Walk Flashing” signal will be registered as a call towards the next sequence and have no effect on the current length of the “Don’t Walk Flashing” signal. As an example, if the automotive traffic is “heavy” in both directions, and there is also a heavy demand on the pedestrian crossing, then the total sequence would be: : Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 26 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 24 sec : The traffic controller system must respond to road sensor changes within one second. (Hint – The core of your design may include a state machine that is clocked at 1Hz). Although, you may need a faster clock to register the pedestrian call buttons. Incorporate an emergency Amber flash switch in your design (SW3). When activated the system should move to the ‘Red both directions’ state as soon as possible (i.e. it must go through four seconds of amber if currently green or amber, or through six seconds of “Don’t Walk Flashing” should a pedestrian sequence be active. Then after two seconds of ‘Red both directions’ plus “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) it should flash amber at 1Hz in both directions. In this state all pedestrian -5- signals will remain continuously showing “Don’t Walk” and no pedestrian call buttons will be registered. The design must also include an reset (active low), which will immediately place the lights on both roads in the Red state, plus all pedestrian signals showing “Don’t Walk” continuously, hold for two seconds, and then move to normal operations. You should use SW0 for the reset. For the purposes of testing and demonstrating this assignment, you should include a state clock speed modification option (i.e. x4); under “test switch” control (SW2). This will enable an option of viewing (and testing) the sequence changes more quickly. Finally, so that each design is unique, arrange for a selectable option (using SW1) where your student number is displayed on the 7-segment displays. Clearly when the student number is being displayed the traffic light status cannot be shown, although normal operations should continue in the background. That is, SW1 controls a multiplexer that selects between traffic light and student number data to be displayed. There is no need to include this section in your report, as it is not part of the Traffic Light Controller design. However, it is required for the demonstration. Design Specifications – Enhanced Design. Add additional features to enhance your design. 1. Implement the “Walk”/”Don’t Walk” on the LCD display. 2. Display a count of the current ‘seconds’ for a particular state in the sequence. i.e. count up the seconds in “green-red”, then “amber-red”, then “red-red”, then “red-green” etc. 3. Implement Green right turn arrows on the cross roads. Use the four slide switches (SW16, SW14, SW12 & SW10) for the right turn sensors. If a North or East direction road has an right turn sensors that is active prior to the intended green cycle of that road then an additional 6 seconds inserted into the sequence showing “Green Arrow” and “Green” in one direction with “Red” in the opposite direction (i.e. South or West). After the 6 seconds have elapsed the “Green Arrow” is switched off while the “Green” remains on with “Red” still showing in the opposite direction. After a further four seconds the “Red” in opposite direction changes to “green” and the sequence continues normally. Alternatively, the right turn arrow for South or East direction roads is inserted at the end of the green sequence, as follows. If a South or West has an active right turn sensor then at the end of the common “Green” time for that road then an additional ten seconds is added to the sequence to accommodate the “Green Arrow”. This consists of four seconds of “Amber” in the corresponding opposite direction, with “Green” still showing in the South or East direction, followed by “Red” in the opposite direction, and “Green Arrow” with “Green” still on for a further 6 seconds. The cycle then moves to “Amber” in the South or East direction with the “Green Arrow” off and “Red” showing in the opposite direction for four seconds. After that is the “All Red” state for two seconds and then the start of a new sequence. For the purposes of the demonstration HEX7 & HEX6 are North & South respectively, while HEX5 & HEX4 are East & West respectively. As an example the following is a heavy traffic sequence with right turns. Red All Roads 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On North Road (South Red) 6 sec Green North Road with Green Arrow off (South Red) 4 sec Green North & South Roads 24 sec -6- Amber North Road with Green South Road 4 sec Red North Road with Green South Road 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On South Road (North Red) 6 sec Amber with Green Arrow off South Road (North Red) 4 sec Red All Roads 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On East Road (West Red) 6 sec Green East Road with Green Arrow off (West Red) 4 sec Green East & West Roads 24 sec Amber East Road with Green West Road 4 sec Red East Road with Green West Road 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On West Road (East Red) 6 sec Amber with Green Arrow off West Road (East Red) 4 sec Red All Roads 2 sec Shown above is a diagram of a seven-segment display indicating how segment ‘c’ is used to indicate a green right turn arrow in a traffic light, in conjunction with ‘a’, ‘g’ and ‘d’ representing the red, yellow and green lights. Notes/Hints: (i) A pedestrian signal sequence will only occur if a pedestrian call button has been pressed (and hence registered); otherwise it will remain in the continuous “Don’t Walk” state. (ii) The decision to extend a traffic signal sequence from 14 to 24 seconds should be made between the 10 and 14 second mark (inclusive). i.e. read the traffic sensors between these times. (iii) It is recommended that you practice implementing some of the basic functions on the DE2 Board first and build on this before implementing the entire design. At the end of the day, a partially implemented prototype that works will be easier to demonstrate than an entire design that does not work at all. (iv) There are many different ways of describing timing circuits in VHDL, not all are synthesisable. (v) At this stage it may be safer to stick with the standard ieee libraries, while it is possible to set up your own libraries – great care needs to be exercised. a d e f g c b -7- (vi) If you use a package – keep it in your work library, download it to the same folder as your design files (for the Quartus II compiler) and compile it (using the Quartus II compiler) before compiling your vending machine design. (vii) MOST IMPORTANT – the Quartus II compiler does NOT like integers of different ranges being assigned to each other – even though this may compile and simulate correctly in ModelSim. For your assignment report YOU ARE REQUIRED TO SUBMIT THE FOLLOWING: (a) Block diagrams of your design, showing the hierarchy of the design and signals at each level. You can use HDL Designer or another drawing package if you wish. To assist the explanation of your design (e) it may be appropriate to embed these in the written text. (b) Printout(s) of your Traffic Light Controller design (inc. VHDL code). Key parts of the design graphics/code should be included in the main body of the report, along with the explanation of the design. With the complete design code included as an appendix. Reset Amber Flash Road 1 Lights Pedestrian Signals Pedestrian Call Buttons Display Student No. Traffic Sensors Test Road 2 Lights -8- (c) Printout(s) of your test bench (stimulus) file(s). Where key to the understanding of the testing methodology and simulation results these should included in the main body of the report. Otherwise, a complete set of testbench code must be included as an appendix. (d) Test data (i.e. annotated printouts of simulation results and summary of on board testing); <> (e) A concise (two – three pages writing) explanation of your design and your testing methodologies (i.e. how your circuit works, and why your test results demonstrate that it is functioning correctly), also include comments on any particular innovative ideas you have implemented in your design; (f) Include a summary of the FPGA resource usage of your completed design. Briefly comment on the general efficiency of your design, remember that, typically the smaller the design the lower the cost (as it may fit in a smaller/cheaper device), and the lower the power consumption. Are there any areas where you think the design could save some resources by being implemented differently? You are not required to make changes to the VHDL just brief comment(s). (Half page plus resource usage summary). Submission (by 2pm Monday, September 14): Your complete report (including code) must be converted to an OCR compatible (i.e. searchable) PDF file and submitted to the Design Assignment drop box on the LMS site for this subject. No paper copies are required. When you submit your assignment it will be checked automatically by the Turnitin software for similarity with past and present work, web sites, books etc. Any report with a high Turnitin similarity index will be scrutinised for potential plagiarism. It is highly recommended that you submit a draft copy of your assignment report, to the draft Turnitin drop box (on LMS) and check the generated Turnitin report before finalising your submission. If you submit plagiarised work (that is work copied from others – including code) it will most likely be identified and your assignment deemed unsatisfactory! YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO SUBMIT YOUR DESIGN CODE AND DEMONSTRATE YOUR DESIGN IN PRACTICAL CLASS SESSION IN THE WEEK PRIOR TO THE REPORT DUE DATE (i.e. September 9). Jim Whittington August 2015 -9- APPENDIX – Altera DE2 Board, Switch, LED, 7-Segment Display and Clock pins The following information is taken from the Altera DE2 Board Manual Signal Name FPGA Pin Description SW0 PIN_N25 Slide Switch SW1 PIN_N26 Slide Switch SW2 PIN_P25 Slide Switch SW3 PIN_AE14 Slide Switch SW4 PIN_AF14 Slide Switch SW5 PIN_AD13 Slide Switch SW6 PIN_AC13 Slide Switch SW7 PIN_C13 Slide Switch SW8 PIN_B13 Slide Switch SW9 PIN_A13 Slide Switch SW10 PIN_N1 Slide Switch SW11 PIN_P1 Slide Switch SW12 PIN_P2 Slide Switch SW13 PIN_T7 Slide Switch SW14 PIN_U3 Slide Switch SW15 PIN_U4 Slide Switch SW16 PIN_V1 Slide Switch SW17 PIN_V2 Slide Switch Table-1 Altera DE2 Board Slide Switch Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description KEY0 PIN_G26 Pushbutton KEY1 PIN_N23 Pushbutton  KEY2 PIN_P23 Pushbutton  KEY3 PIN_W26 Pushbutton  Table-2 Altera DE2 Board Push Button Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description LEDR0 PIN_AE23 Red LED LEDR1 PIN_AF23 Red LED LEDR2 PIN_AB21 Red LED LEDR3 PIN_AC22 Red LED LEDR4 PIN_AD22 Red LED LEDR5 PIN_AD23 Red LED LEDR6 PIN_AD21 Red LED LEDR7 PIN_AC21 Red LED LEDR8 PIN_AA14 Red LED LEDR9 PIN_Y13 Red LED LEDR10 PIN_AA13 Red LED LEDR11 PIN_AC14 Red LED LEDR12 PIN_AD15 Red LED -10- LEDR13 PIN_AE15 Red LED LEDR14 PIN_AF13 Red LED LEDR15 PIN_AE13 Red LED LEDR16 PIN_AE12 Red LED LEDR17 PIN_AD12 Red LED LEDG0 PIN_AE22 Green LED LEDG1 PIN_AF22 Green LED LEDG2 PIN_W19 Green LED LEDG3 PIN_V18 Green LED LEDG4 PIN_U18 Green LED LEDG5 PIN_U17 Green LED LEDG6 PIN_AA20 Green LED LEDG7 PIN_Y18 Green LED LEDG8 PIN_Y12 Green LED Table-3 Altera DE2 LED Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description HEX0 PIN_AF10 HEX0 Segment a HEX0 PIN_AB12 HEX0 Segment b HEX0 PIN_AC12 HEX0 Segment c HEX0 PIN_AD11 HEX0 Segment d HEX0 PIN_AE11 HEX0 Segment e HEX0 PIN_V14 HEX0 Segment f HEX0 PIN_V13 HEX0 Segment g HEX1  PIN_V20 HEX1 Segment a HEX1  PIN_V21 HEX1 Segment b HEX1  PIN_W21 HEX1 Segment c HEX1  PIN_Y22 HEX1 Segment d HEX1  PIN_AA24 HEX1 Segment e HEX1  PIN_AA23 HEX1 Segment f HEX1  PIN_AB24 HEX1 Segment g HEX2  PIN_AB23 HEX2 Segment a HEX2  PIN_V22 HEX2 Segment b HEX2  PIN_AC25 HEX2 Segment c HEX2  PIN_AC26 HEX2 Segment d HEX2  PIN_AB26 HEX2 Segment e HEX2  PIN_AB25 HEX2 Segment f HEX2  PIN_Y24 HEX2 Segment g HEX3  PIN_Y23 HEX3 Segment a HEX3  PIN_AA25 HEX3 Segment b HEX3  PIN_AA26 HEX3 Segment c HEX3  PIN_Y26 HEX3 Segment d HEX3  PIN_Y25 HEX3 Segment e HEX3  PIN_U22 HEX3 Segment f -11- HEX3  PIN_W24 HEX3 Segment g HEX4  PIN_U9 HEX4 Segment a HEX4  PIN_U1 HEX4 Segment b HEX4  PIN_U2 HEX4 Segment c HEX4  PIN_T4 HEX4 Segment d HEX4  PIN_R7 HEX4 Segment e HEX4  PIN_R6 HEX4 Segment f HEX4  PIN_T3 HEX4 Segment g HEX5  PIN_T2 HEX5 Segment a HEX5  PIN_P6 HEX5 Segment b HEX5  PIN_P7 HEX5 Segment c HEX5  PIN_T9 HEX5 Segment d HEX5  PIN_R5 HEX5 Segment e HEX5  PIN_R4 HEX5 Segment f HEX5  PIN_R3 HEX5 Segment g HEX6  PIN_R2 HEX6 Segment a HEX6  PIN_P4 HEX6 Segment b HEX6  PIN_P3 HEX6 Segment c HEX6  PIN_M2 HEX6 Segment d HEX6  PIN_M3 HEX6 Segment e HEX6  PIN_M5 HEX6 Segment f HEX6  PIN_M4 HEX6 Segment g HEX7  PIN_L3 HEX7 Segment a HEX7  PIN_L2 HEX7 Segment b HEX7  PIN_L9 HEX7 Segment c HEX7  PIN_L6 HEX7 Segment d HEX7  PIN_L7 HEX7 Segment e HEX7  PIN_P9 HEX7 Segment f HEX7  PIN_N9 HEX7 Segment g Table-4 Altera DE2 Board 7-Segment Display Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description CLOCK_27 PIN_D13 27 MHz Clock CLOCK_50 PIN_N2 50 MHz Clock EXT_CLOCK PIN_P26 External Clock Input (SMA) Table-5 Altera DE2 Board Clock Pin Assignments
Devise a general method for determining the fractional abundances of two or more isotopes from a mass spectrum. Your method must include some means of measuring the signals. You must state the type of measuring device that you will need to apply your method. You must also indiacate how you will use the measurments to obtain the fractional abundances
STUDENT GRADER Total Score I am submitting my own work, and I understand penalties will be assessed if I submit work for credit that is not my own. Print Name ID Number Sign Name Date # Points Score 1 4 2 8 3 6 4 12 5 4 6 10 7 8 8 6 9 6 Weeks late Adjusted Score Estimated Work Hours 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Overall Weight Adjusted Score: Deduct 20% from score for each week late Problem 1. Sketch circuits for the following logic equations. Y <= (A and B and C) or not ((A and not B and C and not D) or not (B or D)); X <= (A xor (B and C) xor not D) or (not (B xor C) and not (C or D)) Problem 2. Sketch circuits and write VHDL assignment statements for the following equations. F = m(1, 2, 6) F = M(0, 7) Problem 3. Write logic assignment statements for the following circuit. Problem 4: Sketch circuits and write VHDL assignment statements for the truth tables below. Problem 5: Sketch POS circuits for the 2XOR and 2XNOR functions. Problem 6: Sketch the circuit described by the netlist shown, and complete the timing diagram for the stimulus shown to document the circuit’s response to the example stimulus. Use a 100ns vertical grid in your timing diagram, and show all inputs and outputs. Problem 7: Create a truth table that corresponds to the simulation shown below. Show all input and output values in the truth table, and sketch a logic circuit that could have been used to create the waveform. Problem 8. The Seattle Mariners haven’t had a stolen base in 6 months, and the manager decided it was because the other teams were reading his signals to the base runners. He came up with a new set of signals (pulling on his EAR, lifting one LEG, patting the top of his HEAD, and BOWing) to indicate when runners should attempt to steal a base. A runner should STEAL a base if and only if the manager pulls his EAR and BOWs while patting his HEAD, or if he lifts his LEG and pats his HEAD without BOWing, or anytime he pulls his EAR without lifting his LEG. Sketch a minimal circuit that could be used to indicate when a runner should steal a base. Problem 9. A room has four doors and four light switches (one by each door). Sketch a circuit that allows the four switches to control the light – each switch should be able to turn the light on if it is currently off, and off if it is currently on. Note that it will not be possible to associate a given switch position with “light on” or “light off” – simply moving any switch should modify the light’s status.
ENGG4020/7020 Systems Safety Engineering Group Assignment 2: System Hazard Analysis Semester 2, 2015 School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland Goals: To develop skills in System Hazard Analysis (SHA) and gain experience in use of hazard analysis techniques by application to a realistic case study. To develop skills in written communication, in particular the skills associated with preparing written reports. Deadline: Friday 25 September 2015 at 5pm. Late assignments will attract a penalty of 20% per day. What you have to do (group assignment): Prepare a partial SHA for the AETU system (including operator) based on the given Operational Concept Document and AETU Functional Architecture. Your report should cover the following items: Q1. Partial FMEA: (a) Give a failure mode for each of the 10 components described in the AETU Functional Architecture, including the 3 sub-components of the User Interface. That is, describe one particular way in which the component might fail. Try to select examples that are plausible and could contribute to accidents, either directly or indirectly. Include possible causes in each case, to help illustrate the failure mode. (b) For each of the failure modes from (a), describe a possible system hazard that may arise, and why. Display the results in an FMEA table such as Fig.1 below. Component Example failure mode Possible cause Possible hazard How the failure could lead to the hazard … … … … … Figure 1: Format for FMEA table (Q1) Q2. Partial CHAZOP: For this question you will develop a partial CHAZOP for the “initiate/shutdown signal” data flow from the Timer component to the Power component in the AETU Functional Architecture. For the purposes of this exercise you can assume simple initiate and shutdown signals are sent. [Hint: The data flow attributes are very simple in this case, so not all of the CHAZOP guidewords will need an interpretation.] (a) Give interpretations of each of the following guidewords for the two attributes of the above flow: None, Other Than, Early, Late. Note that individual guidewords may have more than one relevant interpretation. (b) Give a partial CHAZOP table for the above flow, using the format given in Fig.2 below. For each deviation, give examples of what could cause the deviation, and what effect it could have. Under “associated safety requirements” describe requirements that could be imposed on the system to prevent the deviation, detect its occurrence and/or mitigate its consequences. Figure 2: Format for CHAZOP table (Q2) Q3. FTA: Develop a Fault Tree for the top event “engine overstressed”, down to the level of the components in the AETU Functional Architecture. Your Fault Tree should focus on secondary failures of the engine due to use or misuse of the AETU. You can assume that the main ways that the AETU might cause the engine to overstress are because of: unsafe inputs being sent to the FADEC; new inputs being sent too soon after other inputs, causing sudden changes to the engine’s state; or insufficient time being left between shutting down the engine and initiating it again. For example, the tree might have “AETU sends unsafe FADEC inputs” as an intermediate node, but then break this down into possible faults associated with the Communications unit, the Command Interpreter, the Input Panel and/or the Operator. Your fault tree should use short meaningful labels for the Fault Tree nodes, and then give a more detailed explanation in the documentation where necessary. Submission: You must carry out this assignment in your assigned group. Group members are expected to participate equally in the assignment. To ensure marks are allocated fairly according to contribution, each group member will be required to submit an individual peer assessment form, which will be made available on the course Blackboard site immediately after the assignment deadline. This form must be completed in the week after the assignment deadline. The SHA report must be submitted via Blackboard. Submit one copy per group to both “Assignment 2” and “Assignment 2 via TurnItIn” with your group ID in the submission name. You can submit via the “Group Assignment 2” link as many times as you like: the last submission is the one that will be marked. The TurnItIn submission mechanism should only be used for the final assignment, even if it’s slightly after the deadline. The submission is to be a single file containing a composite document incorporating all parts of the SHA. The format of the document should be PDF and should use standard 11 point fonts with at least 2 cm margins on all sides. If the group’s performance has been adversely affected by exceptional circumstances, the group may apply to the Course Coordinator for special consideration. Suitable documentary evidence (such as a doctor’s certificate) should be supplied where appropriate. School Policy on Student Misconduct: You are required to read and understand the School Statement on Misconduct, available on the School’s website at: http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/itee-student-misconduct-including-plagiarism Flow Attribute Guide word Interpretation Possible causes Possible consequences Associated safety requirements … … … … … … … Evaluation and Assessment Criteria: This assignment is worth 25 marks – the breakdown is indicated on the coversheet. The mark counts for 20% of the final mark (out of 100). Individual marks will be adjusted from the group mark using a Peer Assessment Factor calculated from group submissions. Criterion Mark Standard Presentation (4 marks): Readability, layout, structure, spelling, grammar. 4 Highly professional report 3 Consistently high standard of presentation 1-2 Good presentation with some presentation faults 0 Poorly prepared work with major presentation faults Failure mode identification (4 marks): Plausible failure mode identified for each AETU component 3-4 Highly plausible failure modes chosen for each of the components, with clear explanation of how they could arise 1-2 Generally good coverage of failure modes for components, with some omissions and/or lack of clarity 0 Major omissions FMEA (3 marks): Plausible effect noted for each failure mode 3 Good examples of associated hazards for each of the 10 cases 1-2 Good examples for some cases but not for others 0-1 Major deficiencies CHAZOP guideword interpretation (3 marks): Appropriate CHAZOP guidewords chosen, with plausible interpretations 3 Appropriate choice of guidewords & interpretations, giving good coverage of possible deviations for this flow 1-2 Gaps in coverage 0 Major deficiencies CHAZOP (5 marks): Plausible causes & effects are noted for each deviation, and resulting safety requirements are identified 4-5 Good examples of possible causes & effects of deviations, with appropriate system safety requirements clearly identified 2-3 Generally good coverage with some omissions and/or lack of clarity 0-1 Major omissions Fault Tree Analysis (6 marks): Fault tree developed for the given event 6 The fault tree shows good understanding of FTA 4-5 Generally good coverage, with some omissions and/or lack of clarity or generality, or issues with structure 2-3 Big gaps in coverage, or poor structure or documentation 0-1 Major deficiencies
Doppler Shift 73 Because of the Doppler Effect, light emitted by an object can appear to change wavelength due to its motion toward or away from an observer. When the observer and the source of light are moving toward each other, the light is shifted to shorter wavelengths (blueshifted). When the observer and the source of light are moving away from each other, the light is shifted to longer wavelengths (redshifted). Part I: Motion of Source Star is not . rnovrng r ABCD 1) Consider the situations shown (A—D). a) In which situation will the observer receive light that is shifted to shorter wavelengths? b) Will this light be blueshifted or redshifted for this case? c) What direction is the star moving relative to the observer for this case? 2) Consider the situations shown (A—D). a) In which situation will the observer receive light that is shifted to longer wavelengths? b) Will this light be blueshifted or redshifted for this case? c) What direction is the star moving relative to the observer for this case? . 74 Doppler Shift 3) In which of the srtuations shown (A—D) will theobserver receive light that Is not Doppler Shifted at all? Explain your reasoning. – 4) Imagine our solar system Is moving In the Milky Way toward a group of three stars. Star A is a blue star that is slightly closer to us than the other two. Star B is a red star that is farthest away from us. Star C is a yellow star that is halfway between Stars A end B. a) Which of these three stars, if any, will give off light that appears to be blueshifted? Explain your reasoning. . / b) Which of these three stars, if any, will give off light that appears to be redshifted? Explain your reasoning. c) Which of these three stars, if any, will give off light that appears to have no shift? Explain your reasoning. — 5) You overhear two students discussing the topic of Doppler Shift. Student 1: Since Betelgeuse is a red star, it must be going away from us, and since Rigel is a blue star it must be coming toward us. Student 2: 1 disagree, the color of the star does not tell you if it is moving. You have to look at the shift in wavelength of the lines in the star’s absorption spectrum to determine whether it’s moving toward or away from you. Do you agree or disagree with either or both of the students? Explain your reasoning. 5 Part II: Shift in Absorption Spectra When we study an astronomical object like a star or galaxy, we examine the spectrum of light it gives off. Since the lines of a spectrum occur at specific wavelengths we can determine that an object is moving when we see that the lines have been shifted to either longer or shorter wavelengths. For the absorption line spectra shown on the next page, short-wavelength light (the blue end of the spectrum) is shown on the left-hand side and long-wavelength light (the red end of the spectrum) is shown on the right-hand side. Doppler Shift 75 For the three absorption line spectra shown below (A, B, and C), one of the spectra corresponds to a star that is not moving relative to you, one of the spectra is from a star that is moving toward you, and one of the spectra is from a star that is moving away from you. A B Blue J___ ..‘ C 6) Which of the three spectra above corresponds with the star moving toward you? Explain your reasoning. If two sources of llght are moving relative to an observer, the light from the star that is moving faster will appear to undergo a greater Doppler Consider the four spectra at the right. The spectrum labeled F is an absorption line spectrum from a star that is at rest. Again, note that short-wavelength (blue) light is shown on the left-hand side of each spectrum and long-wavelength (red) light is shown on the right-hand side of each spectrum. 7) Which of the three spectra corresponds with the star moving away from you? Explain your reasoning. Part 111: Size of Shift and Speed Blue Red . – 76 Doppler Shift 8) Which of the four spectra would be from the star that is moving the fastest? Would this star be moving toward or away from the observer? 9) Of the stars that are moving, which spectra would be from the star that is moving the slowest? Describe the motion of this star, – (fJ 1O)An Important line In the absorption spectrum of stars occurs at a wavelength of 656 nm for stars at rest. Irna me that you observe five stars (H—L) from Earth and discover that this Important absorption line Is measured at the wavelength shown in the table below for each of the five stars, Star Wavelength of Absorption Line H 649nm I 660 nm J 656nrn K 658nrn L 647nm a) Which of the stars are gMng off light that appears blueshifted? Explain your reasoning. b) Which of the stars are gMng off light that appears redshifted? Explain your reasoning. d) Which star is moving the fastest? Is it moving toward or away from the observer? Explain your reasoning. , . . c) Which star is giving off light that appears shifted by the greatest amount? Is this light shifted to longer or shorter wavelengths? Explain your reasoning. a) Which planets will receive a radio signal that Is redshifted? Explain your reasoning. b) Which planets wfll receive a radio signal that is shifted to shorter wavelengths? Explain your reasoning. a a . ii) The figure at right shows a spaceprobe and five planets. The motion of the spaceprobe is indicated by the arrow. The spaceprobe is continuously broadcasting a radio signal in all directions. 4 C E not to scale c) Will all the planets receive radio signals from the spaceprobe that are Doppler shifted? Explain your reasoning. d) How will the size of the Doppler Shift in the radio signals detected at Planets A and B compare? Explain your reasoning. Cats r , ‘, e) How Will the slz of 1h Dupler Shift in the radio signals deteed °lane E and B compare? Explain your reasoning. ‘