The interest rates are currently 2% at most banks in Australia (ANZ, 2015). Deposit money into bank and collect interest is the safest way to invest the excess money. However, the return is not high though the risk is small. Property investment is considered as high risk investment (Pickering, 2015). Recent years have witnessed its booming in return and average return is 9.8% over Australia (Yardney, 2014). Share market is also known as a risky area. As stated by Reeves (2014), there are too many factors that could influence the market’s performance such as global wage stagnation, optimism turning over, Euro-zone deflation and so on. Compared with these three market, the portfolio in this question provided a good return with tolerable risks. The return is average 8% while the risk is 1.02% which is considered as low compared to high risk markets. The coefficient of variation is also very low which shows that the portfolio is considered as a low risk investment while considered its returns. Therefore, this portfolio is worth investment. The yield to maturity rate should be less than 12% because the bond has a value more than its par value. We know the bond present value is derived by discounting the future cash flow that generated by the bond to its present value. So if the yield to maturity rate has a lower value, the bond will have a higher present value. If we take 12% as the yield to maturity we will find the bond value should equal to its par value Based on the formulae, we can calculate the bond value if we know the interest, par value and the yield to maturity. As the question indicated, the required return is 14% and it is paid semi-annually, so the yield to maturity for half year is 7%. The interest rate for the bond is 6% and is also paid semi-annually. So the half year interest should be 3% of par value. The period of the bond should be 8 as it is paid semi-annually. Therefore, the bond value should be 3 X 5.9713 + 100 X 0.5820 = 76.1 The bond value should be $76.1 This is a discount bond as its value is lower than its par value. The reason that it becomes a discount bond is it provides a lower interest than the market can give. In a similar risk bonds market, the interest rate is 14% while this bond can only provide 6%. So, the bond is trading at a discount price. The free cash flow growth rate is zero. Then, we take assumption that the free cash flow will be constant in the future since 2016.

The interest rates are currently 2% at most banks in Australia (ANZ, 2015). Deposit money into bank and collect interest is the safest way to invest the excess money. However, the return is not high though the risk is small. Property investment is considered as high risk investment (Pickering, 2015). Recent years have witnessed its booming in return and average return is 9.8% over Australia (Yardney, 2014). Share market is also known as a risky area. As stated by Reeves (2014), there are too many factors that could influence the market’s performance such as global wage stagnation, optimism turning over, Euro-zone deflation and so on. Compared with these three market, the portfolio in this question provided a good return with tolerable risks. The return is average 8% while the risk is 1.02% which is considered as low compared to high risk markets. The coefficient of variation is also very low which shows that the portfolio is considered as a low risk investment while considered its returns. Therefore, this portfolio is worth investment. The yield to maturity rate should be less than 12% because the bond has a value more than its par value. We know the bond present value is derived by discounting the future cash flow that generated by the bond to its present value. So if the yield to maturity rate has a lower value, the bond will have a higher present value. If we take 12% as the yield to maturity we will find the bond value should equal to its par value Based on the formulae, we can calculate the bond value if we know the interest, par value and the yield to maturity. As the question indicated, the required return is 14% and it is paid semi-annually, so the yield to maturity for half year is 7%. The interest rate for the bond is 6% and is also paid semi-annually. So the half year interest should be 3% of par value. The period of the bond should be 8 as it is paid semi-annually. Therefore, the bond value should be 3 X 5.9713 + 100 X 0.5820 = 76.1 The bond value should be $76.1 This is a discount bond as its value is lower than its par value. The reason that it becomes a discount bond is it provides a lower interest than the market can give. In a similar risk bonds market, the interest rate is 14% while this bond can only provide 6%. So, the bond is trading at a discount price. The free cash flow growth rate is zero. Then, we take assumption that the free cash flow will be constant in the future since 2016.

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Lab 5 Math 551 Fall 2015 Goal: In this assignment we will look at two fractals, namely the Sierpinski fractal and the Barnsley Fern. During the lab session, your lab instructor will teach you the necessary MATLAB code to complete the assignment, which will be discussed in the lab on Thursday October 8th or Friday October 9th in the lab (CW 144 or CW 145). What you have to submit: An m- le containing all of the commands necessary to perform all the tasks described below. Submit this le on Canvas. Click: \Assignments”, click \MATLAB Project 5″, click \Submit Assignment”, then upload your .m le and click \Submit Assignment” again. Due date: Friday October 16, 5pm. No late submission will be accepted. TASKS A fractal can be de ned as a self-similar detailed pattern repeating itself. Some of the most well know fractals (the Mandelbrot set and Julia set) can be viewed here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ The Sierpinski Fractal The program srnpnski(m,dist,n) gets its name from the mathematician W. Sierpinski. The only parameter that must be speci ed is m which determines the number of vertices that will be part of a regular polygon. For larger m it produces a graph which is similar to a snow ake. The program starts with a randomly chosen seed position given by the internal variable s. At each stage one of the vertices is chosen at random and a new point is produced which is dist away from the old point to the vertex. The value of dist should be between 0 and 1. The default value is 0.5. This process is repeated n times. The default value of n is 1500. 1. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on s rpns k i (m, di s t , n) %This c r e a t e s a snowf lake from m v e r t i c e s us ing n i t e r a t i o n s . i f nargin <3, n=1500; end i f nargin <2, d i s t =0.5; end c l f a x i s ( [ ?1 ,1 , ?1 ,1] ) p=exp (2 pi  i  ( 1 :m)/m) ; pl o t (p , '  ' ) hold s=rand+i  rand ; f o r j =1:n r=c e i l (m rand ) ; s=d i s t  s+(1?d i s t )p( r ) ; pl o t ( s , ' . ' ) end 2. Try out the following commands s rpns k i ( 3 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 2 5 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 5 0 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 4 ) 1 s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 2 ) s rpns k i ( 5 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 4 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 6 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 8 , 0 . 3 , 5 0 0 0 ) The Barnsley Fern The following program is the famous Barnsley Fern. The only external parameter is n, the number of iterations. 3. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on f e r n (n) A1=[ 0 . 8 5 , 0 . 0 4 ; ?0 . 0 4 , 0 . 8 5 ] ; A2=[ ?0 . 1 5 , 0 . 2 8 ; 0 . 2 6 , 0 . 2 4 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 2 , ?0 . 2 6 ; 0 . 2 3 , 0 . 2 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 6 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 4 4 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 ] ; P1=0.85; P2=0.07; P3=0.07; P4=0.01; c l f ; s=rand ( 2 , 1 ) ; pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) hold f o r j =1:n r=rand ; i f r<=P1 , s=A1 s+T1 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2 , s=A2 s+T2 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2+P3 , s=A3 s+T3 ; e l s e s=A4 s ; end pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) end 4. Try the following commands: f e r n (100) f e r n (500) f e r n (1000) f e r n (3000) f e r n (5000) f e r n (10000) 2 5. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; T1=[ 1 ; 1 ] ; T2=[ 1 ; 5 0 ] ; T3=[ 5 0 ; 5 0 ] ; P1=0.33; P2=0.33; P3=0.34; Call the new program srptri.m. Try the command s r p t r i (5000) You should see a familiar looking result. 6. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 4 2 , ?0 . 4 2 ; 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ; ?0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 . 1 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 0 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 . 2 ] ; P1=0.05; P2=0.4; P3=0.4; P4=0.15; Call the new program srptree.m. Try the command s r p t r e e (5000) This is an example of a fractal tree. Some nice animations of fractal trees can be seen here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ MATLAB commands to learn: Cl f , c e i l , imaginary uni t I , i f . . e l s e i f . . e l s e . . end 3

Lab 5 Math 551 Fall 2015 Goal: In this assignment we will look at two fractals, namely the Sierpinski fractal and the Barnsley Fern. During the lab session, your lab instructor will teach you the necessary MATLAB code to complete the assignment, which will be discussed in the lab on Thursday October 8th or Friday October 9th in the lab (CW 144 or CW 145). What you have to submit: An m- le containing all of the commands necessary to perform all the tasks described below. Submit this le on Canvas. Click: \Assignments”, click \MATLAB Project 5″, click \Submit Assignment”, then upload your .m le and click \Submit Assignment” again. Due date: Friday October 16, 5pm. No late submission will be accepted. TASKS A fractal can be de ned as a self-similar detailed pattern repeating itself. Some of the most well know fractals (the Mandelbrot set and Julia set) can be viewed here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ The Sierpinski Fractal The program srnpnski(m,dist,n) gets its name from the mathematician W. Sierpinski. The only parameter that must be speci ed is m which determines the number of vertices that will be part of a regular polygon. For larger m it produces a graph which is similar to a snow ake. The program starts with a randomly chosen seed position given by the internal variable s. At each stage one of the vertices is chosen at random and a new point is produced which is dist away from the old point to the vertex. The value of dist should be between 0 and 1. The default value is 0.5. This process is repeated n times. The default value of n is 1500. 1. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on s rpns k i (m, di s t , n) %This c r e a t e s a snowf lake from m v e r t i c e s us ing n i t e r a t i o n s . i f nargin <3, n=1500; end i f nargin <2, d i s t =0.5; end c l f a x i s ( [ ?1 ,1 , ?1 ,1] ) p=exp (2 pi  i  ( 1 :m)/m) ; pl o t (p , '  ' ) hold s=rand+i  rand ; f o r j =1:n r=c e i l (m rand ) ; s=d i s t  s+(1?d i s t )p( r ) ; pl o t ( s , ' . ' ) end 2. Try out the following commands s rpns k i ( 3 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 2 5 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 5 0 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 4 ) 1 s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 2 ) s rpns k i ( 5 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 4 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 6 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 8 , 0 . 3 , 5 0 0 0 ) The Barnsley Fern The following program is the famous Barnsley Fern. The only external parameter is n, the number of iterations. 3. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on f e r n (n) A1=[ 0 . 8 5 , 0 . 0 4 ; ?0 . 0 4 , 0 . 8 5 ] ; A2=[ ?0 . 1 5 , 0 . 2 8 ; 0 . 2 6 , 0 . 2 4 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 2 , ?0 . 2 6 ; 0 . 2 3 , 0 . 2 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 6 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 4 4 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 ] ; P1=0.85; P2=0.07; P3=0.07; P4=0.01; c l f ; s=rand ( 2 , 1 ) ; pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) hold f o r j =1:n r=rand ; i f r<=P1 , s=A1 s+T1 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2 , s=A2 s+T2 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2+P3 , s=A3 s+T3 ; e l s e s=A4 s ; end pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) end 4. Try the following commands: f e r n (100) f e r n (500) f e r n (1000) f e r n (3000) f e r n (5000) f e r n (10000) 2 5. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; T1=[ 1 ; 1 ] ; T2=[ 1 ; 5 0 ] ; T3=[ 5 0 ; 5 0 ] ; P1=0.33; P2=0.33; P3=0.34; Call the new program srptri.m. Try the command s r p t r i (5000) You should see a familiar looking result. 6. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 4 2 , ?0 . 4 2 ; 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ; ?0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 . 1 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 0 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 . 2 ] ; P1=0.05; P2=0.4; P3=0.4; P4=0.15; Call the new program srptree.m. Try the command s r p t r e e (5000) This is an example of a fractal tree. Some nice animations of fractal trees can be seen here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ MATLAB commands to learn: Cl f , c e i l , imaginary uni t I , i f . . e l s e i f . . e l s e . . end 3

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Name: Lab Time: BIO 218 Experiment Paper Rubric (20 points) General Formatting: (2 pts.) • Margins should be 1 inch top, bottom, left, and right. • Font should be 12 point Times New Roman or similar font. • Double-spaced. • Pages numbered. Title page is unnumbered. Next page is numbered at the bottom right corner with a 2 followed by pages 3, 4, and 5. • All sections must be included: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited. • At least 3 pages (double spaced) but no more than five pages long. • All scientific names should be formatted correctly by italicizing and capitalizing the genus name and having the species name in lowercase (Bufo americanus). • Title page should have a specific title, student name, course, lab section time, and date. Project elements (18 pts. Total) • Abstract (2 points) o Summarize most important points using past tense. Use present tense to suggest a general conclusion which supports or refutes the hypothesis. • Introduction (3 points) o General background on topic and species (state scientific name!) o Discuss the possible tests of the hypothesis. o Reads from general to specific. o States hypothesis/hypotheses to be addressed. May discuss null and all alternative hypotheses. • Methods (2 points) o Reports how experiment was conducted and all materials used. Use enough detail so others could repeat the study. o Discuss the type(s) of data collected. o Discuss how data was to be analyzed/compared/used to test hypothesis. • Results (3 points) o Reports what happened in the experiment. o If comparisons made, discuss how they were made. o Report statistical and other data. Use “significant” only for statistical significance. o NO interpretation of data (no data analysis). o At least one original figure present and formatted correctly. Figures such as pictures and graphs are numbered and have captions underneath. o At least one table present and formatted correctly. Tables such as charts are numbered and have captions above them. • Discussion: (3 points) o Discusses the results of the experiment and ties in how the results fit with the literature. o Use past tense to discuss your results and shift to present tense to discuss previously published information. o States how results supported or refuted the original hypothesis. Hypotheses are never proven! o Ties in results with big picture within topic of biology. • Literature Cited: (2 points: .5 per citation) o At least 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (provided) + 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (found on your own). o References used in text properly. o References all listed in this section are alphabetized by author’s last name and formatted correctly. o All references listed in the Literature Cited section are cited in text. Writing Elements (3 pts.) • Grammar or spelling is error-free and excellent print quality. (1 pt) • Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper. (1 pt) • Appropriate content in each section? (1 pt) Additional Comments:

Name: Lab Time: BIO 218 Experiment Paper Rubric (20 points) General Formatting: (2 pts.) • Margins should be 1 inch top, bottom, left, and right. • Font should be 12 point Times New Roman or similar font. • Double-spaced. • Pages numbered. Title page is unnumbered. Next page is numbered at the bottom right corner with a 2 followed by pages 3, 4, and 5. • All sections must be included: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited. • At least 3 pages (double spaced) but no more than five pages long. • All scientific names should be formatted correctly by italicizing and capitalizing the genus name and having the species name in lowercase (Bufo americanus). • Title page should have a specific title, student name, course, lab section time, and date. Project elements (18 pts. Total) • Abstract (2 points) o Summarize most important points using past tense. Use present tense to suggest a general conclusion which supports or refutes the hypothesis. • Introduction (3 points) o General background on topic and species (state scientific name!) o Discuss the possible tests of the hypothesis. o Reads from general to specific. o States hypothesis/hypotheses to be addressed. May discuss null and all alternative hypotheses. • Methods (2 points) o Reports how experiment was conducted and all materials used. Use enough detail so others could repeat the study. o Discuss the type(s) of data collected. o Discuss how data was to be analyzed/compared/used to test hypothesis. • Results (3 points) o Reports what happened in the experiment. o If comparisons made, discuss how they were made. o Report statistical and other data. Use “significant” only for statistical significance. o NO interpretation of data (no data analysis). o At least one original figure present and formatted correctly. Figures such as pictures and graphs are numbered and have captions underneath. o At least one table present and formatted correctly. Tables such as charts are numbered and have captions above them. • Discussion: (3 points) o Discusses the results of the experiment and ties in how the results fit with the literature. o Use past tense to discuss your results and shift to present tense to discuss previously published information. o States how results supported or refuted the original hypothesis. Hypotheses are never proven! o Ties in results with big picture within topic of biology. • Literature Cited: (2 points: .5 per citation) o At least 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (provided) + 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (found on your own). o References used in text properly. o References all listed in this section are alphabetized by author’s last name and formatted correctly. o All references listed in the Literature Cited section are cited in text. Writing Elements (3 pts.) • Grammar or spelling is error-free and excellent print quality. (1 pt) • Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper. (1 pt) • Appropriate content in each section? (1 pt) Additional Comments:

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Objective: Persuade readers that they should fear a threat of your choosing, real or fabricated. Due Date: Wednesday, November 18th Length: 4-5 pages Format: typed, double-spaced, standard font and margins For this essay, you will be putting together all the aspects of argument that we have been learning about over the last few weeks. You will be using those elements to convince your readers that some issue of your choosing is a threat to them. This issue can be a real threat that you believe people should actually be aware of, or it can be a threat that is not real but that you treat as real (whether it be a fictional/legendary threat or something that is perhaps a small threat but that you present as a big one). Your job is to convince your audience to take this threat seriously, and to do that, you will need to make use of emotional appeal (especially to fear—think back to essays one and two), logical appeal (partly use of details/facts/ evidence we discussed in essay four, but also through definition such as we worked on in essay three), and ethical appeal (your own credibility—think back to issues besides logic and evidence covered in essay four). You may choose to include outside sources if you wish, but you must cite them if you use them and indicate when you are using the words of the original source. We will discuss how to find and to cite them to prepare you to use them correctly. If writing about a fictional threat, you may wish to make up sources. If you do so, I leave it up to you whether you formally cite them (though you must do this if you are using real sources) or informally refer to them in a manner similar to what we saw in the articles we read for essay four. Turning in an essay in which significant portions are not written by you and/or without outside sources cited will result in an essay grade of zero (and not revisable for a higher grade). If you are unsure what to cite, let me know. For ideas, you may want to browse the website snopes.com. This site contains lists and research about many feasible topics for this essay. Try not to use Snopes itself as a source—most entries there contain a list of sources that would be more appropriate for you to utilize and credit in your research. You may also choose to write about a topic covered by one of the essay four articles—if you liked an issue but felt that the warning about it was not very credible, you can use this paper as an opportunity to write about that topic but in a believable, convincing way. Whatever you choose as your topic, by the end of it, you want your reader to believe that what you discuss is a real threat to them. Essay Five: Argument Paper/Warning Assignment Description English 101, Sections 26 & 30 Fall 2015 Skills We Will Cover In This Unit: • finding & citing sources • utilizing emotional, logical, and ethical appeal SCHEDULE GRADING Incomplete papers or papers that stray from the assigned topic/purpose will receive a D or F. C B A To earn at least a C, the paper should: • have a clearly established threat that it attempts to warn the reader about • cite any information obtained from outside sources • be written in such a way as it can be easily understood by the reader To earn a B, the paper should fulfill the criteria above, plus: • include at least one section intended to appeal to the reader’s emotions (especially fear) • include logical support in the form of evidence, details, or other forms of establishing logical reasoning • be organized well, which includes having a clear sense of structure and transitioning into new ideas • include only the information and discussion necessary to accomplish the purpose of the assignment • have only a few grammatical errors, and those should not interfere with understanding To earn an A, the paper should fulfill the criteria for a B paper, plus: • possess strong unity of ideas • skillfully utilize all three rhetorical appeals • make a convincing case that the threat is real • be nearly free of grammatical or wording problems FRI OCT 30 MON NOV 2 discuss “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” (p. 481) WED NOV 4 discuss “How Bingeing Became the New College Sport” (p. 476) FRI NOV 6 Homecoming—no classes after noon, no Blackboard assignment MON NOV 9 Discuss “The Real Skinny” (p. 492) No class—Blackboard assignment: online scavenger hunt (opens Monday, due by 11:59pm on Sunday 11/1) WED NOV 11 FRI NOV 13 No class—Blackboard assignment: essay five peer review. Post your draft by noon Friday, respond to two classmates’ by 11:59pm on Monday 11/16. You may wish to review skills from previous assignments as you work on this essay: • essay one: telling a story, creating an emotional response • essay two: how to create emotional response, utilizing evidence • essay three: defining important terms, using logic • essay four: establishing character and credibility WED OCT 28 Discuss “Our Unhealthy Obsession with Sickness (p. 469) MON OCT 26 Essay Four Due; Essay Five Assigned; meet in 70-122 MON NOV 16 No class—Dr. Hill at BTW Symposium (you can attend, too!) Meet in 70-122 for research time and citing instruction MON NOV 18 Essay five due; final portfolio assigned

Objective: Persuade readers that they should fear a threat of your choosing, real or fabricated. Due Date: Wednesday, November 18th Length: 4-5 pages Format: typed, double-spaced, standard font and margins For this essay, you will be putting together all the aspects of argument that we have been learning about over the last few weeks. You will be using those elements to convince your readers that some issue of your choosing is a threat to them. This issue can be a real threat that you believe people should actually be aware of, or it can be a threat that is not real but that you treat as real (whether it be a fictional/legendary threat or something that is perhaps a small threat but that you present as a big one). Your job is to convince your audience to take this threat seriously, and to do that, you will need to make use of emotional appeal (especially to fear—think back to essays one and two), logical appeal (partly use of details/facts/ evidence we discussed in essay four, but also through definition such as we worked on in essay three), and ethical appeal (your own credibility—think back to issues besides logic and evidence covered in essay four). You may choose to include outside sources if you wish, but you must cite them if you use them and indicate when you are using the words of the original source. We will discuss how to find and to cite them to prepare you to use them correctly. If writing about a fictional threat, you may wish to make up sources. If you do so, I leave it up to you whether you formally cite them (though you must do this if you are using real sources) or informally refer to them in a manner similar to what we saw in the articles we read for essay four. Turning in an essay in which significant portions are not written by you and/or without outside sources cited will result in an essay grade of zero (and not revisable for a higher grade). If you are unsure what to cite, let me know. For ideas, you may want to browse the website snopes.com. This site contains lists and research about many feasible topics for this essay. Try not to use Snopes itself as a source—most entries there contain a list of sources that would be more appropriate for you to utilize and credit in your research. You may also choose to write about a topic covered by one of the essay four articles—if you liked an issue but felt that the warning about it was not very credible, you can use this paper as an opportunity to write about that topic but in a believable, convincing way. Whatever you choose as your topic, by the end of it, you want your reader to believe that what you discuss is a real threat to them. Essay Five: Argument Paper/Warning Assignment Description English 101, Sections 26 & 30 Fall 2015 Skills We Will Cover In This Unit: • finding & citing sources • utilizing emotional, logical, and ethical appeal SCHEDULE GRADING Incomplete papers or papers that stray from the assigned topic/purpose will receive a D or F. C B A To earn at least a C, the paper should: • have a clearly established threat that it attempts to warn the reader about • cite any information obtained from outside sources • be written in such a way as it can be easily understood by the reader To earn a B, the paper should fulfill the criteria above, plus: • include at least one section intended to appeal to the reader’s emotions (especially fear) • include logical support in the form of evidence, details, or other forms of establishing logical reasoning • be organized well, which includes having a clear sense of structure and transitioning into new ideas • include only the information and discussion necessary to accomplish the purpose of the assignment • have only a few grammatical errors, and those should not interfere with understanding To earn an A, the paper should fulfill the criteria for a B paper, plus: • possess strong unity of ideas • skillfully utilize all three rhetorical appeals • make a convincing case that the threat is real • be nearly free of grammatical or wording problems FRI OCT 30 MON NOV 2 discuss “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” (p. 481) WED NOV 4 discuss “How Bingeing Became the New College Sport” (p. 476) FRI NOV 6 Homecoming—no classes after noon, no Blackboard assignment MON NOV 9 Discuss “The Real Skinny” (p. 492) No class—Blackboard assignment: online scavenger hunt (opens Monday, due by 11:59pm on Sunday 11/1) WED NOV 11 FRI NOV 13 No class—Blackboard assignment: essay five peer review. Post your draft by noon Friday, respond to two classmates’ by 11:59pm on Monday 11/16. You may wish to review skills from previous assignments as you work on this essay: • essay one: telling a story, creating an emotional response • essay two: how to create emotional response, utilizing evidence • essay three: defining important terms, using logic • essay four: establishing character and credibility WED OCT 28 Discuss “Our Unhealthy Obsession with Sickness (p. 469) MON OCT 26 Essay Four Due; Essay Five Assigned; meet in 70-122 MON NOV 16 No class—Dr. Hill at BTW Symposium (you can attend, too!) Meet in 70-122 for research time and citing instruction MON NOV 18 Essay five due; final portfolio assigned

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Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to behaviorially create and simulate a flip-flop. Afterwards, you will create a register and Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). Refer to Module 7 from the Digilent Real Digital website for more information about ALUs. These two components are the main components required to create an accumulator datapath. This accumulator datapath will act like a simple processor; the ALU will execute simple arithmetic/logic operations and each result will be stored in the register. In an accumulator, the value of the register will be upedated with each operation; the register is used as an input to the ALU and the newly computed result of the operation will be stored back into the register. You will create and implement this accumulator datapath in the last task of this lab. However, you will need to add an additional component to enable it to clearly operate on the FPGA board. You will create and use a clock divider to create a slower version of the FPGA board’s clock when you implement the accumulator datapath on the FPGA board. Refer to Module 10 from the Digilent Real Digital website for more information about clock dividers. Lab Tasks: 1. Create a behavioral VHDL module for a Rising-Edge Triggered (RET) D-Flip-Flop (DFF): a. In your design, use inputs “D” (data), “CLK” (the clock), “RST” (an asynchronous reset), “SET” (a synchronous set or preset signal), “CE” (clock enable), and output “Q” b. Create a VHDL test bench and simulate the flip-flop. Be sure to show the following behaviors with your simulation: i. The output “Q” sampling a ‘0’ from the input “D” ii. The output “Q” sampling a ‘1’ from the input “D” iii. The correct operation of the asynchronous reset iv. The correct operation of the synchronous preset v. The correct operation of the clock enable c. Include a screenshot of your simulation on the lab’s cover sheet. Label each of these behaviors on the waveform (it is ok to print out your cover sheet and write each behavior on the waveform). 2. Create a behavioral VHDL module for a 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): a. I suggest you refer to Module 7 from the Digilent Real Digital website (in particular, the sections about ALU circuits and behavioral VHDL ALU descriptions). This 4-bit ALU will calculate arithmetic and logical expressions on two 4-bit numbers. Use behavioral expressions for the arithmetic and logic expressions (do not use port map statements to create a structural design using your ripple-carry adder from lab 3). Assume that the select input (or opcode) is 2-bits and is defined as shown in the table below: Opcode Function 00 A 01 A plus 1 10 A plus B 11 A and B b. Create a VHDL test bench to test your ALU. Use two input signal (the 4-bit values for A and B) combinations to test each operation of the ALU. Simulate your design and verify your output. Include a screenshot of your simulation on the lab’s cover sheet. 3. Create an accumulator datapath: a. First, create a 4-bit register. This is very similar to your flip-flop design from lab task 1. Ensure that your 4-bit register has inputs “D” (data), “CLK” (the clock), and “RST” (an asynchronous reset), and an output “Q”. Create a test bench and ensure that your 4-bit register operates correctly. b. Next, create a design module for the accumulator datapath and import your 4-bit register, 4-bit ALU, and seven-sgement display decoder (from lab 2) as components to this system. Connect your register, ALU, and seven-segment display decoder as follows: i. Connect the output of your ALU to the “D” input of your register ii. Connect the “Q” output of your register to both the “A” input of your ALU and the input of your seven-segement display iii. You should be left with four overall inputs: the “B” input of your ALU, the opcode input of your ALU, the CLK, and RST iv. You should be left with one overall output: the seven-segment display output c. Create a test bench to simulate the behavior of your accumulator datapath. In your test bench, simulate a few clock cycles to verify the correct operation of your system. d. Before implementing this system on the FPGA board, create and add one additional component to your system. Create and add a clock divider to this system; the input will be the board’s clock and the output will be a slower version of the clock to use for the register. Design your clock divider to slow the clock frequency to 1 Hz (1 clock cycle per second). Note that the clock on the lab FPGA board (Spartan 3) has a frequency of 50 MHz. If you purchased your board, the FPGA Basys 3 or Nexys 4 DDR FPGA board has a frequency of 100 MHz. I highly recommend taking a look at “Binary counters in VHDL” from Module 10 from the Digilent Real Digital website for information about clock dividers. e. Now, implement this system on the FPGA board. Connect the data input to four switches, connect the ALU opcode inputs to two buttons, the RST signal to one button, the CLK signal to the board’s clock, and the seven-segment display output to the seven-segment display. f. Ask the instructor to check your design, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation of your circuit

Lab Description: Follow the instructions in the lab tasks below to behaviorially create and simulate a flip-flop. Afterwards, you will create a register and Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). Refer to Module 7 from the Digilent Real Digital website for more information about ALUs. These two components are the main components required to create an accumulator datapath. This accumulator datapath will act like a simple processor; the ALU will execute simple arithmetic/logic operations and each result will be stored in the register. In an accumulator, the value of the register will be upedated with each operation; the register is used as an input to the ALU and the newly computed result of the operation will be stored back into the register. You will create and implement this accumulator datapath in the last task of this lab. However, you will need to add an additional component to enable it to clearly operate on the FPGA board. You will create and use a clock divider to create a slower version of the FPGA board’s clock when you implement the accumulator datapath on the FPGA board. Refer to Module 10 from the Digilent Real Digital website for more information about clock dividers. Lab Tasks: 1. Create a behavioral VHDL module for a Rising-Edge Triggered (RET) D-Flip-Flop (DFF): a. In your design, use inputs “D” (data), “CLK” (the clock), “RST” (an asynchronous reset), “SET” (a synchronous set or preset signal), “CE” (clock enable), and output “Q” b. Create a VHDL test bench and simulate the flip-flop. Be sure to show the following behaviors with your simulation: i. The output “Q” sampling a ‘0’ from the input “D” ii. The output “Q” sampling a ‘1’ from the input “D” iii. The correct operation of the asynchronous reset iv. The correct operation of the synchronous preset v. The correct operation of the clock enable c. Include a screenshot of your simulation on the lab’s cover sheet. Label each of these behaviors on the waveform (it is ok to print out your cover sheet and write each behavior on the waveform). 2. Create a behavioral VHDL module for a 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): a. I suggest you refer to Module 7 from the Digilent Real Digital website (in particular, the sections about ALU circuits and behavioral VHDL ALU descriptions). This 4-bit ALU will calculate arithmetic and logical expressions on two 4-bit numbers. Use behavioral expressions for the arithmetic and logic expressions (do not use port map statements to create a structural design using your ripple-carry adder from lab 3). Assume that the select input (or opcode) is 2-bits and is defined as shown in the table below: Opcode Function 00 A 01 A plus 1 10 A plus B 11 A and B b. Create a VHDL test bench to test your ALU. Use two input signal (the 4-bit values for A and B) combinations to test each operation of the ALU. Simulate your design and verify your output. Include a screenshot of your simulation on the lab’s cover sheet. 3. Create an accumulator datapath: a. First, create a 4-bit register. This is very similar to your flip-flop design from lab task 1. Ensure that your 4-bit register has inputs “D” (data), “CLK” (the clock), and “RST” (an asynchronous reset), and an output “Q”. Create a test bench and ensure that your 4-bit register operates correctly. b. Next, create a design module for the accumulator datapath and import your 4-bit register, 4-bit ALU, and seven-sgement display decoder (from lab 2) as components to this system. Connect your register, ALU, and seven-segment display decoder as follows: i. Connect the output of your ALU to the “D” input of your register ii. Connect the “Q” output of your register to both the “A” input of your ALU and the input of your seven-segement display iii. You should be left with four overall inputs: the “B” input of your ALU, the opcode input of your ALU, the CLK, and RST iv. You should be left with one overall output: the seven-segment display output c. Create a test bench to simulate the behavior of your accumulator datapath. In your test bench, simulate a few clock cycles to verify the correct operation of your system. d. Before implementing this system on the FPGA board, create and add one additional component to your system. Create and add a clock divider to this system; the input will be the board’s clock and the output will be a slower version of the clock to use for the register. Design your clock divider to slow the clock frequency to 1 Hz (1 clock cycle per second). Note that the clock on the lab FPGA board (Spartan 3) has a frequency of 50 MHz. If you purchased your board, the FPGA Basys 3 or Nexys 4 DDR FPGA board has a frequency of 100 MHz. I highly recommend taking a look at “Binary counters in VHDL” from Module 10 from the Digilent Real Digital website for information about clock dividers. e. Now, implement this system on the FPGA board. Connect the data input to four switches, connect the ALU opcode inputs to two buttons, the RST signal to one button, the CLK signal to the board’s clock, and the seven-segment display output to the seven-segment display. f. Ask the instructor to check your design, simulation waveforms, and FPGA board implementation of your circuit

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Please answer questions and then submit them in the assignment. Put your name in the document’s title. Eight points for questions 1-10, ten points each for questions 11 and 12. 1. What were the crusades, how did they begin, and how were they justified? 2. Describe the 1348 plague in Europe and how it changed human behavior. 3. What other calamities besides the plague occurred during the 14th century? What were the results? 4. What inventions during the middle ages and the Renaissance had the biggest impact on human culture in Western Europe? 5. What was a pilgrimage? Why did people go on them? 6. Describe what is happening in this image? Who is the central figure? Where might this image be located? How does it exemplify the era in which it was made? 7. Why was Socrates condemned to death? How did he handle his death sentence? What was the impact of his death for Athenians and the Western Heritage? 8. Name three Western legacies from ancient Egypt. How did the ancient Egyptians have a lasting impact on Western civilization? 9. How did Themistocles and the Greeks keep the Persians under Xerxes from invading? How did the trireme help? 10. Compare these two buildings. Identify them and say how they are alike and different and why we might want to know what they are. Where are they located? When were they constructed? What purposes did they serve? (5 points) 11. Compare ancient Rome and the contemporary United States. In what ways are the two superpowers similar? What are the similarities between their military strength, their colonization, the division of wealth, and their ways of appeasing the masses? In what ways did the Romans assume that assimilation to the Roman way would work for everyone they colonized? Has the U.S. done the same thing? In what ways is the Roman history different from the U.S. history of revolution against the British? Is the United States doomed to fail in the way ancient Rome did? 12. Compare the work of art you viewed in a museum with a work of text that we read in class or a work if art or architecture in the textbook. In what ways do they inform one another? In what ways can you connect the image with the text?

Please answer questions and then submit them in the assignment. Put your name in the document’s title. Eight points for questions 1-10, ten points each for questions 11 and 12. 1. What were the crusades, how did they begin, and how were they justified? 2. Describe the 1348 plague in Europe and how it changed human behavior. 3. What other calamities besides the plague occurred during the 14th century? What were the results? 4. What inventions during the middle ages and the Renaissance had the biggest impact on human culture in Western Europe? 5. What was a pilgrimage? Why did people go on them? 6. Describe what is happening in this image? Who is the central figure? Where might this image be located? How does it exemplify the era in which it was made? 7. Why was Socrates condemned to death? How did he handle his death sentence? What was the impact of his death for Athenians and the Western Heritage? 8. Name three Western legacies from ancient Egypt. How did the ancient Egyptians have a lasting impact on Western civilization? 9. How did Themistocles and the Greeks keep the Persians under Xerxes from invading? How did the trireme help? 10. Compare these two buildings. Identify them and say how they are alike and different and why we might want to know what they are. Where are they located? When were they constructed? What purposes did they serve? (5 points) 11. Compare ancient Rome and the contemporary United States. In what ways are the two superpowers similar? What are the similarities between their military strength, their colonization, the division of wealth, and their ways of appeasing the masses? In what ways did the Romans assume that assimilation to the Roman way would work for everyone they colonized? Has the U.S. done the same thing? In what ways is the Roman history different from the U.S. history of revolution against the British? Is the United States doomed to fail in the way ancient Rome did? 12. Compare the work of art you viewed in a museum with a work of text that we read in class or a work if art or architecture in the textbook. In what ways do they inform one another? In what ways can you connect the image with the text?

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Microbial Homework 13 points Must be turned in through blackboard, typed, using a word process, and preferably using Microsoft Word. 1. (3pts) Are viruses alive? Justify your answer by indicating whether they meet the criteria of the each of the defining properties of life discussed in chapter 1. 2. (2pts)Explain why Kingdom Protista is considered an artificial grouping. 3. (3pts) Are fungi plants? How are fungi similar to and different from plants? 4.(5pts) Research a product (e.g. food or medicine) made using bacteria or fungus, and describe how the bacteria or fungus is involved in the process. (No more than three paragraphs long, get to the point). The products mentioned in the text (e.g. penicillin and cheese) and edible mushrooms do not count. CITE YOUR SOURCES!! Format doesn’t matter as long as all the necessary information is there.

Microbial Homework 13 points Must be turned in through blackboard, typed, using a word process, and preferably using Microsoft Word. 1. (3pts) Are viruses alive? Justify your answer by indicating whether they meet the criteria of the each of the defining properties of life discussed in chapter 1. 2. (2pts)Explain why Kingdom Protista is considered an artificial grouping. 3. (3pts) Are fungi plants? How are fungi similar to and different from plants? 4.(5pts) Research a product (e.g. food or medicine) made using bacteria or fungus, and describe how the bacteria or fungus is involved in the process. (No more than three paragraphs long, get to the point). The products mentioned in the text (e.g. penicillin and cheese) and edible mushrooms do not count. CITE YOUR SOURCES!! Format doesn’t matter as long as all the necessary information is there.

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Advertising and Critical Analysis For this essay you will examine a selection of commercials. This essay will require that you engage in some in-depth examination of 3-4 commercials. This “close viewing” of the commercials should lead you to a thesis that answers a question such as “Who do the advertisers think that I am?” or “What do these commercials say about us?” You need to do more than simply list some commercials and summarize them – although it is important that you summarize the commercials so that the reader can “see” them. A strong essay will look deeper into the commercial and its product – it will go beyond what is simply stated and instead examine the tangible elements of the commercial as well as what is underlying or unspoken in the advertisement. While writing this, here are some things to consider: • Besides the actual product, what else is the ad selling or promoting? • What human instinct, desire, or shortcoming is the ad playing to? • What is used to make the sale and turn consumers into customers (humor, sex, youth, etc.)? • How do these ads work in conjunction with the show during which they are aired? • Who do you think this ad is aimed at (audience)? • Although only a short commercial, what do you think these advertisements say about American culture or the American people? Helpful hints: • Choose commercials from specific sectors or ones that deal with similar ideas (i.e. alcohol, trucks, military, disabilities, etc.). Doing this will help you come up with a tight focus and hold to your thesis throughout the essay. • This essay needs to be 5 – 6 pages of polished and delightfully insightful prose. In addition your paper needs to exhibit all the standard formatting and fonts. This essay also requires a Works Cited page carefully listing any sources referenced, including the commercials being discussed.

Advertising and Critical Analysis For this essay you will examine a selection of commercials. This essay will require that you engage in some in-depth examination of 3-4 commercials. This “close viewing” of the commercials should lead you to a thesis that answers a question such as “Who do the advertisers think that I am?” or “What do these commercials say about us?” You need to do more than simply list some commercials and summarize them – although it is important that you summarize the commercials so that the reader can “see” them. A strong essay will look deeper into the commercial and its product – it will go beyond what is simply stated and instead examine the tangible elements of the commercial as well as what is underlying or unspoken in the advertisement. While writing this, here are some things to consider: • Besides the actual product, what else is the ad selling or promoting? • What human instinct, desire, or shortcoming is the ad playing to? • What is used to make the sale and turn consumers into customers (humor, sex, youth, etc.)? • How do these ads work in conjunction with the show during which they are aired? • Who do you think this ad is aimed at (audience)? • Although only a short commercial, what do you think these advertisements say about American culture or the American people? Helpful hints: • Choose commercials from specific sectors or ones that deal with similar ideas (i.e. alcohol, trucks, military, disabilities, etc.). Doing this will help you come up with a tight focus and hold to your thesis throughout the essay. • This essay needs to be 5 – 6 pages of polished and delightfully insightful prose. In addition your paper needs to exhibit all the standard formatting and fonts. This essay also requires a Works Cited page carefully listing any sources referenced, including the commercials being discussed.

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