Homework 1 Create a Solution for a Decision-making Process. Scenario: You’re a manager for Super Joe’s Cars that operates car dealerships throughout Kansas. SJ’s just recently acquired/merged local dealerships and now needs to ‘normalize’ their employee salaries. SJ’s now employs 30 employees that are each labeled as one of the following: Sales Representative , Senior Sales Representative, and Sales Executive. Due to different dealerships paying different salaries, these salaries are all different. SJ’s merger was a success, and has $100,000 to distribute raises to employees in order to realign them and have them close as possible to the industry average. Top management would like you to design a solution that will distribute this money to employees, with the top priority of moving as many employees as possible closer to the industry average. They have provided you with the data below (yes, it’s limited data) in order to do this. They also request that each employee gets a raise of some sort. Problem: What’s the ‘best’ way to allocate these dollars to your employees? Task: Use the data to create a SPREADSHEET that distributes the $100,000 to current employees. It should be well presented (FORMAT), and automate the process – so if the $100,000 is changed, the spreadsheet updates automatically (FORMULAS). This spreadsheet should also show other important information such as: Total salaries, current average salary per rank, new salary per rank, current deviation from the industry average, new deviation from industry average (DATA). **MUST BE DONE IN MICROSOFT EXCEL!! Shane’s Tips and Tricks: Identify your goal. In this case, you are essentially coming up with a solution to ‘who gets the raise’. There are many ways to create the solution, just choose what you feel is the best way. Identify numbers! Use $ and % signs, etc. USE FORMULAS. It’s pointless to create a spreadsheet that doesn’t calculate. A good spreadsheet allows users to change the data points and test different scenarios. If you have trouble, check out Atomic Learning on the FHSU website to view tutorials if needed. Make it pretty! Your spreadsheet should be clean, concise, and formatted nicely. Ideally, I could copy your spreadsheet and present it to others without modification. Highlight important information so it can easily be found. Use an assumption table. Your formulas should not contain numbers, but instead references to cells. An assumption table holds key information that will be used in multiple areas. You should be able to make one formula, ‘pull it down or across’, and it will work for all items. Typically when you use a number from the assumption table, you want it to be an absolute reference (meaning it doesn’t change when the formula is dragged across multiple rows). To do this, simply hit the F4 key. An assumption table can be located anywhere in the spreadsheet, but should be separate from spreadsheet data. How you are graded: Refer to the rubric with the assignment for more information on how you will be graded. Data Company Sales Employee Ranks Industry Average Salary Sales Representative $50,000 Senior Sales Representative $60,000 Sales Executive $75,000 Sales Representatives Salary Davidson Kaye 55,000 Corovic,Jose 43,000 Lane, Brandon 62,000 Wei, Guang 35,000 Drew, Richard 50,000 Adams, James 33,000 Spenser, William 51,000 Ray, Tony 41,000 Ryan, Mark 38,000 Warrem, Jason 53,000 Senior Sales Representatives Salary Ashley, Jane 53,000 Corning,Sandra 46,000 Scott, Rex 56,000 Duong,Linda 52,000 Bosa, Victor 37,000 UTran,Diem Thi 45,000 Dixon, James T 53,000 Goston, Sayeh 48,000 Jordan, Matthew 38,000 Menstell,Lori Lee 65,000 Sales Executives Salary Ching, Kam Hoong 57,000 Collins,Giovanni 75,000 Dixon,Eleonor 65,000 Lee,Brandon 60,000 Lunden,Haley 55,000 Rikki, Nicole 75,000 Scott, Bryan 67,000 Angel, Kathy 88,000 Quigly, James 59,000 Pham,Mary 80,000

Homework 1 Create a Solution for a Decision-making Process. Scenario: You’re a manager for Super Joe’s Cars that operates car dealerships throughout Kansas. SJ’s just recently acquired/merged local dealerships and now needs to ‘normalize’ their employee salaries. SJ’s now employs 30 employees that are each labeled as one of the following: Sales Representative , Senior Sales Representative, and Sales Executive. Due to different dealerships paying different salaries, these salaries are all different. SJ’s merger was a success, and has $100,000 to distribute raises to employees in order to realign them and have them close as possible to the industry average. Top management would like you to design a solution that will distribute this money to employees, with the top priority of moving as many employees as possible closer to the industry average. They have provided you with the data below (yes, it’s limited data) in order to do this. They also request that each employee gets a raise of some sort. Problem: What’s the ‘best’ way to allocate these dollars to your employees? Task: Use the data to create a SPREADSHEET that distributes the $100,000 to current employees. It should be well presented (FORMAT), and automate the process – so if the $100,000 is changed, the spreadsheet updates automatically (FORMULAS). This spreadsheet should also show other important information such as: Total salaries, current average salary per rank, new salary per rank, current deviation from the industry average, new deviation from industry average (DATA). **MUST BE DONE IN MICROSOFT EXCEL!! Shane’s Tips and Tricks: Identify your goal. In this case, you are essentially coming up with a solution to ‘who gets the raise’. There are many ways to create the solution, just choose what you feel is the best way. Identify numbers! Use $ and % signs, etc. USE FORMULAS. It’s pointless to create a spreadsheet that doesn’t calculate. A good spreadsheet allows users to change the data points and test different scenarios. If you have trouble, check out Atomic Learning on the FHSU website to view tutorials if needed. Make it pretty! Your spreadsheet should be clean, concise, and formatted nicely. Ideally, I could copy your spreadsheet and present it to others without modification. Highlight important information so it can easily be found. Use an assumption table. Your formulas should not contain numbers, but instead references to cells. An assumption table holds key information that will be used in multiple areas. You should be able to make one formula, ‘pull it down or across’, and it will work for all items. Typically when you use a number from the assumption table, you want it to be an absolute reference (meaning it doesn’t change when the formula is dragged across multiple rows). To do this, simply hit the F4 key. An assumption table can be located anywhere in the spreadsheet, but should be separate from spreadsheet data. How you are graded: Refer to the rubric with the assignment for more information on how you will be graded. Data Company Sales Employee Ranks Industry Average Salary Sales Representative $50,000 Senior Sales Representative $60,000 Sales Executive $75,000 Sales Representatives Salary Davidson Kaye 55,000 Corovic,Jose 43,000 Lane, Brandon 62,000 Wei, Guang 35,000 Drew, Richard 50,000 Adams, James 33,000 Spenser, William 51,000 Ray, Tony 41,000 Ryan, Mark 38,000 Warrem, Jason 53,000 Senior Sales Representatives Salary Ashley, Jane 53,000 Corning,Sandra 46,000 Scott, Rex 56,000 Duong,Linda 52,000 Bosa, Victor 37,000 UTran,Diem Thi 45,000 Dixon, James T 53,000 Goston, Sayeh 48,000 Jordan, Matthew 38,000 Menstell,Lori Lee 65,000 Sales Executives Salary Ching, Kam Hoong 57,000 Collins,Giovanni 75,000 Dixon,Eleonor 65,000 Lee,Brandon 60,000 Lunden,Haley 55,000 Rikki, Nicole 75,000 Scott, Bryan 67,000 Angel, Kathy 88,000 Quigly, James 59,000 Pham,Mary 80,000

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– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: Oct. 1st, 2015 G. Ozsoyoglu Concurrent Programming with Semaphores; 140 points (100 pts) 1. Priority-based Searchers/Inserters/Deleters Problem without starvation. Three types of processes, namely, searchers, inserters, and deleters share access to a singly linked list L, and perform search, insert, or delete operations, respectively. The list L does not have duplicate values. a) Searchers merely search the list L, and report success (i.e., item searched is in L) or no-success (i.e., item searched is not in L) to a log file. Hence they can execute concurrently with each other. b) Inserters add new items to the end of the list L, and report success (i.e., item is not in L, and successfully inserted into L) or no-success (i.e., item is already in L, and no insertion takes place) to a log file. Insertions must be mutually exclusive to preclude two inserters from inserting new items at about the same time. However, one insert can proceed in parallel with any number of searches. c) Deleters remove items from anywhere in the list, and report success (i.e., the item is found in L and deleted) or no-success (i.e., item is not in L, and could not be deleted) to a log file. At most one deleter can access the list L at a time, and the deletion must be mutually exclusive with searches and insertions. d) Initial start. Searcher, inserter, and deleter processes are initially launched as follows. A user process that needs a search/insertion/deletion operation to the list L first forks a process, and then, in the forked process, performs an execv into a searcher/ inserter/deleter process. e) Log maintenance. Upon start, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to a log file, recording the time of insertion, process id, process type (i.e., searcher, inserter, or deleter), and the item that is being searched/inserted/deleted. f) Termination. Upon successful or unsuccessful completion, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to the same log file, recording the time and the result of its execution. g) Priority-based service between three types. Searchers, inserters, and deleters perform their search, insert, delete operations, respectively, on a priority basis (not on a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) basis) between separate process types (i.e., searchers, inserters, deleters) as follows. Searchers search with the highest priority; inserters insert with the second highest priority (except that one inserter can proceed in parallel with any number of searchers), and deleters delete with the lowest priority. h) FCFS service within a single type. Processes of the same type are serviced FCFS. As an example, among multiple inserters, the order of insertions into L is FCFS. Similarly, among multiple deleters, the order of deletions into L is FCFS. Note that, among searchers, while the start of search among searchers is FCFS, due to concurrent searcher execution, the completions of multiple searchers may not be FCFS. i) Starvation avoidance. In addition to the above priority-based search/insert/delete operations, the following starvation-avoidance rule is enforced. o After 10 consecutive searchers search the list L, if there is at least one waiting inserter or deleter then newly arriving searchers are blocked until (a) all waiting inserters are first serviced FCFS, and, then (b) all waiting deleters are serviced FCFS. Then, both the standard priority-based service between process types and the FCFS service within a process type resume. You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to synchronize searcher, inserter and deleter processes. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). – 2 – (40 pts) 2. Four-of-a-Kind Problem is defined as follows.  There is a deck of 24 cards, split into 6 different kinds, 4 cards of each kind.  There are 4 players (i.e., processes) ??,0≤?≤3; each player can hold 4 cards.  Between each pair of adjacent (i.e., seated next to each other) players, there is a pile of cards.  The game begins by o someone dealing four cards to each player, and putting two cards on the pile between each pair of adjacent players, and o ?0 starting the game. If ?0 has four-of-a-kind, ?0 wins. Whoever gets four-of-a-kind first wins.  Players take turns to play clockwise. That is, ?0 plays, ?1 plays, ?2 plays, ?3 plays, ?0 plays, etc.  Each player behaves as follows. o So long as no one has won, keep playing. o If it is my turn and no one has won:  Check for Four-of-a-Kind. If yes, claim victory. Otherwise discard a card into the pile on the right; pick up a card from the pile on the left; and, check again: If Four-of-a-Kind, claim victory; otherwise revise turn so that the next player plays and wait for your turn.  There are no ties; when a player has claimed victory, all other players stop (when their turns to play come up). You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to the Four-of-a-Kind problem. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). P1 P0 P2 P3 pile 1 pile 2 pile 3 pile 0

– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: Oct. 1st, 2015 G. Ozsoyoglu Concurrent Programming with Semaphores; 140 points (100 pts) 1. Priority-based Searchers/Inserters/Deleters Problem without starvation. Three types of processes, namely, searchers, inserters, and deleters share access to a singly linked list L, and perform search, insert, or delete operations, respectively. The list L does not have duplicate values. a) Searchers merely search the list L, and report success (i.e., item searched is in L) or no-success (i.e., item searched is not in L) to a log file. Hence they can execute concurrently with each other. b) Inserters add new items to the end of the list L, and report success (i.e., item is not in L, and successfully inserted into L) or no-success (i.e., item is already in L, and no insertion takes place) to a log file. Insertions must be mutually exclusive to preclude two inserters from inserting new items at about the same time. However, one insert can proceed in parallel with any number of searches. c) Deleters remove items from anywhere in the list, and report success (i.e., the item is found in L and deleted) or no-success (i.e., item is not in L, and could not be deleted) to a log file. At most one deleter can access the list L at a time, and the deletion must be mutually exclusive with searches and insertions. d) Initial start. Searcher, inserter, and deleter processes are initially launched as follows. A user process that needs a search/insertion/deletion operation to the list L first forks a process, and then, in the forked process, performs an execv into a searcher/ inserter/deleter process. e) Log maintenance. Upon start, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to a log file, recording the time of insertion, process id, process type (i.e., searcher, inserter, or deleter), and the item that is being searched/inserted/deleted. f) Termination. Upon successful or unsuccessful completion, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to the same log file, recording the time and the result of its execution. g) Priority-based service between three types. Searchers, inserters, and deleters perform their search, insert, delete operations, respectively, on a priority basis (not on a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) basis) between separate process types (i.e., searchers, inserters, deleters) as follows. Searchers search with the highest priority; inserters insert with the second highest priority (except that one inserter can proceed in parallel with any number of searchers), and deleters delete with the lowest priority. h) FCFS service within a single type. Processes of the same type are serviced FCFS. As an example, among multiple inserters, the order of insertions into L is FCFS. Similarly, among multiple deleters, the order of deletions into L is FCFS. Note that, among searchers, while the start of search among searchers is FCFS, due to concurrent searcher execution, the completions of multiple searchers may not be FCFS. i) Starvation avoidance. In addition to the above priority-based search/insert/delete operations, the following starvation-avoidance rule is enforced. o After 10 consecutive searchers search the list L, if there is at least one waiting inserter or deleter then newly arriving searchers are blocked until (a) all waiting inserters are first serviced FCFS, and, then (b) all waiting deleters are serviced FCFS. Then, both the standard priority-based service between process types and the FCFS service within a process type resume. You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to synchronize searcher, inserter and deleter processes. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). – 2 – (40 pts) 2. Four-of-a-Kind Problem is defined as follows.  There is a deck of 24 cards, split into 6 different kinds, 4 cards of each kind.  There are 4 players (i.e., processes) ??,0≤?≤3; each player can hold 4 cards.  Between each pair of adjacent (i.e., seated next to each other) players, there is a pile of cards.  The game begins by o someone dealing four cards to each player, and putting two cards on the pile between each pair of adjacent players, and o ?0 starting the game. If ?0 has four-of-a-kind, ?0 wins. Whoever gets four-of-a-kind first wins.  Players take turns to play clockwise. That is, ?0 plays, ?1 plays, ?2 plays, ?3 plays, ?0 plays, etc.  Each player behaves as follows. o So long as no one has won, keep playing. o If it is my turn and no one has won:  Check for Four-of-a-Kind. If yes, claim victory. Otherwise discard a card into the pile on the right; pick up a card from the pile on the left; and, check again: If Four-of-a-Kind, claim victory; otherwise revise turn so that the next player plays and wait for your turn.  There are no ties; when a player has claimed victory, all other players stop (when their turns to play come up). You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to the Four-of-a-Kind problem. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). P1 P0 P2 P3 pile 1 pile 2 pile 3 pile 0

– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: … Read More...
For your first reflection paper assignment, the draft is due on 9/17 and the final paper is due on 9/24. The length of the paper should be about 1,000 words, typed double-spaced, using 12 pt Times Roman font with 1” margins on every side. (Just keep your default margins.) A reflection essay, also known as a reflective essay , is a work in which the writer will take the opportunity to review and analyze a certain experience in a personal way. In this assignment the “experience” is your reaction to the essays we have read so far in FYS. A reflection essay does not involve research, as many other types of essays do. Instead, authors may reflect on their personal interpretations of an experience; this can be something as simple as reading a book or watching a film, or it may occur after a greater life event. These are just a few of the many examples in which writers may take some time to reflect on what they learned. Your reflective essay assignment is to reflect on the readings so far – • Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave”; • Professor Eve’s, The Cave”, • Ray’s “Resident Alien”, • King’s “Letter From Birmingham Jail”, • Kristof’s Half the Sky , and reflect on what you learned from one or more of those essays. The point of a reflection essay is to analyze the readings in a personal way, and both positive and negative aspects should be touched upon. For instance, students writing a reflection essay on an essay they have read are not going to simply provide a summary of the writing. Instead, they might write • what they learned while reading the essay, • if any of this information altered their existing viewpoints, • if they can relate it to their life in some way. Instructors often assign these types of essays to ensure that students are actually reading and thinking about this information; of course, professional authors have also been known to write and publish such essays as well. While students do not have to do research per se, they should include: • quotes, facts and evidence from the readings to support their reflection points, • especially those parts that made them think about a particular issue in a different way • or made them change their mind about some way they used to think before they read the passage. • In other words, if these readings illuminated you in some way, tell how, and use examples from the texts to demonstrate clearly what you mean. Reflection papers can be personal, are personal and can include your own past experiences or ways of thinking to make a point about what your thinking is now after having read the essays. I am including a rubric in the Canvas files that will help with the organi zation of your reflection paper. The file is called “Rubric for Literacy Narrative or Reflective Writing.”

For your first reflection paper assignment, the draft is due on 9/17 and the final paper is due on 9/24. The length of the paper should be about 1,000 words, typed double-spaced, using 12 pt Times Roman font with 1” margins on every side. (Just keep your default margins.) A reflection essay, also known as a reflective essay , is a work in which the writer will take the opportunity to review and analyze a certain experience in a personal way. In this assignment the “experience” is your reaction to the essays we have read so far in FYS. A reflection essay does not involve research, as many other types of essays do. Instead, authors may reflect on their personal interpretations of an experience; this can be something as simple as reading a book or watching a film, or it may occur after a greater life event. These are just a few of the many examples in which writers may take some time to reflect on what they learned. Your reflective essay assignment is to reflect on the readings so far – • Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave”; • Professor Eve’s, The Cave”, • Ray’s “Resident Alien”, • King’s “Letter From Birmingham Jail”, • Kristof’s Half the Sky , and reflect on what you learned from one or more of those essays. The point of a reflection essay is to analyze the readings in a personal way, and both positive and negative aspects should be touched upon. For instance, students writing a reflection essay on an essay they have read are not going to simply provide a summary of the writing. Instead, they might write • what they learned while reading the essay, • if any of this information altered their existing viewpoints, • if they can relate it to their life in some way. Instructors often assign these types of essays to ensure that students are actually reading and thinking about this information; of course, professional authors have also been known to write and publish such essays as well. While students do not have to do research per se, they should include: • quotes, facts and evidence from the readings to support their reflection points, • especially those parts that made them think about a particular issue in a different way • or made them change their mind about some way they used to think before they read the passage. • In other words, if these readings illuminated you in some way, tell how, and use examples from the texts to demonstrate clearly what you mean. Reflection papers can be personal, are personal and can include your own past experiences or ways of thinking to make a point about what your thinking is now after having read the essays. I am including a rubric in the Canvas files that will help with the organi zation of your reflection paper. The file is called “Rubric for Literacy Narrative or Reflective Writing.”

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The Geographic Grid The Geographic grid is based on angular measurements from the center of the earth. Latitude measures the angular distance north and south of the plane of the earth’s equator. longitude measures the angular distance east and west of the prime meridian. The angular distance between any two locations on the earth’s surface is simply the latitudinal or longitudinal difference the two locations. Both longitude and latitude are measured in degrees ( o ), minutes ( ‘ ) and seconds ( ” ) of arc. Figure 1 shows the latitude and longitude coordinates of the earth in 10o degree intervals. There are 60′ minutes of arc in 1o . There are 60″ seconds of arc in 1′ minute of arc. One could therefore express the latitude and longitude of a place as 39o 50′ 10″ N, 77o 35′ 15″ W. 1. Using latitude and longitude coordinates, determine the location of the following places. a) Toronto, Ontario ( Canada ) ____________________________________________________________ b) Billings, Montana _____________________________________________________________________ c) Chicago, Illinois ______________________________________________________________________ d) Westminster, England _________________________________________________________________ e) Venice, Italy _________________________________________________________________________ f) Baghdad, Iraq _______________________________________________________________________ g) Tokyo, Japan ________________________________________________________________________ h) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil _________________________________________________________________ 2. Provide the name of the following places located at the given coordinates below. a) 13o 09′ 50.19″ S, 72o 32′ 45.58″ W ______________________________________________________ b) 33o 51′ 35.90″ S, 151o 12′ 40″ E ______________________________________________________ c) 71o 17′ 07.62″ N, 156o 45′ 57.98″ W _____________________________________________________ d) 41o 53′ 29.84″ N, 87o 36′ 01.78″ W ______________________________________________________ The geographic grid uses circles of two different types, great circles and small circles. All great circles pass through the geographic center of the earth. All meridians, the equator, and the circle of illumination are great circles. All parallels other than the equator are small circles. The direction of any grid lines ( meridians and parallels ) can be determined as either an azimuth or a bearing. Azimuths are read in a clockwise direction as degrees ranging from 0o at the North Pole, to 90o at East, to 180o at the South Pole, to 270o at West, and back to 360o at the North Pole. Azimuths only give a direction such as 45o . Bearings are read as quadrants from either the North or South Poles. Hence east is 90o from either North or South. West is also 90o from either North or South. A bearing shows the direction one is traveling as well as the magnitude of the angle from either North or South. Hence a azimuth of 45o is read as a bearing of N 45o E. An azimuth of 150o would as a bearing read S 30o E. Figure 1.2 shows the relationship between azimuths and bearings. 3. Convert the values below. Bearing Azimuth 20o S 500 20′ E 265o 30’ N 20o 20 W Longitudinal and latitudinal distances vary as a result of trying to fit a flat grid onto a spherical surface such as the earth’s curved surface. The grid is constant in a north-south direction, but varies in the east-west direction. The data below shows how the grid values vary ( rounded off to the nearest mile of distance ). 1o of longitude at the equator = 69 miles 1o of longitude at the 30th parallel = 60 miles 1o of longitude at the 60th parallel = 35 miles 1o of longitude at the 90th parallel = 0 miles 1o of latitude along any meridian = 69 miles 4. Determine by calculation the linear ( miles ) and angular ( degree ) distances between the following places. From To Angular Linear Quito, Ecuador Macapa, Brazil 0o S, 78o W 0o N, 51o W Cairo, Egypt Shiraz, Iran 30o N, 31o E 30o N, 52o E Seward, Alaska St Petersburg, Russia 60o N, 149o W 60o N, 30o E Hamhung, North Korea Ankara, Turkey 39o N, 127o E 39o N, 32o E Detroit, Michigan Morristown, Tennessee 42o N, 83o W 36o N, 83o W Sample problem We see that between Quito and Macapa that there is no latitude difference as both places are at 0 degrees latitude. Therefore the angular difference between the two places can only be calculated based upon the longitudinal difference. Seeing that both places are west longitude we simply subtract 78-51 = 27 degrees. Hence the angular distance between Quito and Macapa is 27 degrees. The linear distance is the number of miles ( feet,yards, kilometers, etc.) Quito and Macapa. Bothe places are on the equator so consulting the table above we find that in 1 degree of longitude ate the equator is equal to 69 miles. So multiplying the 69 miles/degree X 27 degrees, the degrees cancel and the remaining units are miles, and the numerical value is 1,863 linear miles.

The Geographic Grid The Geographic grid is based on angular measurements from the center of the earth. Latitude measures the angular distance north and south of the plane of the earth’s equator. longitude measures the angular distance east and west of the prime meridian. The angular distance between any two locations on the earth’s surface is simply the latitudinal or longitudinal difference the two locations. Both longitude and latitude are measured in degrees ( o ), minutes ( ‘ ) and seconds ( ” ) of arc. Figure 1 shows the latitude and longitude coordinates of the earth in 10o degree intervals. There are 60′ minutes of arc in 1o . There are 60″ seconds of arc in 1′ minute of arc. One could therefore express the latitude and longitude of a place as 39o 50′ 10″ N, 77o 35′ 15″ W. 1. Using latitude and longitude coordinates, determine the location of the following places. a) Toronto, Ontario ( Canada ) ____________________________________________________________ b) Billings, Montana _____________________________________________________________________ c) Chicago, Illinois ______________________________________________________________________ d) Westminster, England _________________________________________________________________ e) Venice, Italy _________________________________________________________________________ f) Baghdad, Iraq _______________________________________________________________________ g) Tokyo, Japan ________________________________________________________________________ h) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil _________________________________________________________________ 2. Provide the name of the following places located at the given coordinates below. a) 13o 09′ 50.19″ S, 72o 32′ 45.58″ W ______________________________________________________ b) 33o 51′ 35.90″ S, 151o 12′ 40″ E ______________________________________________________ c) 71o 17′ 07.62″ N, 156o 45′ 57.98″ W _____________________________________________________ d) 41o 53′ 29.84″ N, 87o 36′ 01.78″ W ______________________________________________________ The geographic grid uses circles of two different types, great circles and small circles. All great circles pass through the geographic center of the earth. All meridians, the equator, and the circle of illumination are great circles. All parallels other than the equator are small circles. The direction of any grid lines ( meridians and parallels ) can be determined as either an azimuth or a bearing. Azimuths are read in a clockwise direction as degrees ranging from 0o at the North Pole, to 90o at East, to 180o at the South Pole, to 270o at West, and back to 360o at the North Pole. Azimuths only give a direction such as 45o . Bearings are read as quadrants from either the North or South Poles. Hence east is 90o from either North or South. West is also 90o from either North or South. A bearing shows the direction one is traveling as well as the magnitude of the angle from either North or South. Hence a azimuth of 45o is read as a bearing of N 45o E. An azimuth of 150o would as a bearing read S 30o E. Figure 1.2 shows the relationship between azimuths and bearings. 3. Convert the values below. Bearing Azimuth 20o S 500 20′ E 265o 30’ N 20o 20 W Longitudinal and latitudinal distances vary as a result of trying to fit a flat grid onto a spherical surface such as the earth’s curved surface. The grid is constant in a north-south direction, but varies in the east-west direction. The data below shows how the grid values vary ( rounded off to the nearest mile of distance ). 1o of longitude at the equator = 69 miles 1o of longitude at the 30th parallel = 60 miles 1o of longitude at the 60th parallel = 35 miles 1o of longitude at the 90th parallel = 0 miles 1o of latitude along any meridian = 69 miles 4. Determine by calculation the linear ( miles ) and angular ( degree ) distances between the following places. From To Angular Linear Quito, Ecuador Macapa, Brazil 0o S, 78o W 0o N, 51o W Cairo, Egypt Shiraz, Iran 30o N, 31o E 30o N, 52o E Seward, Alaska St Petersburg, Russia 60o N, 149o W 60o N, 30o E Hamhung, North Korea Ankara, Turkey 39o N, 127o E 39o N, 32o E Detroit, Michigan Morristown, Tennessee 42o N, 83o W 36o N, 83o W Sample problem We see that between Quito and Macapa that there is no latitude difference as both places are at 0 degrees latitude. Therefore the angular difference between the two places can only be calculated based upon the longitudinal difference. Seeing that both places are west longitude we simply subtract 78-51 = 27 degrees. Hence the angular distance between Quito and Macapa is 27 degrees. The linear distance is the number of miles ( feet,yards, kilometers, etc.) Quito and Macapa. Bothe places are on the equator so consulting the table above we find that in 1 degree of longitude ate the equator is equal to 69 miles. So multiplying the 69 miles/degree X 27 degrees, the degrees cancel and the remaining units are miles, and the numerical value is 1,863 linear miles.

2. In Graff and Birkenstein’s example from chapter one, what does the speaker at the academic conference do wrong? What could the speaker do to fix this problem?

2. In Graff and Birkenstein’s example from chapter one, what does the speaker at the academic conference do wrong? What could the speaker do to fix this problem?

2.    In Graff and Birkenstein’s example from chapter one, what … Read More...
The treaty states: “That there shall be …. perpetual Oblivion, Amnesty, or Pardon of all that has been committed since the beginning of these Troubles.” Why is this important? A. It is meant to create an image of the future peace between states. B. The line in the treaty suggests that all states should mesh together forever. C. It attempts to erase the sins of the past for the sake of the future peace. D. It reaffirms the importance of religion to each state. E. This is a flourishing line that hides the truth which is that we should keep old animosities alive. The treaty says “each Party shall endeavour to procure the Benefit, Honour and Advantage of the other…” The use of the word “advantage” likely means: A. Each country needs to develop their own military to gain power. B. In this case advantage means simply to move forward from history. C. Benefit, Honour, and Advantage all mean the same thing here whichis Glory. D. Advantage is a reference to sport. E. Advantage likely means the growth of peace and economic abundance. Why is it important that states do not encourage the enemies of other countries toward hostilities? A. It would be a slippery slope to war once hostilities began. B. You would effectively be sponsoring war indirectly. C. It would upset the fundamental nature of the peace among states by fostering hostilities. D. It would be a slippery slope to war once hostilities began AND it would upset the fundamental nature of the peace among states by fostering hostilities. E. All of these options. The power structure between states in the Treaty could best be described as: A. A hierarchical system of states in which Swedeland is the ultimate ruler. B. A system of states all subsumed underneath a central emperor. C. A loose network of disconnected states who live in isolation of one another. D. A system of states living roughly in equality to one another with no overarching ruler. E. A collection of states all operating as democracies.

The treaty states: “That there shall be …. perpetual Oblivion, Amnesty, or Pardon of all that has been committed since the beginning of these Troubles.” Why is this important? A. It is meant to create an image of the future peace between states. B. The line in the treaty suggests that all states should mesh together forever. C. It attempts to erase the sins of the past for the sake of the future peace. D. It reaffirms the importance of religion to each state. E. This is a flourishing line that hides the truth which is that we should keep old animosities alive. The treaty says “each Party shall endeavour to procure the Benefit, Honour and Advantage of the other…” The use of the word “advantage” likely means: A. Each country needs to develop their own military to gain power. B. In this case advantage means simply to move forward from history. C. Benefit, Honour, and Advantage all mean the same thing here whichis Glory. D. Advantage is a reference to sport. E. Advantage likely means the growth of peace and economic abundance. Why is it important that states do not encourage the enemies of other countries toward hostilities? A. It would be a slippery slope to war once hostilities began. B. You would effectively be sponsoring war indirectly. C. It would upset the fundamental nature of the peace among states by fostering hostilities. D. It would be a slippery slope to war once hostilities began AND it would upset the fundamental nature of the peace among states by fostering hostilities. E. All of these options. The power structure between states in the Treaty could best be described as: A. A hierarchical system of states in which Swedeland is the ultimate ruler. B. A system of states all subsumed underneath a central emperor. C. A loose network of disconnected states who live in isolation of one another. D. A system of states living roughly in equality to one another with no overarching ruler. E. A collection of states all operating as democracies.

The treaty states: “That there shall be .... perpetual Oblivion, … Read More...