CHM114: Exam #2 CHM 114, S2015 Exam #2, Version C 16 March 2015 Instructor: O. Graudejus Points: 100 Print Name Sign Name Student I.D. # 1. You are responsible for the information on this page. Please read it carefully. 2. Code your name and 10 digit affiliate identification number on the separate scantron answer sheet. Use only a #2 pencil 3. If you enter your ASU ID incorrectly on the scantron, a 3 point penalty will be assessed. 4. Do all calculations on the exam pages. Do not make any unnecessary marks on the answer sheet. 5. This exam consists of 25 multiple choice questions worth 4 points each and a periodic table. Make sure you have them all. 6. Choose the best answer to each of the questions and answer it on the computer-graded answer sheet. Read all responses before making a selection. 7. Read the directions carefully for each problem. 8. Avoid even casual glances at other students’ exams. 9. Stop writing and hand in your scantron answer sheet and your test promptly when instructed. LATE EXAMS MAY HAVE POINTS DEDUCTED. 10. You will have 50 minutes to complete the exam. 11. If you leave early, please do so quietly. 12. Work the easiest problems first. 13. A periodic table is attached as the last page to this exam. 14. Answers will be posted online this afternoon. Potentially useful information: K = ºC + 273.15 RH=2.18·10-18 J R=8.314 J·K-1·mol-1 1Å=10-10 m c=3·108 m/s Ephoton=h·n=h·c/l h=6.626·10-34 Js Avogadro’s Number = 6.022 × 1023 particles/mole DH°rxn =  n DHf° (products) –  n DHf° (reactants) ) 1 1 ( 2 2 f i H n n DE = R − \ -2- CHM114: Exam #2 1) Which one of the following is an incorrect orbital notation? A) 2s B) 2p C) 3f D) 3d E) 4s 2) The energy of a photon that has a frequency of 8.21 1015s 1 − × is __________ J. A) 8.08 10 50 − × B) 1.99 10 25 − × C) 5.44 10 18 − × D) 1.24×1049 E) 1.26 10 19 − × 3) The ground state electron configuration of Ga is __________. A) 1s22s23s23p64s23d104p1 B) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d104p1 C) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1 D) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104d1 E) [Ar]4s23d11 4) Of the bonds N–N, N=N, and NN, the N-N bond is __________. A) strongest/shortest B) weakest/longest C) strongest/longest D) weakest/shortest E) intermediate in both strength and length 5) Of the atoms below, __________ is the most electronegative. A) Br B) O C) Cl D) N E) F 6) Of the following, __________ cannot accommodate more than an octet of electrons. A) P B) O C) S D) Cl E) I -3- CHM 114: Exam #2 7) Which electron configuration represents a violation of Hund’s Rule? A) B) C) D) E) 8) A tin atom has 50 electrons. Electrons in the _____ subshell experience the highest effective nuclear charge. A) 1s B) 3p C) 3d D) 5s E) 5p 9) In ionic compounds, the lattice energy_____ as the magnitude of the ion charges _____ and the radii _____. A) increases, decrease, increase B) increases, increase, increase C) decreases, increase, increase D) increases, increase, decrease E) increases, decrease, decrease 10) Which of the following ionic compounds has the highest lattice energy? A) LiF B) MgO C) CsF D) CsI E) LiI -4- CHM 114: Exam #2 11) For which one of the following reactions is the value of H°rxn equal to Hf° for the product? A) 2 C (s, graphite) + 2 H2 (g)  C2H4 (g) B) N2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 NO (g) C) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (l) D) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (g) E) all of the above 12) Given the data in the table below, H rxn D ° for the reaction 3 2 3 PCl (g) + 3HCl(g)®3Cl (g) + PH (g) is __________ kJ. A) -570.37 B) -385.77 C) 570.37 D) 385.77 E) The f DH° of 2 Cl (g) is needed for the calculation. 13) Given the following reactions (1) 2 2 2NO® N +O H = -180 kJ (2) 2 2 2NO+O ®2NO H = -112 kJ the enthalpy of the reaction of nitrogen with oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide 2 2 2 N + 2O ®2NO is __________ kJ. A) 68 B) -68 C) -292 D) 292 E) -146 14) Of the following transitions in the Bohr hydrogen atom, the __________ transition results in the absorption of the lowest-energy photon. A) n = 1  n = 6 B) n = 6  n = 1 C) n = 6  n = 5 D) n = 3  n = 6 E) n = 1  n = 4 -5- CHM 114: Exam #2 15) Which equation correctly represents the electron affinity of calcium? A) Ca (g)  Ca+ (g) + e- B) Ca (g)  Ca- (g) + e- C) Ca (g) + e-  Ca- (g) D) Ca- (g)  Ca (g) + e- E) Ca+ (g) + e-  Ca (g) 16) Which of the following does not have eight valence electrons? A) Ca+ B) Rb+ C) Xe D) Br− E) All of the above have eight valence electrons. 17) The specific heat of liquid bromine is 0.226 J/g · K. The molar heat capacity (in J/mol-K) of liquid bromine is __________. A) 707 B) 36.1 C) 18.1 D) 9.05 E) 0.226 18) Given the electronegativities below, which covalent single bond is least polar? Element: H C N O F Electronegativity: 2.1 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 A) C-H B) C-F C) O-H D) O-C E) F-H 19) The bond length in an HCl molecule is 1.27 Å and the measured dipole moment is 1.08 D. What is the magnitude (in units of e) of the negative charge on Cl in HCl? (1 debye = 3.34 10 30 coulomb-meters − × ; e=1.6 10 19 coulombs − × ) A) 1.6 10 19 − × B) 0.057 C) 0.18 D) 1 E) 0.22 -6- CHM 114: Exam #2 20) The F-B-F bond angle in the BF3 molecule is approximately __________. A) 90° B) 109.5° C) 120° D) 180° E) 60° 21) Which isoelectronic series is correctly arranged in order of increasing radius? A) K+ < Ca2+ < Ar < Cl- B) Cl- < Ar < K+ < Ca2+ C) Ca2+ < Ar < K+ < Cl- D) Ca2+ < K+ < Ar < Cl- E) Ca2+ < K+ < Cl- < Ar 22) What is the electron configuration for the Fe2+ ion? A) [Ar]4s03d6 B) [Ar]4s23d4 C) [Ar]4s03d8 D) [Ar]4s23d8 E) [Ar]4s63d2 23) The formal charge on carbon in the Lewis structure of the NCS - ion is __________: A) -1 B) +1 C) +2 D) 0 E) +3 -7- CHM 114: Exam #2 24) Using the table of bond dissociation energies, the H for the following gas-phase reaction is __________ kJ. A) 291 B) 2017 C) -57 D) -356 E) -291 25) According to VSEPR theory, if there are six electron domains in the valence shell of an atom, they will be arranged in a(n) __________ geometry. A) octahedral B) linear C) tetrahedral D) trigonal planar E) trigonal bipyramidal -8- CHM 114: Exam #2

CHM114: Exam #2 CHM 114, S2015 Exam #2, Version C 16 March 2015 Instructor: O. Graudejus Points: 100 Print Name Sign Name Student I.D. # 1. You are responsible for the information on this page. Please read it carefully. 2. Code your name and 10 digit affiliate identification number on the separate scantron answer sheet. Use only a #2 pencil 3. If you enter your ASU ID incorrectly on the scantron, a 3 point penalty will be assessed. 4. Do all calculations on the exam pages. Do not make any unnecessary marks on the answer sheet. 5. This exam consists of 25 multiple choice questions worth 4 points each and a periodic table. Make sure you have them all. 6. Choose the best answer to each of the questions and answer it on the computer-graded answer sheet. Read all responses before making a selection. 7. Read the directions carefully for each problem. 8. Avoid even casual glances at other students’ exams. 9. Stop writing and hand in your scantron answer sheet and your test promptly when instructed. LATE EXAMS MAY HAVE POINTS DEDUCTED. 10. You will have 50 minutes to complete the exam. 11. If you leave early, please do so quietly. 12. Work the easiest problems first. 13. A periodic table is attached as the last page to this exam. 14. Answers will be posted online this afternoon. Potentially useful information: K = ºC + 273.15 RH=2.18·10-18 J R=8.314 J·K-1·mol-1 1Å=10-10 m c=3·108 m/s Ephoton=h·n=h·c/l h=6.626·10-34 Js Avogadro’s Number = 6.022 × 1023 particles/mole DH°rxn =  n DHf° (products) –  n DHf° (reactants) ) 1 1 ( 2 2 f i H n n DE = R − \ -2- CHM114: Exam #2 1) Which one of the following is an incorrect orbital notation? A) 2s B) 2p C) 3f D) 3d E) 4s 2) The energy of a photon that has a frequency of 8.21 1015s 1 − × is __________ J. A) 8.08 10 50 − × B) 1.99 10 25 − × C) 5.44 10 18 − × D) 1.24×1049 E) 1.26 10 19 − × 3) The ground state electron configuration of Ga is __________. A) 1s22s23s23p64s23d104p1 B) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d104p1 C) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1 D) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104d1 E) [Ar]4s23d11 4) Of the bonds N–N, N=N, and NN, the N-N bond is __________. A) strongest/shortest B) weakest/longest C) strongest/longest D) weakest/shortest E) intermediate in both strength and length 5) Of the atoms below, __________ is the most electronegative. A) Br B) O C) Cl D) N E) F 6) Of the following, __________ cannot accommodate more than an octet of electrons. A) P B) O C) S D) Cl E) I -3- CHM 114: Exam #2 7) Which electron configuration represents a violation of Hund’s Rule? A) B) C) D) E) 8) A tin atom has 50 electrons. Electrons in the _____ subshell experience the highest effective nuclear charge. A) 1s B) 3p C) 3d D) 5s E) 5p 9) In ionic compounds, the lattice energy_____ as the magnitude of the ion charges _____ and the radii _____. A) increases, decrease, increase B) increases, increase, increase C) decreases, increase, increase D) increases, increase, decrease E) increases, decrease, decrease 10) Which of the following ionic compounds has the highest lattice energy? A) LiF B) MgO C) CsF D) CsI E) LiI -4- CHM 114: Exam #2 11) For which one of the following reactions is the value of H°rxn equal to Hf° for the product? A) 2 C (s, graphite) + 2 H2 (g)  C2H4 (g) B) N2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 NO (g) C) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (l) D) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 H2O (g) E) all of the above 12) Given the data in the table below, H rxn D ° for the reaction 3 2 3 PCl (g) + 3HCl(g)®3Cl (g) + PH (g) is __________ kJ. A) -570.37 B) -385.77 C) 570.37 D) 385.77 E) The f DH° of 2 Cl (g) is needed for the calculation. 13) Given the following reactions (1) 2 2 2NO® N +O H = -180 kJ (2) 2 2 2NO+O ®2NO H = -112 kJ the enthalpy of the reaction of nitrogen with oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide 2 2 2 N + 2O ®2NO is __________ kJ. A) 68 B) -68 C) -292 D) 292 E) -146 14) Of the following transitions in the Bohr hydrogen atom, the __________ transition results in the absorption of the lowest-energy photon. A) n = 1  n = 6 B) n = 6  n = 1 C) n = 6  n = 5 D) n = 3  n = 6 E) n = 1  n = 4 -5- CHM 114: Exam #2 15) Which equation correctly represents the electron affinity of calcium? A) Ca (g)  Ca+ (g) + e- B) Ca (g)  Ca- (g) + e- C) Ca (g) + e-  Ca- (g) D) Ca- (g)  Ca (g) + e- E) Ca+ (g) + e-  Ca (g) 16) Which of the following does not have eight valence electrons? A) Ca+ B) Rb+ C) Xe D) Br− E) All of the above have eight valence electrons. 17) The specific heat of liquid bromine is 0.226 J/g · K. The molar heat capacity (in J/mol-K) of liquid bromine is __________. A) 707 B) 36.1 C) 18.1 D) 9.05 E) 0.226 18) Given the electronegativities below, which covalent single bond is least polar? Element: H C N O F Electronegativity: 2.1 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 A) C-H B) C-F C) O-H D) O-C E) F-H 19) The bond length in an HCl molecule is 1.27 Å and the measured dipole moment is 1.08 D. What is the magnitude (in units of e) of the negative charge on Cl in HCl? (1 debye = 3.34 10 30 coulomb-meters − × ; e=1.6 10 19 coulombs − × ) A) 1.6 10 19 − × B) 0.057 C) 0.18 D) 1 E) 0.22 -6- CHM 114: Exam #2 20) The F-B-F bond angle in the BF3 molecule is approximately __________. A) 90° B) 109.5° C) 120° D) 180° E) 60° 21) Which isoelectronic series is correctly arranged in order of increasing radius? A) K+ < Ca2+ < Ar < Cl- B) Cl- < Ar < K+ < Ca2+ C) Ca2+ < Ar < K+ < Cl- D) Ca2+ < K+ < Ar < Cl- E) Ca2+ < K+ < Cl- < Ar 22) What is the electron configuration for the Fe2+ ion? A) [Ar]4s03d6 B) [Ar]4s23d4 C) [Ar]4s03d8 D) [Ar]4s23d8 E) [Ar]4s63d2 23) The formal charge on carbon in the Lewis structure of the NCS - ion is __________: A) -1 B) +1 C) +2 D) 0 E) +3 -7- CHM 114: Exam #2 24) Using the table of bond dissociation energies, the H for the following gas-phase reaction is __________ kJ. A) 291 B) 2017 C) -57 D) -356 E) -291 25) According to VSEPR theory, if there are six electron domains in the valence shell of an atom, they will be arranged in a(n) __________ geometry. A) octahedral B) linear C) tetrahedral D) trigonal planar E) trigonal bipyramidal -8- CHM 114: Exam #2

Managing the full range of the customer relationship involves two related objectives: (1) providing the organization and all customer-facing employees with a single, complete view of every customer at every touch and across all channels, and (2) providing _________________________. suppliers with a single, complete view of the internal workings of the company distributors with a single, complete view of the company and its extended channels customers with a single, complete view of the company and its extended channels customers, suppliers, and investors with a complete view of the internal workings of the company

Managing the full range of the customer relationship involves two related objectives: (1) providing the organization and all customer-facing employees with a single, complete view of every customer at every touch and across all channels, and (2) providing _________________________. suppliers with a single, complete view of the internal workings of the company distributors with a single, complete view of the company and its extended channels customers with a single, complete view of the company and its extended channels customers, suppliers, and investors with a complete view of the internal workings of the company

customers with a single, complete view of the company and … Read More...
Name___________________________________ Period_____ Investigation: Making Waves PART I: Objectives: • Learn vocabulary describing waves • Calculate the speed of a wave • Understand how amplitude affects the speed of a wave • Understand how frequency and wavelength affect the speed of a wave Open this web site: http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Wave_on_a_String You can click on Run Now! to run the simulation online, or Run Offline to save it to your desktop. It might run faster this way. Start by Wiggling the Wrench. Spend about 5 minutes experimenting with the Tension, Manual/Pulse/Oscillate, Fixed/Loose/No end, and changing the Amplitude, Frequency and Damping. Click on Show Rulers and Timer. Practice moving the rulers around and starting/resetting the timer. Click on the Pause/Play and Step buttons to see how they work. Use these settings: Pulse, Amplitude=50, Pulse Width=35, Damping=0, Tension at High and No End. NOTE that the amplitude is just a relative scale (not centimeters). Send a single pulse down the string. This is called a TRANSVERSE PULSE. Watch the motion of the green dots.  1. As the pulse goes by from left to right, in what direction does the string move? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  2. A definition of TRANSVERSE is “lying across”. Why is TRANSVERSE a good name for the wave you just observed? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Make another pulse, and then PAUSE the wave. Use the vertical ruler to measure the amplitude of the wave in centimeters. This is the distance from the dotted orange line to the crest of the wave. Record the amplitude in Table 1 in the first row. Now, measure the time for a pulse to travel 100 cm. To do this: • Reset the clock to 0:00 and reset the generator • Click Pause/Play—it should say PAUSED on the screen • Click Pulse • Click Pause/Play again to start a timed pulse. Pause again just as the crest (peak) of the pulse touches the window 100 cm away. Record the time for a pulse to travel 100 cm in Table 1. Run 3 time trials, and record in the table. Calculate the average time. Now, measure the amplitude and timing of pulses for two other amplitudes (one smaller than 50, one larger than 50). Do three trials at each amplitude and calculate the average times. Calculate the average wave speed for each of the three amplitudes. See below for a sample calculation. Table 1 Your measured amplitude, cm Time for pulse to travel 100 cm, seconds Average time, seconds Speed=length of string / average time Example of speed calculation: Speed = string length/ average time Speed = 100 cm/2 seconds = 50 cm/second  3. How does the amplitude of a wave affect the speed of a wave? ________________________________________________________________________ Use these settings: Oscillate, Fixed end. Try amplitude=20, frequency=51, damping=0. The result is called a periodic wave. 4. Describe the appearance of the wave you created. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ You should see waves that do not move along the string. You will also see points where the string does not move at all. These waves are called STANDING WAVES. The points where the wave doesn’t move are called NODES. Pause the simulation.  5. Draw the standing wave in the box below, labeling the AMPLITUDE, WAVELENGTH and NODES of a standing wave. Use these settings: Amplitude=20, Frequency=50, Damping=0, Oscillate, No End. Reset the clock. You can also measure the wave frequency. To do this, you should pair up with another student if possible. Watch the piston go up and down to make the wave. One up and down motion represents one wave. Use the clock to measure the time required for 10 complete cycles or waves. You will also need to PAUSE the wave to measure the wavelength of the wave in centimeters (cm). The frequency of the wave is calculated in the following way: Frequency = 10 waves/# seconds for 10 cycles For example, 10 waves/5 seconds = 2 cycles per second, or 2 Hertz. Make several waves by changing the wave frequency—use numbers over 30 on the scale. For each wave, measure the wavelength using the ruler. Now, calculate the frequency. See the example in the first row of Table 2. Record the wavelength and frequency of three waves with different wavelengths. Wavelength (cm) Frequency (cycles/second or Hertz) Speed (cm/s) = Wavelength x frequency 33 cm 10 waves/5.45 sec = 1.8 Hertz 33 cm x 1.8 Hertz = 59.4 cm/second Based on the equation used to calculate the speed of a wave, answer questions 6 and 7.  6. If you increase the wavelength of a wave, how does the speed change? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  7. If you increase the frequency of a wave, how does the speed change? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Part II: Objectives: • Interpret a 2D top view picture of a wave • Identify areas of constructive and destructive interference in 2D • Predict the behavior of water, sound, or light when you have two sources o What will happen in constructive areas o What will happen in destructive areas 1) Open the “Wave Interference” simulation from the PhET website (in Sound & Waves) 2) On the water simulation, what does the crest (peak) of the wave look like in the top view? What does the trough look like? 3) When you add two drips, what changes about the waves’ patterns? 4) What does the wave look like in the area that the two waves constructively interfere? Describe both the top view and what the side view would look like. a. TOP: b. SIDE: 5) What does the wave look like in the area that the two waves destructively interfere? Describe both the top view and what the side view would look like. a. TOP: b. SIDE: 6) Switch to the sound simulation. a. What do you think will happen when you put two speakers next to each other? b. Why do you think this will happen? c. Try it (putting two speakers together) and tell me what happened. 7) Now switch to the light simulation. a. What do you think will happen when you put two light sources next to each other? b. Why do you think this will happen? c. Try it (putting two light sources together) and tell me what happened. d. What happens when you use one light source and two slits? 8) What is similar about all three of these simulations (i.e. water, sound & light)? 9) How do I know that these things are waves and not particles? (Think about what would happen in the two slit experiment if they were particles).

Name___________________________________ Period_____ Investigation: Making Waves PART I: Objectives: • Learn vocabulary describing waves • Calculate the speed of a wave • Understand how amplitude affects the speed of a wave • Understand how frequency and wavelength affect the speed of a wave Open this web site: http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Wave_on_a_String You can click on Run Now! to run the simulation online, or Run Offline to save it to your desktop. It might run faster this way. Start by Wiggling the Wrench. Spend about 5 minutes experimenting with the Tension, Manual/Pulse/Oscillate, Fixed/Loose/No end, and changing the Amplitude, Frequency and Damping. Click on Show Rulers and Timer. Practice moving the rulers around and starting/resetting the timer. Click on the Pause/Play and Step buttons to see how they work. Use these settings: Pulse, Amplitude=50, Pulse Width=35, Damping=0, Tension at High and No End. NOTE that the amplitude is just a relative scale (not centimeters). Send a single pulse down the string. This is called a TRANSVERSE PULSE. Watch the motion of the green dots.  1. As the pulse goes by from left to right, in what direction does the string move? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  2. A definition of TRANSVERSE is “lying across”. Why is TRANSVERSE a good name for the wave you just observed? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Make another pulse, and then PAUSE the wave. Use the vertical ruler to measure the amplitude of the wave in centimeters. This is the distance from the dotted orange line to the crest of the wave. Record the amplitude in Table 1 in the first row. Now, measure the time for a pulse to travel 100 cm. To do this: • Reset the clock to 0:00 and reset the generator • Click Pause/Play—it should say PAUSED on the screen • Click Pulse • Click Pause/Play again to start a timed pulse. Pause again just as the crest (peak) of the pulse touches the window 100 cm away. Record the time for a pulse to travel 100 cm in Table 1. Run 3 time trials, and record in the table. Calculate the average time. Now, measure the amplitude and timing of pulses for two other amplitudes (one smaller than 50, one larger than 50). Do three trials at each amplitude and calculate the average times. Calculate the average wave speed for each of the three amplitudes. See below for a sample calculation. Table 1 Your measured amplitude, cm Time for pulse to travel 100 cm, seconds Average time, seconds Speed=length of string / average time Example of speed calculation: Speed = string length/ average time Speed = 100 cm/2 seconds = 50 cm/second  3. How does the amplitude of a wave affect the speed of a wave? ________________________________________________________________________ Use these settings: Oscillate, Fixed end. Try amplitude=20, frequency=51, damping=0. The result is called a periodic wave. 4. Describe the appearance of the wave you created. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ You should see waves that do not move along the string. You will also see points where the string does not move at all. These waves are called STANDING WAVES. The points where the wave doesn’t move are called NODES. Pause the simulation.  5. Draw the standing wave in the box below, labeling the AMPLITUDE, WAVELENGTH and NODES of a standing wave. Use these settings: Amplitude=20, Frequency=50, Damping=0, Oscillate, No End. Reset the clock. You can also measure the wave frequency. To do this, you should pair up with another student if possible. Watch the piston go up and down to make the wave. One up and down motion represents one wave. Use the clock to measure the time required for 10 complete cycles or waves. You will also need to PAUSE the wave to measure the wavelength of the wave in centimeters (cm). The frequency of the wave is calculated in the following way: Frequency = 10 waves/# seconds for 10 cycles For example, 10 waves/5 seconds = 2 cycles per second, or 2 Hertz. Make several waves by changing the wave frequency—use numbers over 30 on the scale. For each wave, measure the wavelength using the ruler. Now, calculate the frequency. See the example in the first row of Table 2. Record the wavelength and frequency of three waves with different wavelengths. Wavelength (cm) Frequency (cycles/second or Hertz) Speed (cm/s) = Wavelength x frequency 33 cm 10 waves/5.45 sec = 1.8 Hertz 33 cm x 1.8 Hertz = 59.4 cm/second Based on the equation used to calculate the speed of a wave, answer questions 6 and 7.  6. If you increase the wavelength of a wave, how does the speed change? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  7. If you increase the frequency of a wave, how does the speed change? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Part II: Objectives: • Interpret a 2D top view picture of a wave • Identify areas of constructive and destructive interference in 2D • Predict the behavior of water, sound, or light when you have two sources o What will happen in constructive areas o What will happen in destructive areas 1) Open the “Wave Interference” simulation from the PhET website (in Sound & Waves) 2) On the water simulation, what does the crest (peak) of the wave look like in the top view? What does the trough look like? 3) When you add two drips, what changes about the waves’ patterns? 4) What does the wave look like in the area that the two waves constructively interfere? Describe both the top view and what the side view would look like. a. TOP: b. SIDE: 5) What does the wave look like in the area that the two waves destructively interfere? Describe both the top view and what the side view would look like. a. TOP: b. SIDE: 6) Switch to the sound simulation. a. What do you think will happen when you put two speakers next to each other? b. Why do you think this will happen? c. Try it (putting two speakers together) and tell me what happened. 7) Now switch to the light simulation. a. What do you think will happen when you put two light sources next to each other? b. Why do you think this will happen? c. Try it (putting two light sources together) and tell me what happened. d. What happens when you use one light source and two slits? 8) What is similar about all three of these simulations (i.e. water, sound & light)? 9) How do I know that these things are waves and not particles? (Think about what would happen in the two slit experiment if they were particles).

Materials and process selection for a bicycle frame Background The principle components of the bike are familiar and their function needs no explanation. The largest of these is the frame. Frames can be made from a remarkable diversity of materials: CFRP, carbon steel, GFRP, nylon, wood, aluminium, titanium etc… How is it that such a diversity of materials can co-exist in a free market in which competition favours the fittest – sure there must be a single “best” material for the job? The mistake here is to assume that all bikes have the same purpose. The specification of a “shopping” or “uni” bike is very different from that of one for speed or for the mountain, as are the objectives of the purchaser. The Project Explore materials and process selection for bike frames (illustrated below) or for any other component of the bike: forks, handle bars, cranks, wheels, brake or gear cables…. 1) Analyse your chosen component, listing its function, the constraints it must meet and the objectives for the bike – This will require a decision about the type of bike you are designing (shopping (booze cruiser), speed / road / track bike, mountain bike, folding, children’s etc). Remember to include a lower cut-off constraint on fracture toughness (K1C > 15MPa √m is a good approximation to start at) – a brittle bike would be a bad idea! 2) List the requirements as Functions, Constraints, Objectives and Free Variables. 3) Identify the materials indices you will use to rank / select your materials. 4) Identify a promising material for the component. 5) Make a choice of material and then use CES EduPack Joining database to select ways of joining the frame. 6) Present the case study for your choice of material and process as a report. Use the charts from CES EduPack and other sources to explain your reasoning. For the purposes of simplicity it is suggested that you avoid accounting for shape in your selection criteria / indices identification. However, you should still consider the form of your component when considering an appropriate manufacturing process. To make the right choices you will need to source some information on typical service conditions for you selected bike type, these might be mechanical, physical or environmental focussed properties. You will also need to consider the type of conditions experienced by the component e.g. bending, tension, torsion, abrasion etc. Assignments will be assessed on the basis of the quality and clarity of the problem construction, the selection of indices, appropriate use of charts / figures and crucially the analysis and interpretation of the results presented.

Materials and process selection for a bicycle frame Background The principle components of the bike are familiar and their function needs no explanation. The largest of these is the frame. Frames can be made from a remarkable diversity of materials: CFRP, carbon steel, GFRP, nylon, wood, aluminium, titanium etc… How is it that such a diversity of materials can co-exist in a free market in which competition favours the fittest – sure there must be a single “best” material for the job? The mistake here is to assume that all bikes have the same purpose. The specification of a “shopping” or “uni” bike is very different from that of one for speed or for the mountain, as are the objectives of the purchaser. The Project Explore materials and process selection for bike frames (illustrated below) or for any other component of the bike: forks, handle bars, cranks, wheels, brake or gear cables…. 1) Analyse your chosen component, listing its function, the constraints it must meet and the objectives for the bike – This will require a decision about the type of bike you are designing (shopping (booze cruiser), speed / road / track bike, mountain bike, folding, children’s etc). Remember to include a lower cut-off constraint on fracture toughness (K1C > 15MPa √m is a good approximation to start at) – a brittle bike would be a bad idea! 2) List the requirements as Functions, Constraints, Objectives and Free Variables. 3) Identify the materials indices you will use to rank / select your materials. 4) Identify a promising material for the component. 5) Make a choice of material and then use CES EduPack Joining database to select ways of joining the frame. 6) Present the case study for your choice of material and process as a report. Use the charts from CES EduPack and other sources to explain your reasoning. For the purposes of simplicity it is suggested that you avoid accounting for shape in your selection criteria / indices identification. However, you should still consider the form of your component when considering an appropriate manufacturing process. To make the right choices you will need to source some information on typical service conditions for you selected bike type, these might be mechanical, physical or environmental focussed properties. You will also need to consider the type of conditions experienced by the component e.g. bending, tension, torsion, abrasion etc. Assignments will be assessed on the basis of the quality and clarity of the problem construction, the selection of indices, appropriate use of charts / figures and crucially the analysis and interpretation of the results presented.

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Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

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ENGL 1102 1st Essay Assignment Directions: For one of the following topics, write a well-organized, clearly thought through, logically and textually supported, and MLA style/formatted essay. Examples for the type of essay you should be writing are found on pages (38-40), (115-118), and (232-235). Be sure to have a clearly stated, single sentence (not question) thesis and clearly stated topic sentences that reference and through their very words work with the thesis. Your argument must be supported with textual evidence within each support paragraph using MLA parenthetical citations and with proper introductions and incorporation of quotes within your own writing. For examples of all of this, see your textbook. If you have questions, ask them. • Write an essay in which you argue how the narrator of “A Rose for Emily” creates a sense of mystery around Emily Grierson? • Write an essay in which you argue for Emily’s assistant’s purpose or effect in the short story “A Rose for Emily” • Write an essay in which you argue whether the husband (the narrator) of “Cathedrals” is jealous or insecure. • Write an essay characterizing the relationship between the wife of the narrator and Robert in “Cathedrals.” • Write an essay in which you argue that the ending of “The Lottery” should not be a surprise to readers. • Write an essay in which you argue about the mental stability of the narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Does the narrator decline as the story progresses? Is she unstable from the beginning? • Write an essay in which you argue for the reasons of the narrator’s state(s) of mind throughout the story “The Yellow Wallpaper” • Write an essay explaining/describing the relationship between men and women in “A Jury of Her Peers.” • Think of the different ways that the narrator portrays men and women in the story – what does such portrayal imply/convey? • Write an essay thoroughly explaining why Mrs. Wright might have killed Mr. Wright. In other words argue for a motive for her to kill Mr. Wright. • Write an essay arguing for why Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters conceal what they think they know about Mrs. Wright.

ENGL 1102 1st Essay Assignment Directions: For one of the following topics, write a well-organized, clearly thought through, logically and textually supported, and MLA style/formatted essay. Examples for the type of essay you should be writing are found on pages (38-40), (115-118), and (232-235). Be sure to have a clearly stated, single sentence (not question) thesis and clearly stated topic sentences that reference and through their very words work with the thesis. Your argument must be supported with textual evidence within each support paragraph using MLA parenthetical citations and with proper introductions and incorporation of quotes within your own writing. For examples of all of this, see your textbook. If you have questions, ask them. • Write an essay in which you argue how the narrator of “A Rose for Emily” creates a sense of mystery around Emily Grierson? • Write an essay in which you argue for Emily’s assistant’s purpose or effect in the short story “A Rose for Emily” • Write an essay in which you argue whether the husband (the narrator) of “Cathedrals” is jealous or insecure. • Write an essay characterizing the relationship between the wife of the narrator and Robert in “Cathedrals.” • Write an essay in which you argue that the ending of “The Lottery” should not be a surprise to readers. • Write an essay in which you argue about the mental stability of the narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Does the narrator decline as the story progresses? Is she unstable from the beginning? • Write an essay in which you argue for the reasons of the narrator’s state(s) of mind throughout the story “The Yellow Wallpaper” • Write an essay explaining/describing the relationship between men and women in “A Jury of Her Peers.” • Think of the different ways that the narrator portrays men and women in the story – what does such portrayal imply/convey? • Write an essay thoroughly explaining why Mrs. Wright might have killed Mr. Wright. In other words argue for a motive for her to kill Mr. Wright. • Write an essay arguing for why Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters conceal what they think they know about Mrs. Wright.

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Question 10 (1 point) In contrast to Freud’s theory, object relations theorists Question 10 options: focus on internal drives and conflicts. are interested in the intellectual and emotional development of the infant. are interested in an infant’s relationship with his or her parents. do not believe that children develop unconscious representations of significant objects in their environment. ________________________________________ Question 11 (1 point) The psychologists who developed the frustration aggression hypothesis used or adapted each of the following concepts from Freudian theory except one. Which one? Question 11 options: displacement sublimation catharsis reinforcement Question 12 (1 point) Although he changed his mind during his career, which of the following did Freud eventually decide was the cause of human aggression? Question 12 options: a death instinct frustration projection unresolved Oedipal conflicts Question 13 (1 point) Freud wrote about all of the following types of anxiety except one. Which one? Question 13 options: reality anxiety neurotic anxiety moral anxiety performance anxiety Question 14 (1 point) Which of the following is true about neurotic anxiety, as conceived by Freud? Question 14 options: It is experienced when id impulses are close to breaking into consciousness. It prevents the ego from utilizing defense mechanisms. It is created when id impulses violate society’s moral code. People experiencing neurotic anxiety usually are aware of what is making them anxious. Question 15 (1 point) One explanation for why aggression leads to more aggression is that it is reinforced by the cathartic release of tension. Question 15 options: True False ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) A man is said to have one personality trait that dominates his personality. Allport would identify this personality trait as a Question 1 options: 1) common trait. 2) central trait. 3) cardinal trait. 4) secondary trait. Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is true about the trait approach to personality? Question 2 options: 1) Trait researchers generally are not interested in understanding and predicting the behavior of a single individual. 2) It is not easy to make comparisons across people with the trait approach. 3) The trait approach has been responsible for generating a number of useful approaches to psychotherapy. 4) Trait theorists place a greater emphasis on discovering the mechanisms underlying behavior than do theorists from other approaches to personality. Question 3 (1 point) Many researchers fail to produce strong links between personality traits and behavior. Epstein has argued that the reason for this failure is because Question 3 options: 1) researchers don’t perform the correct statistical analysis. 2) researchers don’t measure personality traits correctly. 3) researchers don’t measure behavior correctly. 4) none of the above Question 4 (1 point) Which theorist had a strong influence on Henry Murray’s theorizing about personality? Question 4 options: 1) Gordon Allport 2) Alfred Adler 3) Sigmund Freud 4) Carl Jung Question 5 (1 point) Sometimes test makers include the same test questions more than once on the test. This is done to detect which potential problem? Question 5 options: 1) faking good 2) faking bad 3) carelessness and sabotage 4) social desirability

Question 10 (1 point) In contrast to Freud’s theory, object relations theorists Question 10 options: focus on internal drives and conflicts. are interested in the intellectual and emotional development of the infant. are interested in an infant’s relationship with his or her parents. do not believe that children develop unconscious representations of significant objects in their environment. ________________________________________ Question 11 (1 point) The psychologists who developed the frustration aggression hypothesis used or adapted each of the following concepts from Freudian theory except one. Which one? Question 11 options: displacement sublimation catharsis reinforcement Question 12 (1 point) Although he changed his mind during his career, which of the following did Freud eventually decide was the cause of human aggression? Question 12 options: a death instinct frustration projection unresolved Oedipal conflicts Question 13 (1 point) Freud wrote about all of the following types of anxiety except one. Which one? Question 13 options: reality anxiety neurotic anxiety moral anxiety performance anxiety Question 14 (1 point) Which of the following is true about neurotic anxiety, as conceived by Freud? Question 14 options: It is experienced when id impulses are close to breaking into consciousness. It prevents the ego from utilizing defense mechanisms. It is created when id impulses violate society’s moral code. People experiencing neurotic anxiety usually are aware of what is making them anxious. Question 15 (1 point) One explanation for why aggression leads to more aggression is that it is reinforced by the cathartic release of tension. Question 15 options: True False ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) A man is said to have one personality trait that dominates his personality. Allport would identify this personality trait as a Question 1 options: 1) common trait. 2) central trait. 3) cardinal trait. 4) secondary trait. Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is true about the trait approach to personality? Question 2 options: 1) Trait researchers generally are not interested in understanding and predicting the behavior of a single individual. 2) It is not easy to make comparisons across people with the trait approach. 3) The trait approach has been responsible for generating a number of useful approaches to psychotherapy. 4) Trait theorists place a greater emphasis on discovering the mechanisms underlying behavior than do theorists from other approaches to personality. Question 3 (1 point) Many researchers fail to produce strong links between personality traits and behavior. Epstein has argued that the reason for this failure is because Question 3 options: 1) researchers don’t perform the correct statistical analysis. 2) researchers don’t measure personality traits correctly. 3) researchers don’t measure behavior correctly. 4) none of the above Question 4 (1 point) Which theorist had a strong influence on Henry Murray’s theorizing about personality? Question 4 options: 1) Gordon Allport 2) Alfred Adler 3) Sigmund Freud 4) Carl Jung Question 5 (1 point) Sometimes test makers include the same test questions more than once on the test. This is done to detect which potential problem? Question 5 options: 1) faking good 2) faking bad 3) carelessness and sabotage 4) social desirability

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