You are to choose 2 websites, with different purposes, and review the websites based on the criteria listed below. 1. Starting Point a. Composition Matches Site Purpose b. Target Audience Apparent c. Composition Appropriate for Target Audience 2. Site design a. Consistency within site b. Consistency among pages 3. Visually Pleasing Composition 4. Visual Style in Web Design a. Consistency b. Distinctiveness 5. Focus and Emphasis a. What is emphasized? b. How is emphasis achieved? 6. Consistency a. Real World b. Internal 7. Navigation and Flow a. Home page identifiable throughout b. Location within site apparent c. Navigation consistent; rule-based; appropriate 8. Grouping a. Grouping with White Space b. Grouping with Borders c. Grouping with Backgrounds 9. Response time 10. Links a. Titled b. Incoming c. Outgoing d. Color 11. Detailed content a. Meaningful headings b. Plain language c. Page chunking d. Long blocks of text e. Scrolling f. Use of “within” page links 12. Articles a. Clear headings b. Plain language 13. Presenting Information Simply and Meaningfully a. Legibility b. Readability c. Information in Usable Form d. Visual Lines Clear 14. Legibility of content a. Font color b. Font size c. Font style d. Background color e. Background graphic 15. Documentation

You are to choose 2 websites, with different purposes, and review the websites based on the criteria listed below. 1. Starting Point a. Composition Matches Site Purpose b. Target Audience Apparent c. Composition Appropriate for Target Audience 2. Site design a. Consistency within site b. Consistency among pages 3. Visually Pleasing Composition 4. Visual Style in Web Design a. Consistency b. Distinctiveness 5. Focus and Emphasis a. What is emphasized? b. How is emphasis achieved? 6. Consistency a. Real World b. Internal 7. Navigation and Flow a. Home page identifiable throughout b. Location within site apparent c. Navigation consistent; rule-based; appropriate 8. Grouping a. Grouping with White Space b. Grouping with Borders c. Grouping with Backgrounds 9. Response time 10. Links a. Titled b. Incoming c. Outgoing d. Color 11. Detailed content a. Meaningful headings b. Plain language c. Page chunking d. Long blocks of text e. Scrolling f. Use of “within” page links 12. Articles a. Clear headings b. Plain language 13. Presenting Information Simply and Meaningfully a. Legibility b. Readability c. Information in Usable Form d. Visual Lines Clear 14. Legibility of content a. Font color b. Font size c. Font style d. Background color e. Background graphic 15. Documentation

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/ http://www.usa.gov/ 1.                  Starting Point a.       Composition Matches Site Purpose … Read More...
Quiz Page 1 of 2 Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) Which of the following can cause cervicitis? Question 1 options: Candida Sexually transmitted infections Irritation from a contraceptive All of these choices are correct Question 2 (1 point) There is every indication that cervical cancer may take _____ or more years to develop. Question 2 options: 5 15 2 10 Question 3 (1 point) Cervical cancer is found almost exclusively in women who have been Question 3 options: sexually active underweight celibate overweight Question 4 (1 point) The best predictor for survival of ovarian cancer is Question 4 options: the sexual history of the patient how far the tumor has spread the amount of diagnostic measures taken the attitude (positive or negative) of the patient Question 5 (1 point) The current recommendation for most women, after becoming sexually active or starting at age 21, is to have a Pap smear done Question 5 options: once every 3 years once every year once every 5 years once every 6 months Page 1 of 2 ________________________________________ Quiz Page 2 of 2 Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. Question 6 (1 point) Which of the following is not a fibroid classification? Question 6 options: Submucous Subserous Extramural Intramural Question 7 (1 point) Statistics indicate that _____ of breast cancers are diagnosed when women are between 45 and 64 years of age. Question 7 options: 47% 14% 22% 35% Question 8 (1 point) Ovarian cancers are classified according to their: Question 8 options: Cellular origin Symptoms Genetic predispositions All of these choices are correct Question 9 (1 point) The primary initial symptom of endometrial cancer is Question 9 options: odiferous vaginal discharge abnormal and painless vaginal bleeding painful, often incapacitating, cramps involuntary uterine contractions Question 10 (1 point) Ovarian cancers are considered the worst of gynecological malignancies because Question 10 options: they sometimes develop slowly they are often symptomless until it is too late too little is known about this disease both A and B are correct choices Page 2 of 2 Quiz 8 Quiz Page 2 of 2 Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. Question 6 (1 point) The best predictor for survival of ovarian cancer is Question 6 options: the sexual history of the patient how far the tumor has spread the attitude (positive or negative) of the patient the amount of diagnostic measures taken Question 7 (1 point) Ovarian cancers are classified according to their: Question 7 options: Genetic predispositions Symptoms Cellular origin All of these choices are correct Question 8 (1 point) The primary initial symptom of endometrial cancer is Question 8 options: involuntary uterine contractions painful, often incapacitating, cramps abnormal and painless vaginal bleeding odiferous vaginal discharge Question 9 (1 point) Cervical cancer is found almost exclusively in women who have been Question 9 options: sexually active underweight celibate overweight Question 10 (1 point) Several screening techniques for early detection of ovarian cancer have been developed. As of yet _____ have proven effective. Question 10 options: 50% All None 25% Page 2 of 2 ________________________________________ Quiz Page 1 of 2 Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) The unsubstantiated idea that the uterus was damaged by sports and emotions remained common into the: Question 1 options: 1890s 1950s 1920s 1970s Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following can cause cervicitis? Question 2 options: Candida Sexually transmitted infections Irritation from a contraceptive All of these choices are correct Question 3 (1 point) There is every indication that cervical cancer may take _____ or more years to develop. Question 3 options: 10 5 2 15 Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following is not a fibroid classification? Question 4 options: Intramural Subserous Extramural Submucous Question 5 (1 point) Ovarian cancers are considered the worst of gynecological malignancies because Question 5 options: they sometimes develop slowly they are often symptomless until it is too late too little is known about this disease both A and B are correct choices Page 1 of 2 ________________________________________

Quiz Page 1 of 2 Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) Which of the following can cause cervicitis? Question 1 options: Candida Sexually transmitted infections Irritation from a contraceptive All of these choices are correct Question 2 (1 point) There is every indication that cervical cancer may take _____ or more years to develop. Question 2 options: 5 15 2 10 Question 3 (1 point) Cervical cancer is found almost exclusively in women who have been Question 3 options: sexually active underweight celibate overweight Question 4 (1 point) The best predictor for survival of ovarian cancer is Question 4 options: the sexual history of the patient how far the tumor has spread the amount of diagnostic measures taken the attitude (positive or negative) of the patient Question 5 (1 point) The current recommendation for most women, after becoming sexually active or starting at age 21, is to have a Pap smear done Question 5 options: once every 3 years once every year once every 5 years once every 6 months Page 1 of 2 ________________________________________ Quiz Page 2 of 2 Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. Question 6 (1 point) Which of the following is not a fibroid classification? Question 6 options: Submucous Subserous Extramural Intramural Question 7 (1 point) Statistics indicate that _____ of breast cancers are diagnosed when women are between 45 and 64 years of age. Question 7 options: 47% 14% 22% 35% Question 8 (1 point) Ovarian cancers are classified according to their: Question 8 options: Cellular origin Symptoms Genetic predispositions All of these choices are correct Question 9 (1 point) The primary initial symptom of endometrial cancer is Question 9 options: odiferous vaginal discharge abnormal and painless vaginal bleeding painful, often incapacitating, cramps involuntary uterine contractions Question 10 (1 point) Ovarian cancers are considered the worst of gynecological malignancies because Question 10 options: they sometimes develop slowly they are often symptomless until it is too late too little is known about this disease both A and B are correct choices Page 2 of 2 Quiz 8 Quiz Page 2 of 2 Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. Question 6 (1 point) The best predictor for survival of ovarian cancer is Question 6 options: the sexual history of the patient how far the tumor has spread the attitude (positive or negative) of the patient the amount of diagnostic measures taken Question 7 (1 point) Ovarian cancers are classified according to their: Question 7 options: Genetic predispositions Symptoms Cellular origin All of these choices are correct Question 8 (1 point) The primary initial symptom of endometrial cancer is Question 8 options: involuntary uterine contractions painful, often incapacitating, cramps abnormal and painless vaginal bleeding odiferous vaginal discharge Question 9 (1 point) Cervical cancer is found almost exclusively in women who have been Question 9 options: sexually active underweight celibate overweight Question 10 (1 point) Several screening techniques for early detection of ovarian cancer have been developed. As of yet _____ have proven effective. Question 10 options: 50% All None 25% Page 2 of 2 ________________________________________ Quiz Page 1 of 2 Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. ________________________________________ Question 1 (1 point) The unsubstantiated idea that the uterus was damaged by sports and emotions remained common into the: Question 1 options: 1890s 1950s 1920s 1970s Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following can cause cervicitis? Question 2 options: Candida Sexually transmitted infections Irritation from a contraceptive All of these choices are correct Question 3 (1 point) There is every indication that cervical cancer may take _____ or more years to develop. Question 3 options: 10 5 2 15 Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following is not a fibroid classification? Question 4 options: Intramural Subserous Extramural Submucous Question 5 (1 point) Ovarian cancers are considered the worst of gynecological malignancies because Question 5 options: they sometimes develop slowly they are often symptomless until it is too late too little is known about this disease both A and B are correct choices Page 1 of 2 ________________________________________

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Chapter 13 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 16, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy A Matter of Some Gravity Learning Goal: To understand Newton’s law of gravitation and the distinction between inertial and gravitational masses. In this problem, you will practice using Newton’s law of gravitation. According to that law, the magnitude of the gravitational force between two small particles of masses and , separated by a distance , is given by , where is the universal gravitational constant, whose numerical value (in SI units) is . This formula applies not only to small particles, but also to spherical objects. In fact, the gravitational force between two uniform spheres is the same as if we concentrated all the mass of each sphere at its center. Thus, by modeling the Earth and the Moon as uniform spheres, you can use the particle approximation when calculating the force of gravity between them. Be careful in using Newton’s law to choose the correct value for . To calculate the force of gravitational attraction between two uniform spheres, the distance in the equation for Newton’s law of gravitation is the distance between the centers of the spheres. For instance, if a small object such as an elephant is located on the surface of the Earth, the radius of the Earth would be used in the equation. Note that the force of gravity acting on an object located near the surface of a planet is often called weight. Also note that in situations involving satellites, you are often given the altitude of the satellite, that is, the distance from the satellite to the surface of the planet; this is not the distance to be used in the formula for the law of gravitation. There is a potentially confusing issue involving mass. Mass is defined as a measure of an object’s inertia, that is, its ability to resist acceleration. Newton’s second law demonstrates the relationship between mass, acceleration, and the net force acting on an object: . We can now refer to this measure of inertia more precisely as the inertial mass. On the other hand, the masses of the particles that appear in the expression for the law of gravity seem to have nothing to do with inertia: Rather, they serve as a measure of the strength of gravitational interactions. It would be reasonable to call such a property gravitational mass. Does this mean that every object has two different masses? Generally speaking, yes. However, the good news is that according to the latest, highly precise, measurements, the inertial and the gravitational mass of an object are, in fact, equal to each other; it is an established consensus among physicists that there is only one mass after all, which is a measure of both the object’s inertia and its ability to engage in gravitational interactions. Note that this consensus, like everything else in science, is open to possible amendments in the future. In this problem, you will answer several questions that require the use of Newton’s law of gravitation. Part A Two particles are separated by a certain distance. The force of gravitational interaction between them is . Now the separation between the particles is tripled. Find the new force of gravitational Fg m1 m2 r Fg = G m1m2 r2 G 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg2 r r rEarth F  = m net a F0 interaction . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: Part B A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . Then the satellite moves to a different orbit, so that its altitude is tripled. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . Express your answer in terms of . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . Then the satellite is brought back to the surface of the planet. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: F1 F0 F1 = F0 F2 F0 F2 = F0 F4 F0 Typesetting math: 81% Part D Two satellites revolve around the Earth. Satellite A has mass and has an orbit of radius . Satellite B has mass and an orbit of unknown radius . The forces of gravitational attraction between each satellite and the Earth is the same. Find . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: Part E An adult elephant has a mass of about 5.0 tons. An adult elephant shrew has a mass of about 50 grams. How far from the center of the Earth should an elephant be placed so that its weight equals that of the elephant shrew on the surface of the Earth? The radius of the Earth is 6400 . ( .) Express your answer in kilometers. ANSWER: The table below gives the masses of the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. Name Mass (kg) Earth Moon Sun F4 = m r 6m rb rb r rb = r km 1 ton = 103 kg r = km 5.97 × 1024 7.35 × 1022 1.99 × 1030 Typesetting math: 81% The average distance between the Earth and the Moon is . The average distance between the Earth and the Sun is . Use this information to answer the following questions. Part F Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the new moon (when the moon is located directly between the Earth and the Sun). Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part G Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the full moon (when the Earth is located directly between the moon and the sun). Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. ANSWER: ± Understanding Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Learning Goal: To understand Newton’s law of universal gravitation and be able to apply it in two-object situations and (collinear) three-object situations; to distinguish between the use of and . 3.84 × 108 m 1.50 × 1011 m Fnet Fnet = N Fnet Fnet = N Typesetting math: 81% G g In the late 1600s, Isaac Newton proposed a rule to quantify the attractive force known as gravity between objects that have mass, such as those shown in the figure. Newton’s law of universal gravitation describes the magnitude of the attractive gravitational force between two objects with masses and as , where is the distance between the centers of the two objects and is the gravitational constant. The gravitational force is attractive, so in the figure it pulls to the right on (toward ) and toward the left on (toward ). The gravitational force acting on is equal in size to, but exactly opposite in direction from, the gravitational force acting on , as required by Newton’s third law. The magnitude of both forces is calculated with the equation given above. The gravitational constant has the value and should not be confused with the magnitude of the gravitational free-fall acceleration constant, denoted by , which equals 9.80 near the surface of the earth. The size of in SI units is tiny. This means that gravitational forces are sizeable only in the vicinity of very massive objects, such as the earth. You are in fact gravitationally attracted toward all the objects around you, such as the computer you are using, but the size of that force is too small to be noticed without extremely sensitive equipment. Consider the earth following its nearly circular orbit (dashed curve) about the sun. The earth has mass and the sun has mass . They are separated, center to center, by . Part A What is the size of the gravitational force acting on the earth due to the sun? Express your answer in newtons. F  g m1 m2 Fg = G( ) m1m2 r2 r G m1 m2 m2 m1 m1 m2 G G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2/kg2 g m/s2 G mearth = 5.98 × 1024 kg msun = 1.99 × 1030 kg r = 93 million miles = 150 million km Typesetting math: 81% You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F N Typesetting math: 81% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Understanding Mass and Weight Learning Goal: To understand the distinction between mass and weight and to be able to calculate the weight of an object from its mass and Newton’s law of gravitation. The concepts of mass and weight are often confused. In fact, in everyday conversations, the word “weight” often replaces “mass,” as in “My weight is seventy-five kilograms” or “I need to lose some weight.” Of course, mass and weight are related; however, they are also very different. Mass, as you recall, is a measure of an object’s inertia (ability to resist acceleration). Newton’s 2nd law demonstrates the relationship among an object’s mass, its acceleration, and the net force acting on it: . Mass is an intrinsic property of an object and is independent of the object’s location. Weight, in contrast, is defined as the force due to gravity acting on the object. That force depends on the strength of the gravitational field of the planet: , where is the weight of an object, is the mass of that object, and is the local acceleration due to gravity (in other words, the strength of the gravitational field at the location of the object). Weight, unlike mass, is not an intrinsic property of the object; it is determined by both the object and its location. Part A Which of the following quantities represent mass? Check all that apply. ANSWER: Fnet = ma w = mg w m g 12.0 lbs 0.34 g 120 kg 1600 kN 0.34 m 411 cm 899 MN Typesetting math: 81% Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Using the universal law of gravity, we can find the weight of an object feeling the gravitational pull of a nearby planet. We can write an expression , where is the weight of the object, is the gravitational constant, is the mass of that object, is mass of the planet, and is the distance from the center of the planet to the object. If the object is on the surface of the planet, is simply the radius of the planet. Part C The gravitational field on the surface of the earth is stronger than that on the surface of the moon. If a rock is transported from the moon to the earth, which properties of the rock change? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E If acceleration due to gravity on the earth is , which formula gives the acceleration due to gravity on Loput? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: w = GmM/r2 w G m M r r mass only weight only both mass and weight neither mass nor weight g Typesetting math: 81% Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± Weight on a Neutron Star Neutron stars, such as the one at the center of the Crab Nebula, have about the same mass as our sun but a much smaller diameter. g 1.7 5.6 g 1.72 5.6 g 1.72 5.62 g 5.6 1.7 g 5.62 1.72 g 5.6 1.72 Typesetting math: 81% Part A If you weigh 655 on the earth, what would be your weight on the surface of a neutron star that has the same mass as our sun and a diameter of 19.0 ? Take the mass of the sun to be = 1.99×1030 , the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , and the acceleration due to gravity at the earth’s surface to be = 9.810 . Express your weight in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: ± Escape Velocity Learning Goal: To introduce you to the concept of escape velocity for a rocket. The escape velocity is defined to be the minimum speed with which an object of mass must move to escape from the gravitational attraction of a much larger body, such as a planet of total mass . The escape velocity is a function of the distance of the object from the center of the planet , but unless otherwise specified this distance is taken to be the radius of the planet because it addresses the question “How fast does my rocket have to go to escape from the surface of the planet?” Part A The key to making a concise mathematical definition of escape velocity is to consider the energy. If an object is launched at its escape velocity, what is the total mechanical energy of the object at a very large (i.e., infinite) distance from the planet? Follow the usual convention and take the gravitational potential energy to be zero at very large distances. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: N km ms kg G N m2/kg2 g m/s2 wstar wstar = N m M R Etotal Typesetting math: 81% Consider the motion of an object between a point close to the planet and a point very very far from the planet. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part B Angular momentum about the center of the planet is conserved. ANSWER: Part C Total mechanical energy is conserved. ANSWER: Part D Kinetic energy is conserved. ANSWER: Etotal = true false true false Typesetting math: 81% Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). A Satellite in a Circular Orbit Consider a satellite of mass that orbits a planet of mass in a circle a distance from the center of the planet. The satellite’s mass is negligible compared with that of the planet. Indicate whether each of the statements in this problem is true or false. Part A The information given is sufficient to uniquely specify the speed, potential energy, and angular momentum of the satellite. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: true false m1 m2 r true false Typesetting math: 81% Part B The total mechanical energy of the satellite is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C The linear momentum vector of the satellite is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D The angular momentum of the satellite about the center of the planet is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: true false true false Typesetting math: 81% Part E The equations that express the conservation laws of total mechanical energy and linear momentum are sufficient to solve for the speed necessary to maintain a circular orbit at without using . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: At the Galaxy’s Core Astronomers have observed a small, massive object at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. A ring of material orbits this massive object; the ring has a diameter of about 15 light years and an orbital speed of about 200 . Part A Determine the mass of the massive object at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Take the distance of one light year to be . Express your answer in kilograms. You did not open hints for this part. true false R F = ma true false km/s M 9.461 × 1015 m Typesetting math: 81% ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Properties of Circular Orbits Learning Goal: To teach you how to find the parameters characterizing an object in a circular orbit around a much heavier body like the earth. M = kg Typesetting math: 81% The motivation for Isaac Newton to discover his laws of motion was to explain the properties of planetary orbits that were observed by Tycho Brahe and analyzed by Johannes Kepler. A good starting point for understanding this (as well as the speed of the space shuttle and the height of geostationary satellites) is the simplest orbit–a circular one. This problem concerns the properties of circular orbits for a satellite orbiting a planet of mass . For all parts of this problem, where appropriate, use for the universal gravitational constant. Part A Find the orbital speed for a satellite in a circular orbit of radius . Express the orbital speed in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find the kinetic energy of a satellite with mass in a circular orbit with radius . Express your answer in terms of \texttip{m}{m}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{G}{G}, and \texttip{R}{R}. ANSWER: Part C M G v R G M R v = K m R \texttip{K}{K} = Typesetting math: 81% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D Find the orbital period \texttip{T}{T}. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{G}{G}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{R}{R}, and \texttip{\pi }{pi}. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F Find \texttip{L}{L}, the magnitude of the angular momentum of the satellite with respect to the center of the planet. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{m}{m}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{G}{G}, and \texttip{R}{R}. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: \texttip{T}{T} = Typesetting math: 81% Part G The quantities \texttip{v}{v}, \texttip{K}{K}, \texttip{U}{U}, and \texttip{L}{L} all represent physical quantities characterizing the orbit that depend on radius \texttip{R}{R}. Indicate the exponent (power) of the radial dependence of the absolute value of each. Express your answer as a comma-separated list of exponents corresponding to \texttip{v}{v}, \texttip{K}{K}, \texttip{U}{U}, and \texttip{L}{L}, in that order. For example, -1,-1/2,-0.5,-3/2 would mean v \propto R^{-1}, K \propto R^{-1/2}, and so forth. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. \texttip{L}{L} = Typesetting math: 81%

Chapter 13 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 16, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy A Matter of Some Gravity Learning Goal: To understand Newton’s law of gravitation and the distinction between inertial and gravitational masses. In this problem, you will practice using Newton’s law of gravitation. According to that law, the magnitude of the gravitational force between two small particles of masses and , separated by a distance , is given by , where is the universal gravitational constant, whose numerical value (in SI units) is . This formula applies not only to small particles, but also to spherical objects. In fact, the gravitational force between two uniform spheres is the same as if we concentrated all the mass of each sphere at its center. Thus, by modeling the Earth and the Moon as uniform spheres, you can use the particle approximation when calculating the force of gravity between them. Be careful in using Newton’s law to choose the correct value for . To calculate the force of gravitational attraction between two uniform spheres, the distance in the equation for Newton’s law of gravitation is the distance between the centers of the spheres. For instance, if a small object such as an elephant is located on the surface of the Earth, the radius of the Earth would be used in the equation. Note that the force of gravity acting on an object located near the surface of a planet is often called weight. Also note that in situations involving satellites, you are often given the altitude of the satellite, that is, the distance from the satellite to the surface of the planet; this is not the distance to be used in the formula for the law of gravitation. There is a potentially confusing issue involving mass. Mass is defined as a measure of an object’s inertia, that is, its ability to resist acceleration. Newton’s second law demonstrates the relationship between mass, acceleration, and the net force acting on an object: . We can now refer to this measure of inertia more precisely as the inertial mass. On the other hand, the masses of the particles that appear in the expression for the law of gravity seem to have nothing to do with inertia: Rather, they serve as a measure of the strength of gravitational interactions. It would be reasonable to call such a property gravitational mass. Does this mean that every object has two different masses? Generally speaking, yes. However, the good news is that according to the latest, highly precise, measurements, the inertial and the gravitational mass of an object are, in fact, equal to each other; it is an established consensus among physicists that there is only one mass after all, which is a measure of both the object’s inertia and its ability to engage in gravitational interactions. Note that this consensus, like everything else in science, is open to possible amendments in the future. In this problem, you will answer several questions that require the use of Newton’s law of gravitation. Part A Two particles are separated by a certain distance. The force of gravitational interaction between them is . Now the separation between the particles is tripled. Find the new force of gravitational Fg m1 m2 r Fg = G m1m2 r2 G 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg2 r r rEarth F  = m net a F0 interaction . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: Part B A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . Then the satellite moves to a different orbit, so that its altitude is tripled. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . Express your answer in terms of . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . Then the satellite is brought back to the surface of the planet. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: F1 F0 F1 = F0 F2 F0 F2 = F0 F4 F0 Typesetting math: 81% Part D Two satellites revolve around the Earth. Satellite A has mass and has an orbit of radius . Satellite B has mass and an orbit of unknown radius . The forces of gravitational attraction between each satellite and the Earth is the same. Find . Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: Part E An adult elephant has a mass of about 5.0 tons. An adult elephant shrew has a mass of about 50 grams. How far from the center of the Earth should an elephant be placed so that its weight equals that of the elephant shrew on the surface of the Earth? The radius of the Earth is 6400 . ( .) Express your answer in kilometers. ANSWER: The table below gives the masses of the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. Name Mass (kg) Earth Moon Sun F4 = m r 6m rb rb r rb = r km 1 ton = 103 kg r = km 5.97 × 1024 7.35 × 1022 1.99 × 1030 Typesetting math: 81% The average distance between the Earth and the Moon is . The average distance between the Earth and the Sun is . Use this information to answer the following questions. Part F Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the new moon (when the moon is located directly between the Earth and the Sun). Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part G Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the full moon (when the Earth is located directly between the moon and the sun). Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. ANSWER: ± Understanding Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Learning Goal: To understand Newton’s law of universal gravitation and be able to apply it in two-object situations and (collinear) three-object situations; to distinguish between the use of and . 3.84 × 108 m 1.50 × 1011 m Fnet Fnet = N Fnet Fnet = N Typesetting math: 81% G g In the late 1600s, Isaac Newton proposed a rule to quantify the attractive force known as gravity between objects that have mass, such as those shown in the figure. Newton’s law of universal gravitation describes the magnitude of the attractive gravitational force between two objects with masses and as , where is the distance between the centers of the two objects and is the gravitational constant. The gravitational force is attractive, so in the figure it pulls to the right on (toward ) and toward the left on (toward ). The gravitational force acting on is equal in size to, but exactly opposite in direction from, the gravitational force acting on , as required by Newton’s third law. The magnitude of both forces is calculated with the equation given above. The gravitational constant has the value and should not be confused with the magnitude of the gravitational free-fall acceleration constant, denoted by , which equals 9.80 near the surface of the earth. The size of in SI units is tiny. This means that gravitational forces are sizeable only in the vicinity of very massive objects, such as the earth. You are in fact gravitationally attracted toward all the objects around you, such as the computer you are using, but the size of that force is too small to be noticed without extremely sensitive equipment. Consider the earth following its nearly circular orbit (dashed curve) about the sun. The earth has mass and the sun has mass . They are separated, center to center, by . Part A What is the size of the gravitational force acting on the earth due to the sun? Express your answer in newtons. F  g m1 m2 Fg = G( ) m1m2 r2 r G m1 m2 m2 m1 m1 m2 G G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2/kg2 g m/s2 G mearth = 5.98 × 1024 kg msun = 1.99 × 1030 kg r = 93 million miles = 150 million km Typesetting math: 81% You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F N Typesetting math: 81% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Understanding Mass and Weight Learning Goal: To understand the distinction between mass and weight and to be able to calculate the weight of an object from its mass and Newton’s law of gravitation. The concepts of mass and weight are often confused. In fact, in everyday conversations, the word “weight” often replaces “mass,” as in “My weight is seventy-five kilograms” or “I need to lose some weight.” Of course, mass and weight are related; however, they are also very different. Mass, as you recall, is a measure of an object’s inertia (ability to resist acceleration). Newton’s 2nd law demonstrates the relationship among an object’s mass, its acceleration, and the net force acting on it: . Mass is an intrinsic property of an object and is independent of the object’s location. Weight, in contrast, is defined as the force due to gravity acting on the object. That force depends on the strength of the gravitational field of the planet: , where is the weight of an object, is the mass of that object, and is the local acceleration due to gravity (in other words, the strength of the gravitational field at the location of the object). Weight, unlike mass, is not an intrinsic property of the object; it is determined by both the object and its location. Part A Which of the following quantities represent mass? Check all that apply. ANSWER: Fnet = ma w = mg w m g 12.0 lbs 0.34 g 120 kg 1600 kN 0.34 m 411 cm 899 MN Typesetting math: 81% Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Using the universal law of gravity, we can find the weight of an object feeling the gravitational pull of a nearby planet. We can write an expression , where is the weight of the object, is the gravitational constant, is the mass of that object, is mass of the planet, and is the distance from the center of the planet to the object. If the object is on the surface of the planet, is simply the radius of the planet. Part C The gravitational field on the surface of the earth is stronger than that on the surface of the moon. If a rock is transported from the moon to the earth, which properties of the rock change? ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E If acceleration due to gravity on the earth is , which formula gives the acceleration due to gravity on Loput? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: w = GmM/r2 w G m M r r mass only weight only both mass and weight neither mass nor weight g Typesetting math: 81% Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± Weight on a Neutron Star Neutron stars, such as the one at the center of the Crab Nebula, have about the same mass as our sun but a much smaller diameter. g 1.7 5.6 g 1.72 5.6 g 1.72 5.62 g 5.6 1.7 g 5.62 1.72 g 5.6 1.72 Typesetting math: 81% Part A If you weigh 655 on the earth, what would be your weight on the surface of a neutron star that has the same mass as our sun and a diameter of 19.0 ? Take the mass of the sun to be = 1.99×1030 , the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , and the acceleration due to gravity at the earth’s surface to be = 9.810 . Express your weight in newtons. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: ± Escape Velocity Learning Goal: To introduce you to the concept of escape velocity for a rocket. The escape velocity is defined to be the minimum speed with which an object of mass must move to escape from the gravitational attraction of a much larger body, such as a planet of total mass . The escape velocity is a function of the distance of the object from the center of the planet , but unless otherwise specified this distance is taken to be the radius of the planet because it addresses the question “How fast does my rocket have to go to escape from the surface of the planet?” Part A The key to making a concise mathematical definition of escape velocity is to consider the energy. If an object is launched at its escape velocity, what is the total mechanical energy of the object at a very large (i.e., infinite) distance from the planet? Follow the usual convention and take the gravitational potential energy to be zero at very large distances. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: N km ms kg G N m2/kg2 g m/s2 wstar wstar = N m M R Etotal Typesetting math: 81% Consider the motion of an object between a point close to the planet and a point very very far from the planet. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part B Angular momentum about the center of the planet is conserved. ANSWER: Part C Total mechanical energy is conserved. ANSWER: Part D Kinetic energy is conserved. ANSWER: Etotal = true false true false Typesetting math: 81% Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). A Satellite in a Circular Orbit Consider a satellite of mass that orbits a planet of mass in a circle a distance from the center of the planet. The satellite’s mass is negligible compared with that of the planet. Indicate whether each of the statements in this problem is true or false. Part A The information given is sufficient to uniquely specify the speed, potential energy, and angular momentum of the satellite. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: true false m1 m2 r true false Typesetting math: 81% Part B The total mechanical energy of the satellite is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C The linear momentum vector of the satellite is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D The angular momentum of the satellite about the center of the planet is conserved. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: true false true false Typesetting math: 81% Part E The equations that express the conservation laws of total mechanical energy and linear momentum are sufficient to solve for the speed necessary to maintain a circular orbit at without using . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: At the Galaxy’s Core Astronomers have observed a small, massive object at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. A ring of material orbits this massive object; the ring has a diameter of about 15 light years and an orbital speed of about 200 . Part A Determine the mass of the massive object at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Take the distance of one light year to be . Express your answer in kilograms. You did not open hints for this part. true false R F = ma true false km/s M 9.461 × 1015 m Typesetting math: 81% ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Properties of Circular Orbits Learning Goal: To teach you how to find the parameters characterizing an object in a circular orbit around a much heavier body like the earth. M = kg Typesetting math: 81% The motivation for Isaac Newton to discover his laws of motion was to explain the properties of planetary orbits that were observed by Tycho Brahe and analyzed by Johannes Kepler. A good starting point for understanding this (as well as the speed of the space shuttle and the height of geostationary satellites) is the simplest orbit–a circular one. This problem concerns the properties of circular orbits for a satellite orbiting a planet of mass . For all parts of this problem, where appropriate, use for the universal gravitational constant. Part A Find the orbital speed for a satellite in a circular orbit of radius . Express the orbital speed in terms of , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find the kinetic energy of a satellite with mass in a circular orbit with radius . Express your answer in terms of \texttip{m}{m}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{G}{G}, and \texttip{R}{R}. ANSWER: Part C M G v R G M R v = K m R \texttip{K}{K} = Typesetting math: 81% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D Find the orbital period \texttip{T}{T}. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{G}{G}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{R}{R}, and \texttip{\pi }{pi}. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F Find \texttip{L}{L}, the magnitude of the angular momentum of the satellite with respect to the center of the planet. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{m}{m}, \texttip{M}{M}, \texttip{G}{G}, and \texttip{R}{R}. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: \texttip{T}{T} = Typesetting math: 81% Part G The quantities \texttip{v}{v}, \texttip{K}{K}, \texttip{U}{U}, and \texttip{L}{L} all represent physical quantities characterizing the orbit that depend on radius \texttip{R}{R}. Indicate the exponent (power) of the radial dependence of the absolute value of each. Express your answer as a comma-separated list of exponents corresponding to \texttip{v}{v}, \texttip{K}{K}, \texttip{U}{U}, and \texttip{L}{L}, in that order. For example, -1,-1/2,-0.5,-3/2 would mean v \propto R^{-1}, K \propto R^{-1/2}, and so forth. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. \texttip{L}{L} = Typesetting math: 81%

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1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

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Assignment 10 Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 18, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 12.3 Part A The figure shows three rotating disks, all of equal mass. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, their rotational kinetic energies to . Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER: Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 1 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Incorrect; Try Again Conceptual Question 12.6 You have two steel solid spheres. Sphere 2 has twice the radius of sphere 1. Part A By what factor does the moment of inertia of sphere 2 exceed the moment of inertia of sphere 1? ANSWER: Correct Problem 12.2 A high-speed drill reaches 2500 in 0.59 . Part A What is the drill’s angular acceleration? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B Through how many revolutions does it turn during this first 0.59 ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Constant Angular Acceleration in the Kitchen = 32 = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 2 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Dario, a prep cook at an Italian restaurant, spins a salad spinner and observes that it rotates 20.0 times in 5.00 seconds and then stops spinning it. The salad spinner rotates 6.00 more times before it comes to rest. Assume that the spinner slows down with constant angular acceleration. Part A What is the angular acceleration of the salad spinner as it slows down? Express your answer numerically in degrees per second per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± A Spinning Electric Fan An electric fan is turned off, and its angular velocity decreases uniformly from 540 to 250 in a time interval of length 4.40 . Part A Find the angular acceleration in revolutions per second per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find the number of revolutions made by the fan blades during the time that they are slowing down in Part A. = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 3 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C How many more seconds are required for the fan to come to rest if the angular acceleration remains constant at the value calculated in Part A? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Problem 12.8 A 100 ball and a 230 ball are connected by a 34- -long, massless, rigid rod. The balls rotate about their center of mass at 130 . Part A What is the speed of the 100 ball? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.10 A thin, 60.0 disk with a diameter of 9.00 rotates about an axis through its center with 0.200 of kinetic energy. Part A What is the speed of a point on the rim? = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 4 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.12 A drum major twirls a 95- -long, 470 baton about its center of mass at 150 . Part A What is the baton’s rotational kinetic energy? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Net Torque on a Pulley The figure below shows two blocks suspended by a cord over a pulley. The mass of block B is twice the mass of block A, while the mass of the pulley is equal to the mass of block A. The blocks are let free to move and the cord moves on the pulley without slipping or stretching. There is no friction in the pulley axle, and the cord’s weight can be ignored. Part A Which of the following statements correctly describes the system shown in the figure? Check all that apply. = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 5 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Problem 12.18 Part A In the figure , what is the magnitude of net torque about the axle? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B What is the direction of net torque about the axle? ANSWER: The acceleration of the blocks is zero. The net torque on the pulley is zero. The angular acceleration of the pulley is nonzero. = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 6 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Problem 12.22 An athlete at the gym holds a 3.5 steel ball in his hand. His arm is 78 long and has a mass of 3.6 . Assume the center of mass of the arm is at the geometrical center of the arm. Part A What is the magnitude of the torque about his shoulder if he holds his arm straight out to his side, parallel to the floor? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B What is the magnitude of the torque about his shoulder if he holds his arm straight, but below horizontal? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Parallel Axis Theorem The parallel axis theorem relates , the moment of inertia of an object about an axis passing through its center of mass, to , the moment of inertia of the same object about a parallel axis passing through point p. The mathematical statement of the theorem is , where is the perpendicular distance from the center of mass to the axis that passes through point p, and is the mass of the object. Part A Suppose a uniform slender rod has length and mass . The moment of inertia of the rod about about an axis that is perpendicular to the rod and that passes through its center of mass is given by . Find , the moment of inertia of the rod with respect to a parallel axis through one end of the rod. Express in terms of and . Use fractions rather than decimal numbers in your answer. Clockwise Counterclockwise = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 7 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Now consider a cube of mass with edges of length . The moment of inertia of the cube about an axis through its center of mass and perpendicular to one of its faces is given by . Find , the moment of inertia about an axis p through one of the edges of the cube Express in terms of and . Use fractions rather than decimal numbers in your answer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Problem 12.26 Starting from rest, a 12- -diameter compact disk takes 2.9 to reach its operating angular velocity of 2000 . Assume that the angular acceleration is constant. The disk’s moment of inertia is . Part A How much torque is applied to the disk? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 8 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM ANSWER: Part B How many revolutions does it make before reaching full speed? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Problem 12.23 An object’s moment of inertia is 2.20 . Its angular velocity is increasing at the rate of 3.70 . Part A What is the total torque on the object? ANSWER: Problem 12.31 A 5.1 cat and a 2.5 bowl of tuna fish are at opposite ends of the 4.0- -long seesaw. = = rev Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 9 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A How far to the left of the pivot must a 3.8 cat stand to keep the seesaw balanced? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Static Equilibrium of the Arm You are able to hold out your arm in an outstretched horizontal position because of the action of the deltoid muscle. Assume the humerus bone has a mass , length and its center of mass is a distance from the scapula. (For this problem ignore the rest of the arm.) The deltoid muscle attaches to the humerus a distance from the scapula. The deltoid muscle makes an angle of with the horizontal, as shown. Use throughout the problem. Part A Find the tension in the deltoid muscle. Express the tension in newtons, to the nearest integer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 10 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part B Using the conditions for static equilibrium, find the magnitude of the vertical component of the force exerted by the scapula on the humerus (where the humerus attaches to the rest of the body). Express your answer in newtons, to the nearest integer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Now find the magnitude of the horizontal component of the force exerted by the scapula on the humerus. Express your answer in newtons, to the nearest integer. ANSWER: ± Moments around a Rod A rod is bent into an L shape and attached at one point to a pivot. The rod sits on a frictionless table and the diagram is a view from above. This means that gravity can be ignored for this problem. There are three forces that are applied to the rod at different points and angles: , , and . Note that the dimensions of the bent rod are in centimeters in the figure, although the answers are requested in SI units (kilograms, meters, seconds). = N = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 11 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A If and , what does the magnitude of have to be for there to be rotational equilibrium? Answer numerically in newtons to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B If the L-shaped rod has a moment of inertia , , , and again , how long a time would it take for the object to move through ( /4 radians)? Assume that as the object starts to move, each force moves with the object so as to retain its initial angle relative to the object. Express the time in seconds to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Now consider the situation in which and , but now a force with nonzero magnitude is acting on the rod. What does have to be to obtain equilibrium? Give a numerical answer, without trigonometric functions, in newtons, to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: = N = s = N Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 12 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Problem 12.32 A car tire is 55.0 in diameter. The car is traveling at a speed of 24.0 . Part A What is the tire’s rotation frequency, in rpm? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B What is the speed of a point at the top edge of the tire? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part C What is the speed of a point at the bottom edge of the tire? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.33 A 460 , 8.00-cm-diameter solid cylinder rolls across the floor at 1.30 . Part A What is the can’s kinetic energy? Express your answer with the appropriate units. Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 13 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM ANSWER: Problem 12.45 Part A What is the magnitude of the angular momentum of the 780 rotating bar in the figure ? ANSWER: Part B What is the direction of the angular momentum of the bar ? ANSWER: Problem 12.46 into the page out of the page Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 14 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A What is the magnitude of the angular momentum of the 2.20 , 4.60-cm-diameter rotating disk in the figure ? ANSWER: Part B What is its direction? ANSWER: Problem 12.60 A 3.0- -long ladder, as shown in the following figure, leans against a frictionless wall. The coefficient of static friction between the ladder and the floor is 0.46. x direction -x direction y direction -y direction z direction -z direction Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 15 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A What is the minimum angle the ladder can make with the floor without slipping? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.61 The 3.0- -long, 90 rigid beam in the following figure is supported at each end. An 70 student stands 2.0 from support 1. Part A How much upward force does the support 1 exert on the beam? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 16 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part B How much upward force does the support 2 exert on the beam? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Enhanced EOC: Problem 12.63 A 44 , 5.5- -long beam is supported, but not attached to, the two posts in the figure . A 22 boy starts walking along the beam. You may want to review ( pages 330 – 334) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: The Vector Cross Product Part A How close can he get to the right end of the beam without it falling over? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 17 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Problem 12.68 Flywheels are large, massive wheels used to store energy. They can be spun up slowly, then the wheel’s energy can be released quickly to accomplish a task that demands high power. An industrial flywheel has a 1.6 diameter and a mass of 270 . Its maximum angular velocity is 1500 . Part A A motor spins up the flywheel with a constant torque of 54 . How long does it take the flywheel to reach top speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B How much energy is stored in the flywheel? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part C The flywheel is disconnected from the motor and connected to a machine to which it will deliver energy. Half the energy stored in the flywheel is delivered in 2.2 . What is the average power delivered to the machine? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: = = = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 18 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part D How much torque does the flywheel exert on the machine? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.71 The 3.30 , 40.0-cm-diameter disk in the figure is spinning at 350 . Part A How much friction force must the brake apply to the rim to bring the disk to a halt in 2.10 ? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.74 A 5.0 , 60- -diameter cylinder rotates on an axle passing through one edge. The axle is parallel to the floor. The cylinder is held with the center of mass at the same height as the axle, then released. = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 19 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A What is the magnitude of the cylinder’s initial angular acceleration? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B What is the magnitude of the cylinder’s angular velocity when it is directly below the axle? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.82 A 45 figure skater is spinning on the toes of her skates at 0.90 . Her arms are outstretched as far as they will go. In this orientation, the skater can be modeled as a cylindrical torso (40 , 20 average diameter, 160 tall) plus two rod-like arms (2.5 each, 67 long) attached to the outside of the torso. The skater then raises her arms straight above her head, where she appears to be a 45 , 20- -diameter, 200- -tall cylinder. Part A What is her new rotation frequency, in revolutions per second? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 20 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 4.0%. You received 7.84 out of a possible total of 198 points. = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?disp

Assignment 10 Due: 11:59pm on Friday, April 18, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 12.3 Part A The figure shows three rotating disks, all of equal mass. Rank in order, from largest to smallest, their rotational kinetic energies to . Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER: Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 1 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Incorrect; Try Again Conceptual Question 12.6 You have two steel solid spheres. Sphere 2 has twice the radius of sphere 1. Part A By what factor does the moment of inertia of sphere 2 exceed the moment of inertia of sphere 1? ANSWER: Correct Problem 12.2 A high-speed drill reaches 2500 in 0.59 . Part A What is the drill’s angular acceleration? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B Through how many revolutions does it turn during this first 0.59 ? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Constant Angular Acceleration in the Kitchen = 32 = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 2 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Dario, a prep cook at an Italian restaurant, spins a salad spinner and observes that it rotates 20.0 times in 5.00 seconds and then stops spinning it. The salad spinner rotates 6.00 more times before it comes to rest. Assume that the spinner slows down with constant angular acceleration. Part A What is the angular acceleration of the salad spinner as it slows down? Express your answer numerically in degrees per second per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). ± A Spinning Electric Fan An electric fan is turned off, and its angular velocity decreases uniformly from 540 to 250 in a time interval of length 4.40 . Part A Find the angular acceleration in revolutions per second per second. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Find the number of revolutions made by the fan blades during the time that they are slowing down in Part A. = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 3 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C How many more seconds are required for the fan to come to rest if the angular acceleration remains constant at the value calculated in Part A? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Problem 12.8 A 100 ball and a 230 ball are connected by a 34- -long, massless, rigid rod. The balls rotate about their center of mass at 130 . Part A What is the speed of the 100 ball? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.10 A thin, 60.0 disk with a diameter of 9.00 rotates about an axis through its center with 0.200 of kinetic energy. Part A What is the speed of a point on the rim? = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 4 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.12 A drum major twirls a 95- -long, 470 baton about its center of mass at 150 . Part A What is the baton’s rotational kinetic energy? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Net Torque on a Pulley The figure below shows two blocks suspended by a cord over a pulley. The mass of block B is twice the mass of block A, while the mass of the pulley is equal to the mass of block A. The blocks are let free to move and the cord moves on the pulley without slipping or stretching. There is no friction in the pulley axle, and the cord’s weight can be ignored. Part A Which of the following statements correctly describes the system shown in the figure? Check all that apply. = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 5 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Problem 12.18 Part A In the figure , what is the magnitude of net torque about the axle? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B What is the direction of net torque about the axle? ANSWER: The acceleration of the blocks is zero. The net torque on the pulley is zero. The angular acceleration of the pulley is nonzero. = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 6 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Problem 12.22 An athlete at the gym holds a 3.5 steel ball in his hand. His arm is 78 long and has a mass of 3.6 . Assume the center of mass of the arm is at the geometrical center of the arm. Part A What is the magnitude of the torque about his shoulder if he holds his arm straight out to his side, parallel to the floor? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B What is the magnitude of the torque about his shoulder if he holds his arm straight, but below horizontal? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Parallel Axis Theorem The parallel axis theorem relates , the moment of inertia of an object about an axis passing through its center of mass, to , the moment of inertia of the same object about a parallel axis passing through point p. The mathematical statement of the theorem is , where is the perpendicular distance from the center of mass to the axis that passes through point p, and is the mass of the object. Part A Suppose a uniform slender rod has length and mass . The moment of inertia of the rod about about an axis that is perpendicular to the rod and that passes through its center of mass is given by . Find , the moment of inertia of the rod with respect to a parallel axis through one end of the rod. Express in terms of and . Use fractions rather than decimal numbers in your answer. Clockwise Counterclockwise = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 7 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Now consider a cube of mass with edges of length . The moment of inertia of the cube about an axis through its center of mass and perpendicular to one of its faces is given by . Find , the moment of inertia about an axis p through one of the edges of the cube Express in terms of and . Use fractions rather than decimal numbers in your answer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Problem 12.26 Starting from rest, a 12- -diameter compact disk takes 2.9 to reach its operating angular velocity of 2000 . Assume that the angular acceleration is constant. The disk’s moment of inertia is . Part A How much torque is applied to the disk? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 8 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM ANSWER: Part B How many revolutions does it make before reaching full speed? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: Problem 12.23 An object’s moment of inertia is 2.20 . Its angular velocity is increasing at the rate of 3.70 . Part A What is the total torque on the object? ANSWER: Problem 12.31 A 5.1 cat and a 2.5 bowl of tuna fish are at opposite ends of the 4.0- -long seesaw. = = rev Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 9 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A How far to the left of the pivot must a 3.8 cat stand to keep the seesaw balanced? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Static Equilibrium of the Arm You are able to hold out your arm in an outstretched horizontal position because of the action of the deltoid muscle. Assume the humerus bone has a mass , length and its center of mass is a distance from the scapula. (For this problem ignore the rest of the arm.) The deltoid muscle attaches to the humerus a distance from the scapula. The deltoid muscle makes an angle of with the horizontal, as shown. Use throughout the problem. Part A Find the tension in the deltoid muscle. Express the tension in newtons, to the nearest integer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 10 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part B Using the conditions for static equilibrium, find the magnitude of the vertical component of the force exerted by the scapula on the humerus (where the humerus attaches to the rest of the body). Express your answer in newtons, to the nearest integer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Now find the magnitude of the horizontal component of the force exerted by the scapula on the humerus. Express your answer in newtons, to the nearest integer. ANSWER: ± Moments around a Rod A rod is bent into an L shape and attached at one point to a pivot. The rod sits on a frictionless table and the diagram is a view from above. This means that gravity can be ignored for this problem. There are three forces that are applied to the rod at different points and angles: , , and . Note that the dimensions of the bent rod are in centimeters in the figure, although the answers are requested in SI units (kilograms, meters, seconds). = N = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 11 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A If and , what does the magnitude of have to be for there to be rotational equilibrium? Answer numerically in newtons to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B If the L-shaped rod has a moment of inertia , , , and again , how long a time would it take for the object to move through ( /4 radians)? Assume that as the object starts to move, each force moves with the object so as to retain its initial angle relative to the object. Express the time in seconds to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Now consider the situation in which and , but now a force with nonzero magnitude is acting on the rod. What does have to be to obtain equilibrium? Give a numerical answer, without trigonometric functions, in newtons, to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: = N = s = N Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 12 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Problem 12.32 A car tire is 55.0 in diameter. The car is traveling at a speed of 24.0 . Part A What is the tire’s rotation frequency, in rpm? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B What is the speed of a point at the top edge of the tire? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part C What is the speed of a point at the bottom edge of the tire? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.33 A 460 , 8.00-cm-diameter solid cylinder rolls across the floor at 1.30 . Part A What is the can’s kinetic energy? Express your answer with the appropriate units. Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 13 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM ANSWER: Problem 12.45 Part A What is the magnitude of the angular momentum of the 780 rotating bar in the figure ? ANSWER: Part B What is the direction of the angular momentum of the bar ? ANSWER: Problem 12.46 into the page out of the page Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 14 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A What is the magnitude of the angular momentum of the 2.20 , 4.60-cm-diameter rotating disk in the figure ? ANSWER: Part B What is its direction? ANSWER: Problem 12.60 A 3.0- -long ladder, as shown in the following figure, leans against a frictionless wall. The coefficient of static friction between the ladder and the floor is 0.46. x direction -x direction y direction -y direction z direction -z direction Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 15 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A What is the minimum angle the ladder can make with the floor without slipping? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.61 The 3.0- -long, 90 rigid beam in the following figure is supported at each end. An 70 student stands 2.0 from support 1. Part A How much upward force does the support 1 exert on the beam? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 16 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part B How much upward force does the support 2 exert on the beam? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Enhanced EOC: Problem 12.63 A 44 , 5.5- -long beam is supported, but not attached to, the two posts in the figure . A 22 boy starts walking along the beam. You may want to review ( pages 330 – 334) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: The Vector Cross Product Part A How close can he get to the right end of the beam without it falling over? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 17 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Problem 12.68 Flywheels are large, massive wheels used to store energy. They can be spun up slowly, then the wheel’s energy can be released quickly to accomplish a task that demands high power. An industrial flywheel has a 1.6 diameter and a mass of 270 . Its maximum angular velocity is 1500 . Part A A motor spins up the flywheel with a constant torque of 54 . How long does it take the flywheel to reach top speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B How much energy is stored in the flywheel? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part C The flywheel is disconnected from the motor and connected to a machine to which it will deliver energy. Half the energy stored in the flywheel is delivered in 2.2 . What is the average power delivered to the machine? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: = = = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 18 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part D How much torque does the flywheel exert on the machine? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.71 The 3.30 , 40.0-cm-diameter disk in the figure is spinning at 350 . Part A How much friction force must the brake apply to the rim to bring the disk to a halt in 2.10 ? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.74 A 5.0 , 60- -diameter cylinder rotates on an axle passing through one edge. The axle is parallel to the floor. The cylinder is held with the center of mass at the same height as the axle, then released. = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 19 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Part A What is the magnitude of the cylinder’s initial angular acceleration? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part B What is the magnitude of the cylinder’s angular velocity when it is directly below the axle? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Problem 12.82 A 45 figure skater is spinning on the toes of her skates at 0.90 . Her arms are outstretched as far as they will go. In this orientation, the skater can be modeled as a cylindrical torso (40 , 20 average diameter, 160 tall) plus two rod-like arms (2.5 each, 67 long) attached to the outside of the torso. The skater then raises her arms straight above her head, where she appears to be a 45 , 20- -diameter, 200- -tall cylinder. Part A What is her new rotation frequency, in revolutions per second? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: = = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayM… 20 of 21 4/11/2014 1:13 PM Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 4.0%. You received 7.84 out of a possible total of 198 points. = Assignment 10 http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?disp

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Human Computer Interaction You are to choose 2 websites, with different purposes, and review the websites based on the criteria listed below. 1. Starting Point a. Composition Matches Site Purpose b. Target Audience Apparent c. Composition Appropriate for Target Audience 2. Site design a. Consistency within site b. Consistency among pages 3. Visually Pleasing Composition 4. Visual Style in Web Design a. Consistency b. Distinctiveness 5. Focus and Emphasis a. What is emphasized? b. How is emphasis achieved? 6. Consistency a. Real World b. Internal 7. Navigation and Flow a. Home page identifiable throughout b. Location within site apparent c. Navigation consistent; rule-based; appropriate 8. Grouping a. Grouping with White Space b. Grouping with Borders c. Grouping with Backgrounds 9. Response time 10. Links a. Titled b. Incoming c. Outgoing d. Color 11. Detailed content a. Meaningful headings b. Plain language c. Page chunking d. Long blocks of text e. Scrolling f. Use of “within” page links 12. Articles a. Clear headings b. Plain language 13. Presenting Information Simply and Meaningfully a. Legibility b. Readability c. Information in Usable Form d. Visual Lines Clear 14. Legibility of content a. Font color b. Font size c. Font style d. Background color e. Background graphic 15. Documentation a. Included b. Searchable c. Links to difficult concepts/words 16. Multimedia a. Animation/Audio/Video/Still images b. Load time given c. Add-in required d. Quality e. Appropriateness of use 17. Scrolling and Paging a. Usage b. Appropriate? 18. Amount of Information Presented Appropriate 19. Other factors to note?

Human Computer Interaction You are to choose 2 websites, with different purposes, and review the websites based on the criteria listed below. 1. Starting Point a. Composition Matches Site Purpose b. Target Audience Apparent c. Composition Appropriate for Target Audience 2. Site design a. Consistency within site b. Consistency among pages 3. Visually Pleasing Composition 4. Visual Style in Web Design a. Consistency b. Distinctiveness 5. Focus and Emphasis a. What is emphasized? b. How is emphasis achieved? 6. Consistency a. Real World b. Internal 7. Navigation and Flow a. Home page identifiable throughout b. Location within site apparent c. Navigation consistent; rule-based; appropriate 8. Grouping a. Grouping with White Space b. Grouping with Borders c. Grouping with Backgrounds 9. Response time 10. Links a. Titled b. Incoming c. Outgoing d. Color 11. Detailed content a. Meaningful headings b. Plain language c. Page chunking d. Long blocks of text e. Scrolling f. Use of “within” page links 12. Articles a. Clear headings b. Plain language 13. Presenting Information Simply and Meaningfully a. Legibility b. Readability c. Information in Usable Form d. Visual Lines Clear 14. Legibility of content a. Font color b. Font size c. Font style d. Background color e. Background graphic 15. Documentation a. Included b. Searchable c. Links to difficult concepts/words 16. Multimedia a. Animation/Audio/Video/Still images b. Load time given c. Add-in required d. Quality e. Appropriateness of use 17. Scrolling and Paging a. Usage b. Appropriate? 18. Amount of Information Presented Appropriate 19. Other factors to note?

Human Computer Interaction You are to choose 2 websites, with … Read More...
Chapter 5 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, March 14, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Tactics Box 5.1 Drawing Force Vectors Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 5.1 Drawing Force Vectors. To visualize how forces are exerted on objects, we can use simple diagrams such as vectors. This Tactics Box illustrates the process of drawing a force vector by using the particle model, in which objects are treated as points. TACTICS BOX 5.1 Drawing force vectors Represent the object 1. as a particle. 2. Place the tail of the force vector on the particle. 3. Draw the force vector as an arrow pointing in the proper direction and with a length proportional to the size of the force. 4. Give the vector an appropriate label. The resulting diagram for a force exerted on an object is shown in the drawing. Note that the object is represented as a black dot. Part A A book lies on a table. A pushing force parallel to the table top and directed to the right is exerted on the book. Follow the steps above to draw the force vector . Use the black dot as the particle representing the book. F  F push F push Draw the vector starting at the black dot. The location and orientation of the vector will be graded. The length of the vector will not be graded. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Tactics Box 5.2 Identifying Forces Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 5.2 Identifying Forces. The first basic step in solving force and motion problems generally involves identifying all of the forces acting on an object. This tactics box provides a step-by-step method for identifying each force in a problem. TACTICS BOX 5.2 Identifying forces Identify the object of interest. This is the object whose motion 1. you wish to study. 2. Draw a picture of the situation. Show the object of interest and all other objects—such as ropes, springs, or surfaces—that touch it. 3. Draw a closed curve around the object. Only the object of interest is inside the curve; everything else is outside. 4. Locate every point on the boundary of this curve where other objects touch the object of interest. These are the points where contact forces are exerted on the object. Name and label each contact force acting on the object. There is at least one force at each point of contact; there may be more than one. When necessary, use subscripts to distinguish forces of the same type. 5. 6. Name and label each long-range force acting on the object. For now, the only long-range force is the gravitational force. Apply these steps to the following problem: A crate is pulled up a rough inclined wood board by a tow rope. Identify the forces on the crate. Part A Which of the following objects are of interest? Check all that apply. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Conceptual Questions on Newton’s 1st and 2nd Laws Learning Goal: To understand the meaning and the basic applications of Newton’s 1st and 2nd laws. In this problem, you are given a diagram representing the motion of an object–a motion diagram. The dots represent the object’s position at moments separated by equal intervals of time. The dots are connected by arrows representing the object’s average velocity during the corresponding time interval. Your goal is to use this motion diagram to determine the direction of the net force acting on the object. You will then determine which force diagrams and which situations may correspond to such a motion. crate earth rope wood board Part A What is the direction of the net force acting on the object at position A? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D upward downward to the left to the right The net force is zero. This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part I This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part J This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Understanding Newton’s Laws Part A An object cannot remain at rest unless which of the following holds? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B If a block is moving to the left at a constant velocity, what can one conclude? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The net force acting on it is zero. The net force acting on it is constant and nonzero. There are no forces at all acting on it. There is only one force acting on it. Part C A block of mass is acted upon by two forces: (directed to the left) and (directed to the right). What can you say about the block’s motion? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D A massive block is being pulled along a horizontal frictionless surface by a constant horizontal force. The block must be __________. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: There is exactly one force applied to the block. The net force applied to the block is directed to the left. The net force applied to the block is zero. There must be no forces at all applied to the block. 2 kg 3 N 4 N It must be moving to the left. It must be moving to the right. It must be at rest. It could be moving to the left, moving to the right, or be instantaneously at rest. Part E Two forces, of magnitude and , are applied to an object. The relative direction of the forces is unknown. The net force acting on the object __________. Check all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Tactics Box 5.3 Drawing a Free-Body Diagram Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 5.3 Drawing a Free-Body Diagram. A free-body diagram is a diagram that represents the object as a particle and shows all of the forces acting on the object. Learning how to draw such a diagram is a very important skill in solving physics problems. This tactics box explains the essential steps to construct a correct free-body diagram. TACTICS BOX 5.3 Drawing a free-body diagram Identify all forces acting on the object. This step was described 1. in Tactics Box 5.2. continuously changing direction moving at constant velocity moving with a constant nonzero acceleration moving with continuously increasing acceleration 4 N 10 N cannot have a magnitude equal to cannot have a magnitude equal to cannot have the same direction as the force with magnitude must have a magnitude greater than 5 N 10 N 10 N 10 N Draw a coordinate system. Use the axes defined in your pictorial representation. If those axes are tilted, for motion along an incline, then the axes of the free-body diagram should be similarly tilted. 2. Represent the object as a dot at the origin of the coordinate axes. This is 3. the particle model. 4. Draw vectors representing each of the identified forces. This was described in Tactics Box 5.1. Be sure to label each force vector. Draw and label the net force vector . Draw this vector beside the diagram, not on the particle. Or, if appropriate, write . Then, check that points in the same direction as the acceleration vector on your motion diagram. 5. Apply these steps to the following problem: Your physics book is sliding on the carpet. Draw a free-body diagram. Part A Which forces are acting on the book? Check all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: F  net F =  net 0 F  net a Part B Draw the most appropriate set of coordinate axes for this problem. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. ANSWER: gravity normal force drag static friction tension kinetic friction spring force Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points.

Chapter 5 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Friday, March 14, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Tactics Box 5.1 Drawing Force Vectors Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 5.1 Drawing Force Vectors. To visualize how forces are exerted on objects, we can use simple diagrams such as vectors. This Tactics Box illustrates the process of drawing a force vector by using the particle model, in which objects are treated as points. TACTICS BOX 5.1 Drawing force vectors Represent the object 1. as a particle. 2. Place the tail of the force vector on the particle. 3. Draw the force vector as an arrow pointing in the proper direction and with a length proportional to the size of the force. 4. Give the vector an appropriate label. The resulting diagram for a force exerted on an object is shown in the drawing. Note that the object is represented as a black dot. Part A A book lies on a table. A pushing force parallel to the table top and directed to the right is exerted on the book. Follow the steps above to draw the force vector . Use the black dot as the particle representing the book. F  F push F push Draw the vector starting at the black dot. The location and orientation of the vector will be graded. The length of the vector will not be graded. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Tactics Box 5.2 Identifying Forces Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 5.2 Identifying Forces. The first basic step in solving force and motion problems generally involves identifying all of the forces acting on an object. This tactics box provides a step-by-step method for identifying each force in a problem. TACTICS BOX 5.2 Identifying forces Identify the object of interest. This is the object whose motion 1. you wish to study. 2. Draw a picture of the situation. Show the object of interest and all other objects—such as ropes, springs, or surfaces—that touch it. 3. Draw a closed curve around the object. Only the object of interest is inside the curve; everything else is outside. 4. Locate every point on the boundary of this curve where other objects touch the object of interest. These are the points where contact forces are exerted on the object. Name and label each contact force acting on the object. There is at least one force at each point of contact; there may be more than one. When necessary, use subscripts to distinguish forces of the same type. 5. 6. Name and label each long-range force acting on the object. For now, the only long-range force is the gravitational force. Apply these steps to the following problem: A crate is pulled up a rough inclined wood board by a tow rope. Identify the forces on the crate. Part A Which of the following objects are of interest? Check all that apply. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Conceptual Questions on Newton’s 1st and 2nd Laws Learning Goal: To understand the meaning and the basic applications of Newton’s 1st and 2nd laws. In this problem, you are given a diagram representing the motion of an object–a motion diagram. The dots represent the object’s position at moments separated by equal intervals of time. The dots are connected by arrows representing the object’s average velocity during the corresponding time interval. Your goal is to use this motion diagram to determine the direction of the net force acting on the object. You will then determine which force diagrams and which situations may correspond to such a motion. crate earth rope wood board Part A What is the direction of the net force acting on the object at position A? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D upward downward to the left to the right The net force is zero. This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part I This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part J This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Understanding Newton’s Laws Part A An object cannot remain at rest unless which of the following holds? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B If a block is moving to the left at a constant velocity, what can one conclude? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The net force acting on it is zero. The net force acting on it is constant and nonzero. There are no forces at all acting on it. There is only one force acting on it. Part C A block of mass is acted upon by two forces: (directed to the left) and (directed to the right). What can you say about the block’s motion? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D A massive block is being pulled along a horizontal frictionless surface by a constant horizontal force. The block must be __________. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: There is exactly one force applied to the block. The net force applied to the block is directed to the left. The net force applied to the block is zero. There must be no forces at all applied to the block. 2 kg 3 N 4 N It must be moving to the left. It must be moving to the right. It must be at rest. It could be moving to the left, moving to the right, or be instantaneously at rest. Part E Two forces, of magnitude and , are applied to an object. The relative direction of the forces is unknown. The net force acting on the object __________. Check all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Tactics Box 5.3 Drawing a Free-Body Diagram Learning Goal: To practice Tactics Box 5.3 Drawing a Free-Body Diagram. A free-body diagram is a diagram that represents the object as a particle and shows all of the forces acting on the object. Learning how to draw such a diagram is a very important skill in solving physics problems. This tactics box explains the essential steps to construct a correct free-body diagram. TACTICS BOX 5.3 Drawing a free-body diagram Identify all forces acting on the object. This step was described 1. in Tactics Box 5.2. continuously changing direction moving at constant velocity moving with a constant nonzero acceleration moving with continuously increasing acceleration 4 N 10 N cannot have a magnitude equal to cannot have a magnitude equal to cannot have the same direction as the force with magnitude must have a magnitude greater than 5 N 10 N 10 N 10 N Draw a coordinate system. Use the axes defined in your pictorial representation. If those axes are tilted, for motion along an incline, then the axes of the free-body diagram should be similarly tilted. 2. Represent the object as a dot at the origin of the coordinate axes. This is 3. the particle model. 4. Draw vectors representing each of the identified forces. This was described in Tactics Box 5.1. Be sure to label each force vector. Draw and label the net force vector . Draw this vector beside the diagram, not on the particle. Or, if appropriate, write . Then, check that points in the same direction as the acceleration vector on your motion diagram. 5. Apply these steps to the following problem: Your physics book is sliding on the carpet. Draw a free-body diagram. Part A Which forces are acting on the book? Check all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: F  net F =  net 0 F  net a Part B Draw the most appropriate set of coordinate axes for this problem. The orientation of your vectors will be graded. ANSWER: gravity normal force drag static friction tension kinetic friction spring force Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points.

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Chapter 06 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Concept Review: Species Interactions Can you identify the type of species interaction that each label describes? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Activity: Food Webs Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct Autotrophs, such as phytoplankton, are producers. Part B An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The earthworm is feeding on the remains of dead organisms. Part C When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a primary consumer, the human is acting as a secondary consumer. Part D A cow eating grass is an example of a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a producer, the cow is acting as a primary consumer. Part E primary consumers tertiary consumers detritivores producers secondary consumers tertiary consumer secondary consumer producer detritivore primary consumer primary consumer detritivore secondary consumer producer tertiary consumer detritivore producer tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The shark that ate the seal that ate the clam that ate the algae is the tertiary consumer. Activity: Pyramids of Production Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A _____ are secondary consumers. ANSWER: Correct Secondary consumers are animals that eat other animals; thus, they are carnivores. Part B Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. ANSWER: Correct Approximately 5–10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. producer primary consumer tertiary consumer secondary consumer detritivore Producers Herbivores Plants Cows Carnivores 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 90–100 Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part C 10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer. ANSWER: Correct This is the number of kcal of tertiary consumer that could be supported. Activity: Primary Succession Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the question. Part A Which of these is a starting point for primary succession? ANSWER: Correct Such a surface lacks any life and is thus a starting point for primary succession. Part B The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be: ANSWER: 1,000 100 10 1 0 a surface exposed by a retreating glacier abandoned farmland an abandoned city a neglected yard none of these is a starting point for primary succession small shrubs trees lichens and mosses herbs Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses. Part C Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession? ANSWER: Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses, then by deciduous trees with wind-borne seeds. Concept Review: Secondary Succession Can you order the steps of secondary succession? Part A Order the labels in the flowchart to complete the model of secondary succession as observed in a deciduous forest of eastern North America. ANSWER: Current Events: In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (New York Times, 8/23/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (8/23/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following would be the best discovery regarding the Judas fish? ANSWER: plants are able to fix their own nitrogen plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area plants have wind-dispersed seeds plants are shade-tolerant Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part B Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part C Why is protecting cutthroat trout in Yellowstone so important? ANSWER: Part D Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part E Why don’t bears in Yellowstone eat lake trout? ANSWER: Part F How did rainbow trout become established worldwide? ANSWER: Learning where lake trout feed. Learning where lake trout hibernate. Learning where lake trout spawn. Learning where lake trout migrate to during fall. Officials are working only in certain areas to eliminate lake trout. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout Wyoming. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout the Great Lakes. All states in the U.S. are working to eliminate lake trout. Because many other species depend on cutthroat trout. Because local people depend on cutthroat trout for food. Because Yellowstone is the only place cutthroat trout are found. Because cutthroat trout are listed as a threatened species. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as rainbow trout are to Yellowstone Lake. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as Asian carp are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to Yellowstone Lake as see lamprey are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to the Great Lakes as Asian carp are to the Yellowstone Lake. They don’t like the taste. They cannot find them. Lake trout skin is too tough. Lake trout are too small for bears to be interested. Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Current Events: In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (New York Times, 4/25/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (4/25/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection? ANSWER: Part B Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following? ANSWER: Part C Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes? ANSWER: Part D Pla som is a unique dish because it is what? ANSWER: Part E Due to warming oceans caused by climate change. Natural process of migration. Accidental introduction via ships. Purposeful stocking. Consume ethyl alcohol while eating fish. Add more garlic. Cook it thoroughly. Pick the flukes out by hand. urine saliva feces blood rats mosquitoes frogs snails pickled frozen fermented blanched Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer? ANSWER: Part F You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them? ANSWER: ABC News Video: The Cuttlefish Watch the ABC News video (2:20 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are related to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part B Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s survival by enabling it to _______. 1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% The northwestern part of the country. The southeastern part of the country. The southwestern part of the country. The northeastern part of the country. camouflage elimination of waste reproductive strategies feeding behavior Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Correct Part C Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______. ANSWER: Correct Part D In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part E Which question was raised but not answered in the video? ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 48.5%. You received 16 out of a possible total of 33 points. sneak up on prey mimic poisonous species hide from predators warn potential predators that it is poisonous universal camouflage disruptive camouflage warning coloration camouflage tide-pool camouflage move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes turn completely white and hide in the white stripe turn completely black and hide in the black stripe exhibit the exact striping pattern of its surroundings Why does the cuttlefish change its skin pattern? What happens when a cuttlefish is placed in an unnatural environment? Is the cuttlefish able to grow a protective shell? How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind? Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

Chapter 06 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Concept Review: Species Interactions Can you identify the type of species interaction that each label describes? Part A Drag each description to the appropriate bin. ANSWER: Activity: Food Webs Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____. ANSWER: Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct Autotrophs, such as phytoplankton, are producers. Part B An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The earthworm is feeding on the remains of dead organisms. Part C When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a primary consumer, the human is acting as a secondary consumer. Part D A cow eating grass is an example of a _____. ANSWER: Correct By feeding on a producer, the cow is acting as a primary consumer. Part E primary consumers tertiary consumers detritivores producers secondary consumers tertiary consumer secondary consumer producer detritivore primary consumer primary consumer detritivore secondary consumer producer tertiary consumer detritivore producer tertiary consumer secondary consumer primary consumer Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____. ANSWER: Correct The shark that ate the seal that ate the clam that ate the algae is the tertiary consumer. Activity: Pyramids of Production Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A _____ are secondary consumers. ANSWER: Correct Secondary consumers are animals that eat other animals; thus, they are carnivores. Part B Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. ANSWER: Correct Approximately 5–10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level. producer primary consumer tertiary consumer secondary consumer detritivore Producers Herbivores Plants Cows Carnivores 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 90–100 Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part C 10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer. ANSWER: Correct This is the number of kcal of tertiary consumer that could be supported. Activity: Primary Succession Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the question. Part A Which of these is a starting point for primary succession? ANSWER: Correct Such a surface lacks any life and is thus a starting point for primary succession. Part B The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be: ANSWER: 1,000 100 10 1 0 a surface exposed by a retreating glacier abandoned farmland an abandoned city a neglected yard none of these is a starting point for primary succession small shrubs trees lichens and mosses herbs Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses. Part C Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession? ANSWER: Correct After the glacier retreats, bare ground is eventually colonized by lichens and mosses, then by deciduous trees with wind-borne seeds. Concept Review: Secondary Succession Can you order the steps of secondary succession? Part A Order the labels in the flowchart to complete the model of secondary succession as observed in a deciduous forest of eastern North America. ANSWER: Current Events: In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (New York Times, 8/23/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Yellowstone, Killing One Kind of Trout to Save Another (8/23/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Which of the following would be the best discovery regarding the Judas fish? ANSWER: plants are able to fix their own nitrogen plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area plants have wind-dispersed seeds plants are shade-tolerant Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Part B Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part C Why is protecting cutthroat trout in Yellowstone so important? ANSWER: Part D Which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part E Why don’t bears in Yellowstone eat lake trout? ANSWER: Part F How did rainbow trout become established worldwide? ANSWER: Learning where lake trout feed. Learning where lake trout hibernate. Learning where lake trout spawn. Learning where lake trout migrate to during fall. Officials are working only in certain areas to eliminate lake trout. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout Wyoming. Officials are working to eliminate lake trout throughout the Great Lakes. All states in the U.S. are working to eliminate lake trout. Because many other species depend on cutthroat trout. Because local people depend on cutthroat trout for food. Because Yellowstone is the only place cutthroat trout are found. Because cutthroat trout are listed as a threatened species. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as rainbow trout are to Yellowstone Lake. Cutthroat trout are to Yellowstone Lake as Asian carp are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to Yellowstone Lake as see lamprey are to the Great Lakes. Lake trout are to the Great Lakes as Asian carp are to the Yellowstone Lake. They don’t like the taste. They cannot find them. Lake trout skin is too tough. Lake trout are too small for bears to be interested. Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM Current Events: In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (New York Times, 4/25/2011) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. In Thailand, Love of Food Carries Deadly Risks (4/25/2011) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com/content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A Rather than stop eating fish, what should Thai people do to eliminate the risk of liver fluke infection? ANSWER: Part B Liver flukes are transmitted through which of the following? ANSWER: Part C Getting rid of which of the following would help decrease the population of liver flukes? ANSWER: Part D Pla som is a unique dish because it is what? ANSWER: Part E Due to warming oceans caused by climate change. Natural process of migration. Accidental introduction via ships. Purposeful stocking. Consume ethyl alcohol while eating fish. Add more garlic. Cook it thoroughly. Pick the flukes out by hand. urine saliva feces blood rats mosquitoes frogs snails pickled frozen fermented blanched Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM You have liver flukes. What are your chances of getting liver cancer? ANSWER: Part F You are a scientist studying liver flukes in Thailand. Where should you look for them? ANSWER: ABC News Video: The Cuttlefish Watch the ABC News video (2:20 minutes). Then answer the questions below. Part A The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are related to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part B Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s survival by enabling it to _______. 1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% The northwestern part of the country. The southeastern part of the country. The southwestern part of the country. The northeastern part of the country. camouflage elimination of waste reproductive strategies feeding behavior Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM ANSWER: Correct Part C Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with white rocks will camouflage their skin in a pattern called _______. ANSWER: Correct Part D In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______. ANSWER: Correct Part E Which question was raised but not answered in the video? ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 48.5%. You received 16 out of a possible total of 33 points. sneak up on prey mimic poisonous species hide from predators warn potential predators that it is poisonous universal camouflage disruptive camouflage warning coloration camouflage tide-pool camouflage move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes turn completely white and hide in the white stripe turn completely black and hide in the black stripe exhibit the exact striping pattern of its surroundings Why does the cuttlefish change its skin pattern? What happens when a cuttlefish is placed in an unnatural environment? Is the cuttlefish able to grow a protective shell? How do cuttlefish camouflage themselves even though they are colorblind? Chapter 06 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 9 of 9 5/21/2014 8:01 PM

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– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: Oct. 1st, 2015 G. Ozsoyoglu Concurrent Programming with Semaphores; 140 points (100 pts) 1. Priority-based Searchers/Inserters/Deleters Problem without starvation. Three types of processes, namely, searchers, inserters, and deleters share access to a singly linked list L, and perform search, insert, or delete operations, respectively. The list L does not have duplicate values. a) Searchers merely search the list L, and report success (i.e., item searched is in L) or no-success (i.e., item searched is not in L) to a log file. Hence they can execute concurrently with each other. b) Inserters add new items to the end of the list L, and report success (i.e., item is not in L, and successfully inserted into L) or no-success (i.e., item is already in L, and no insertion takes place) to a log file. Insertions must be mutually exclusive to preclude two inserters from inserting new items at about the same time. However, one insert can proceed in parallel with any number of searches. c) Deleters remove items from anywhere in the list, and report success (i.e., the item is found in L and deleted) or no-success (i.e., item is not in L, and could not be deleted) to a log file. At most one deleter can access the list L at a time, and the deletion must be mutually exclusive with searches and insertions. d) Initial start. Searcher, inserter, and deleter processes are initially launched as follows. A user process that needs a search/insertion/deletion operation to the list L first forks a process, and then, in the forked process, performs an execv into a searcher/ inserter/deleter process. e) Log maintenance. Upon start, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to a log file, recording the time of insertion, process id, process type (i.e., searcher, inserter, or deleter), and the item that is being searched/inserted/deleted. f) Termination. Upon successful or unsuccessful completion, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to the same log file, recording the time and the result of its execution. g) Priority-based service between three types. Searchers, inserters, and deleters perform their search, insert, delete operations, respectively, on a priority basis (not on a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) basis) between separate process types (i.e., searchers, inserters, deleters) as follows. Searchers search with the highest priority; inserters insert with the second highest priority (except that one inserter can proceed in parallel with any number of searchers), and deleters delete with the lowest priority. h) FCFS service within a single type. Processes of the same type are serviced FCFS. As an example, among multiple inserters, the order of insertions into L is FCFS. Similarly, among multiple deleters, the order of deletions into L is FCFS. Note that, among searchers, while the start of search among searchers is FCFS, due to concurrent searcher execution, the completions of multiple searchers may not be FCFS. i) Starvation avoidance. In addition to the above priority-based search/insert/delete operations, the following starvation-avoidance rule is enforced. o After 10 consecutive searchers search the list L, if there is at least one waiting inserter or deleter then newly arriving searchers are blocked until (a) all waiting inserters are first serviced FCFS, and, then (b) all waiting deleters are serviced FCFS. Then, both the standard priority-based service between process types and the FCFS service within a process type resume. You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to synchronize searcher, inserter and deleter processes. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). – 2 – (40 pts) 2. Four-of-a-Kind Problem is defined as follows.  There is a deck of 24 cards, split into 6 different kinds, 4 cards of each kind.  There are 4 players (i.e., processes) ??,0≤?≤3; each player can hold 4 cards.  Between each pair of adjacent (i.e., seated next to each other) players, there is a pile of cards.  The game begins by o someone dealing four cards to each player, and putting two cards on the pile between each pair of adjacent players, and o ?0 starting the game. If ?0 has four-of-a-kind, ?0 wins. Whoever gets four-of-a-kind first wins.  Players take turns to play clockwise. That is, ?0 plays, ?1 plays, ?2 plays, ?3 plays, ?0 plays, etc.  Each player behaves as follows. o So long as no one has won, keep playing. o If it is my turn and no one has won:  Check for Four-of-a-Kind. If yes, claim victory. Otherwise discard a card into the pile on the right; pick up a card from the pile on the left; and, check again: If Four-of-a-Kind, claim victory; otherwise revise turn so that the next player plays and wait for your turn.  There are no ties; when a player has claimed victory, all other players stop (when their turns to play come up). You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to the Four-of-a-Kind problem. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). P1 P0 P2 P3 pile 1 pile 2 pile 3 pile 0

– 1 – Fall 2015 EECS 338 Assignment 2 Due: Oct. 1st, 2015 G. Ozsoyoglu Concurrent Programming with Semaphores; 140 points (100 pts) 1. Priority-based Searchers/Inserters/Deleters Problem without starvation. Three types of processes, namely, searchers, inserters, and deleters share access to a singly linked list L, and perform search, insert, or delete operations, respectively. The list L does not have duplicate values. a) Searchers merely search the list L, and report success (i.e., item searched is in L) or no-success (i.e., item searched is not in L) to a log file. Hence they can execute concurrently with each other. b) Inserters add new items to the end of the list L, and report success (i.e., item is not in L, and successfully inserted into L) or no-success (i.e., item is already in L, and no insertion takes place) to a log file. Insertions must be mutually exclusive to preclude two inserters from inserting new items at about the same time. However, one insert can proceed in parallel with any number of searches. c) Deleters remove items from anywhere in the list, and report success (i.e., the item is found in L and deleted) or no-success (i.e., item is not in L, and could not be deleted) to a log file. At most one deleter can access the list L at a time, and the deletion must be mutually exclusive with searches and insertions. d) Initial start. Searcher, inserter, and deleter processes are initially launched as follows. A user process that needs a search/insertion/deletion operation to the list L first forks a process, and then, in the forked process, performs an execv into a searcher/ inserter/deleter process. e) Log maintenance. Upon start, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to a log file, recording the time of insertion, process id, process type (i.e., searcher, inserter, or deleter), and the item that is being searched/inserted/deleted. f) Termination. Upon successful or unsuccessful completion, each searcher/inserter/deleter writes to the same log file, recording the time and the result of its execution. g) Priority-based service between three types. Searchers, inserters, and deleters perform their search, insert, delete operations, respectively, on a priority basis (not on a first-come-first-serve (FCFS) basis) between separate process types (i.e., searchers, inserters, deleters) as follows. Searchers search with the highest priority; inserters insert with the second highest priority (except that one inserter can proceed in parallel with any number of searchers), and deleters delete with the lowest priority. h) FCFS service within a single type. Processes of the same type are serviced FCFS. As an example, among multiple inserters, the order of insertions into L is FCFS. Similarly, among multiple deleters, the order of deletions into L is FCFS. Note that, among searchers, while the start of search among searchers is FCFS, due to concurrent searcher execution, the completions of multiple searchers may not be FCFS. i) Starvation avoidance. In addition to the above priority-based search/insert/delete operations, the following starvation-avoidance rule is enforced. o After 10 consecutive searchers search the list L, if there is at least one waiting inserter or deleter then newly arriving searchers are blocked until (a) all waiting inserters are first serviced FCFS, and, then (b) all waiting deleters are serviced FCFS. Then, both the standard priority-based service between process types and the FCFS service within a process type resume. You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to synchronize searcher, inserter and deleter processes. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). – 2 – (40 pts) 2. Four-of-a-Kind Problem is defined as follows.  There is a deck of 24 cards, split into 6 different kinds, 4 cards of each kind.  There are 4 players (i.e., processes) ??,0≤?≤3; each player can hold 4 cards.  Between each pair of adjacent (i.e., seated next to each other) players, there is a pile of cards.  The game begins by o someone dealing four cards to each player, and putting two cards on the pile between each pair of adjacent players, and o ?0 starting the game. If ?0 has four-of-a-kind, ?0 wins. Whoever gets four-of-a-kind first wins.  Players take turns to play clockwise. That is, ?0 plays, ?1 plays, ?2 plays, ?3 plays, ?0 plays, etc.  Each player behaves as follows. o So long as no one has won, keep playing. o If it is my turn and no one has won:  Check for Four-of-a-Kind. If yes, claim victory. Otherwise discard a card into the pile on the right; pick up a card from the pile on the left; and, check again: If Four-of-a-Kind, claim victory; otherwise revise turn so that the next player plays and wait for your turn.  There are no ties; when a player has claimed victory, all other players stop (when their turns to play come up). You are to specify a semaphore-based algorithm to the Four-of-a-Kind problem. Note:  Explain your algorithm.  Make sure to state any assumptions you make in your solution.  Specify the initial states of your variables and semaphores.  Specify whether your semaphores are binary or nonbinary.  Do not bother specifying algorithms for sequential tasks: simply specify a well-defined function/procedure (i.e., one with well-defined input/output/functional specification). P1 P0 P2 P3 pile 1 pile 2 pile 3 pile 0

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