Which statement regarding enzyme function is true? Excessive salt ions can cause an enzyme to denature. Enzymes cannot function at a pH lower than 6. Most coenzymes are inorganic substances such as ions of iron or potassium. Higher temperatures allow greater contact between enzymes and substrates; therefore, the higher the temperature the better the enzyme will function.

Which statement regarding enzyme function is true? Excessive salt ions can cause an enzyme to denature. Enzymes cannot function at a pH lower than 6. Most coenzymes are inorganic substances such as ions of iron or potassium. Higher temperatures allow greater contact between enzymes and substrates; therefore, the higher the temperature the better the enzyme will function.

Excessive salt ions can cause an enzyme to denature.
A coil carrying a curent I, sits in a magnatic fields between the poles of a magnet , which statement about the loopis false? 1) The net force on the loop is zero , 2) The force on side X is different into the page , 3) The force on side Y is Zero. , 4) The force on side Z is directed out of the page , 5) The magnetic moment of the coil is out of the page.

A coil carrying a curent I, sits in a magnatic fields between the poles of a magnet , which statement about the loopis false? 1) The net force on the loop is zero , 2) The force on side X is different into the page , 3) The force on side Y is Zero. , 4) The force on side Z is directed out of the page , 5) The magnetic moment of the coil is out of the page.

ESL 091 Cause and Effect Worksheet 1: Steps 1-4 of the Writing Process Name ______________________________ Class___________ Section______ THE WRITNG PROCES: STEPS 1, 2, 3, AND 4 Step 1: THINKING. Your first essay assignment is to write an Explaining/Evaluation essay about a restaurant. Begin the writing process by thinking about your topic. Think! Think! Think! Step 2: BRAINSTORMING. The purpose of brainstorming is for you to write down all of the ideas, thoughts, and pieces of information that you think about your topic before you forge them. You can use one of three brainstorming techniques, but the journalist’s questions will get you’re the most information to write an 800-word essay. We talked about three brainstorming techniques: 1) Writing down all your thoughts in a list format. 2) Creating an idea map. 3) Asking and answering the journalist’s questions that are important for your topic: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? As you are thinking and writing down your ideas, ask yourself the following questions about your cause and effect topic: A. What is the cord cause of issue? Is there more than one cause? What is the immediate (first) effect of the cause? Does this first effect also become a cause? If so, what effect does this new cause have? Are there other effects caused by the core cause? What are they? Do they also become new causes with their own effects? If so, what are they? Core Cause/s__________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Immediate (first) Effect of the Core Cause/s_________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Other Cause and Effect Relationships_______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Brainstorming Technique 1: Listing Your Thoughts and Ideas 1.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 7.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 8.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 9.___________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 10.__________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ More information: Brainstorming Technique 2: Creating an Idea Map Sample Mind Maps for Cause and Effect Multiple Levels of Cause and Effect Brainstorming Technique 3: Asking AND Answering the Journalist’s Questions Question: Who _______________________________________________________________________ Answer____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Where______________________________________________________________________ Answer____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: What_______________________________________________________________________ Answer_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Where_______________________________________________________________________ Answer________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________¬¬_ Question: Why________________________________________________________________________ Answer______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: How________________________________________________________________________ Answer_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Step 3: Dropping and Selecting Information. Read your brainstorming notes and determine which information you would like to include in your cause and effect essay. Also decide which information you do NOT need for your essay. Keep what you DO need. A. Information that I will keep ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________¬¬¬¬____________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________¬¬¬¬____________ B. Information that I need to add ________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________¬¬¬¬____________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________¬¬¬¬____________ Step 4. Writing a Working Thesis. First, decide who your audience is and what your purpose is. A. Audience: Think about who would be interested in reading your cause and effect topic. If you say: “Anyone who is interested in my topic,” your audience is too big. Think about who might benefit from knowing the information you are writing about. Be specific. _____________________________________________________________________________________ B. Purpose: The purpose in your writing is the message you want your audience to know about the topic. You can find out your purpose by asking yourself what you want your audience to know about the topic and put that in a complete sentence. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ C. Working Thesis: A thesis is a statement that tells your audience what your overall attitude is about your topic. In a cause and effect essay, your thesis would state the core causes and major effects of the core cause. A working thesis can change as your essay changes and improves. Your thesis should include: 1) The core cause/s 2) The major effects that you will discuss in the body of the paper. Example: CORE CAUSE/S MAJOR EFFECTS Fast food and lack of movement are the core reasons for obesity, which results in disease such as heart trouble, diabetes, and joint failure. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ **********Save this worksheet and bring it to the next class meeting.***********

ESL 091 Cause and Effect Worksheet 1: Steps 1-4 of the Writing Process Name ______________________________ Class___________ Section______ THE WRITNG PROCES: STEPS 1, 2, 3, AND 4 Step 1: THINKING. Your first essay assignment is to write an Explaining/Evaluation essay about a restaurant. Begin the writing process by thinking about your topic. Think! Think! Think! Step 2: BRAINSTORMING. The purpose of brainstorming is for you to write down all of the ideas, thoughts, and pieces of information that you think about your topic before you forge them. You can use one of three brainstorming techniques, but the journalist’s questions will get you’re the most information to write an 800-word essay. We talked about three brainstorming techniques: 1) Writing down all your thoughts in a list format. 2) Creating an idea map. 3) Asking and answering the journalist’s questions that are important for your topic: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? As you are thinking and writing down your ideas, ask yourself the following questions about your cause and effect topic: A. What is the cord cause of issue? Is there more than one cause? What is the immediate (first) effect of the cause? Does this first effect also become a cause? If so, what effect does this new cause have? Are there other effects caused by the core cause? What are they? Do they also become new causes with their own effects? If so, what are they? Core Cause/s__________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Immediate (first) Effect of the Core Cause/s_________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Other Cause and Effect Relationships_______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Brainstorming Technique 1: Listing Your Thoughts and Ideas 1.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 7.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 8.___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 9.___________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 10.__________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ More information: Brainstorming Technique 2: Creating an Idea Map Sample Mind Maps for Cause and Effect Multiple Levels of Cause and Effect Brainstorming Technique 3: Asking AND Answering the Journalist’s Questions Question: Who _______________________________________________________________________ Answer____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Where______________________________________________________________________ Answer____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: What_______________________________________________________________________ Answer_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Where_______________________________________________________________________ Answer________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________¬¬_ Question: Why________________________________________________________________________ Answer______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: How________________________________________________________________________ Answer_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Step 3: Dropping and Selecting Information. Read your brainstorming notes and determine which information you would like to include in your cause and effect essay. Also decide which information you do NOT need for your essay. Keep what you DO need. A. Information that I will keep ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________¬¬¬¬____________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________¬¬¬¬____________ B. Information that I need to add ________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________¬¬¬¬____________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________¬¬¬¬____________ Step 4. Writing a Working Thesis. First, decide who your audience is and what your purpose is. A. Audience: Think about who would be interested in reading your cause and effect topic. If you say: “Anyone who is interested in my topic,” your audience is too big. Think about who might benefit from knowing the information you are writing about. Be specific. _____________________________________________________________________________________ B. Purpose: The purpose in your writing is the message you want your audience to know about the topic. You can find out your purpose by asking yourself what you want your audience to know about the topic and put that in a complete sentence. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ C. Working Thesis: A thesis is a statement that tells your audience what your overall attitude is about your topic. In a cause and effect essay, your thesis would state the core causes and major effects of the core cause. A working thesis can change as your essay changes and improves. Your thesis should include: 1) The core cause/s 2) The major effects that you will discuss in the body of the paper. Example: CORE CAUSE/S MAJOR EFFECTS Fast food and lack of movement are the core reasons for obesity, which results in disease such as heart trouble, diabetes, and joint failure. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ **********Save this worksheet and bring it to the next class meeting.***********

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Which statement would address the e-commerce success factor of security and reliability? Answers: “I don’t want to browse through a slow website or buy from a site where paying takes too long.” “A company’s prices don’t have to be the lowest on the Web if they build a reputation for high quality, guaranteed satisfaction and top customer support while shopping and after the sale.” “I want to know about sales when I log on to a site and even get free shipping if I order a certain dollar value of goods.” “I want to receive the exact products I ordered in the timeframe promised.”

Which statement would address the e-commerce success factor of security and reliability? Answers: “I don’t want to browse through a slow website or buy from a site where paying takes too long.” “A company’s prices don’t have to be the lowest on the Web if they build a reputation for high quality, guaranteed satisfaction and top customer support while shopping and after the sale.” “I want to know about sales when I log on to a site and even get free shipping if I order a certain dollar value of goods.” “I want to receive the exact products I ordered in the timeframe promised.”

Which statement would address the e-commerce success factor of security … Read More...
English 1 Professor Nielsen Essay One Topic and Guidelines The Context You are a non-profit organization Director of Fundraising, and your goal is to convince a wealthy individual to make a substantial donation to your cause. Choose from one of the following projects derived from the social issues from the course readings below: 1. The Prison Project: Reducing the incarceration rate and numbers in the U.S. 2. Birth Control Advocacy and Access: Supporting a birth control education and free product distribution in the U.S and/or internationally. 3. LGBT Advocacy: Funding education, campaigning, and lobbying for LGBT rights in the U.S. 4. Equality in Education: Supporting funding and scholarships for schools and individuals from less advantaged populations. 5. Migrant Welfare and Protection: Creating safe housing, food, and education for refugees. 6. Something else related to social justice?????? (See me if you have your own project idea). (animal welfare, women’s advocacy, housing, student loans and tuition affordability, etc.) Make a case for a donation of $2 million dollars to your cause by writing a funding request letter to the potential donor. This request is essentially a persuasive essay designed to convince your reader to support your cause. Below is a suggested format for organizing your letter, as well as guidelines for your work. I. The Basics Due: Tuesday, September 29, at Start of Class (Rough Draft). And Tuesday, October 6, at Start of Class (Final Draft) Length: 3-4 Pgs., double spaced in the correct format (see sample paper format template at the end of this document for format.) Font: Times New Roman, 12PT. Margins: 1 inch all around. See sample format at the end of this document for further formatting information. You are required to submit using this format. Check the sample on page five of this document carefully. Editing: Be sure to use the proofreading guide. In particular, avoid the big five errors. Revising: Read over your draft carefully several times. We will work toward revision together in class, but you will also need to revise on your own. Visit the Learning center if you need extra support. II. Organization and Content (Sample Outline Follows.) Use an organized format for your essay. The best way to ensure strong organization is to map out a plan for the content of your essay, using an outline, clustering, or other graphic representation of your key ideas. One potential format follows. Sample Method of Organizing Your Funding Letter: A. The Opening Paragraph 1. Start with some brief striking details to provide the initial background to your letter: facts, figures, brief description of one aspect of the problem- something compelling. 2. End your paragraph with a statement that briefly announces/introduces your organization without yet going into detail about your mission. State that you are requesting a donation and that your letter will describe the need for this donation. (Your Thesis) B. Body of the Letter: The Problem Make a stronger case for the problem your organization seeks to address by describing several aspects of it, using examples and details, as well as quotes from relevant class readings (be sure to cite these correctly). C. Body of the Letter: What Your Organization Will Do Describe some points of actions your group will take and ways that you will spend donor funds to address aspects of the problem you have already described. Choose three to five specific courses of action. Do not make these two extensive. They should be manageable and practical. D. Your Summary and Conclusion: Asking for Money 1. Briefly restate the problem and your organization’s goals using new wording when possible. 2. Connect the funds you need to your organization’s goals 3. Make your request for money. 4. End with a final compelling statement of why the donor should give. III. Strategies and Guidelines 1. Use the writing process steps to help you through your letter. 2. Use the proofreading guide to help you edit and the Learning Center on campus for support. 5. Cite all quotes with the author and page number. Create a works cited page at the end of your essay for the works you discuss. (See the MLA guide and sample student essays in your textbook for examples and step-by-step help with MLA. You may also pick up a guide at the campus writing center and ask them for extra help.) 6. This is NOT a research essay. Most background information should come from common knowledge, your own prior knowledge and experience, and the readings from class/the text. However, you may choose to include up one additional research source if necessary, provided this is a reliable source that you can cite correctly. Please visit OWL at Purdue University for a complete MLA citation guide. You text also has a chapter on MLA citation. 7. Follow the correct essay format for font, spacing, margins, heading, etc. (SEE sample in this document.) IV. Formatting: You are required to format your essay in the way that follows to receive full credit. • Page number in upper right-hand corner (Use “Insert” and “Pg. #”) • Times New Roman 12 Pt. font • Heading in left corner with title, student name, essay 1 (or 2, etc.), Eng 2, and date • Heading is single spaced • Skip two lines to start typing body of text • Body of text is double spaced • Margins remain at 1 inch all around. • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs • Indent each paragraph five lines • Use MLA format for citation Continue to the next page for format sample. Title of Your Campaign Project (Choose something compelling.) Student Name Essay 1 English 1 Date Dear _______, Start typing your essay here, two lines down from heading. The body of your essay is double spaced, but the heading is only single spaced. Note the page number in the upper right-hand corner. Note the exact content of the heading. There is no title page for short essays, nor is there a title across the top. For short essays of just a few pages, this format is standard. The title goes at the top of the heading. All words in the title are capitalized except pronouns, prepositions, and articles. Do not make your margins greater that one inch. Make sure you use Times New Roman 12 Point font. Do not include graphics or images of any kind in most essays for this class (see me if you think you have an exception). When you reach the end of your paragraph, just hit return and continue typing. Do not skip lines between your paragraphs or over-indent your paragraphs; indent only five lines as marked in the ruler. Do not attempt to write less for your essay by enlarging the font, margins, or spacing. This paragraph demonstrates a good length for an introduction. You next paragraph should start here. This is the way your essay should look. You may use this template to help you format your essay by saving it to your desktop and keeping the settings. You will, of course, have two to three pages when you finish, but this is what the first page would look like roughly. If you include a quote, be sure to cite the author and page number and to include a works cited page at the end of your essay.

English 1 Professor Nielsen Essay One Topic and Guidelines The Context You are a non-profit organization Director of Fundraising, and your goal is to convince a wealthy individual to make a substantial donation to your cause. Choose from one of the following projects derived from the social issues from the course readings below: 1. The Prison Project: Reducing the incarceration rate and numbers in the U.S. 2. Birth Control Advocacy and Access: Supporting a birth control education and free product distribution in the U.S and/or internationally. 3. LGBT Advocacy: Funding education, campaigning, and lobbying for LGBT rights in the U.S. 4. Equality in Education: Supporting funding and scholarships for schools and individuals from less advantaged populations. 5. Migrant Welfare and Protection: Creating safe housing, food, and education for refugees. 6. Something else related to social justice?????? (See me if you have your own project idea). (animal welfare, women’s advocacy, housing, student loans and tuition affordability, etc.) Make a case for a donation of $2 million dollars to your cause by writing a funding request letter to the potential donor. This request is essentially a persuasive essay designed to convince your reader to support your cause. Below is a suggested format for organizing your letter, as well as guidelines for your work. I. The Basics Due: Tuesday, September 29, at Start of Class (Rough Draft). And Tuesday, October 6, at Start of Class (Final Draft) Length: 3-4 Pgs., double spaced in the correct format (see sample paper format template at the end of this document for format.) Font: Times New Roman, 12PT. Margins: 1 inch all around. See sample format at the end of this document for further formatting information. You are required to submit using this format. Check the sample on page five of this document carefully. Editing: Be sure to use the proofreading guide. In particular, avoid the big five errors. Revising: Read over your draft carefully several times. We will work toward revision together in class, but you will also need to revise on your own. Visit the Learning center if you need extra support. II. Organization and Content (Sample Outline Follows.) Use an organized format for your essay. The best way to ensure strong organization is to map out a plan for the content of your essay, using an outline, clustering, or other graphic representation of your key ideas. One potential format follows. Sample Method of Organizing Your Funding Letter: A. The Opening Paragraph 1. Start with some brief striking details to provide the initial background to your letter: facts, figures, brief description of one aspect of the problem- something compelling. 2. End your paragraph with a statement that briefly announces/introduces your organization without yet going into detail about your mission. State that you are requesting a donation and that your letter will describe the need for this donation. (Your Thesis) B. Body of the Letter: The Problem Make a stronger case for the problem your organization seeks to address by describing several aspects of it, using examples and details, as well as quotes from relevant class readings (be sure to cite these correctly). C. Body of the Letter: What Your Organization Will Do Describe some points of actions your group will take and ways that you will spend donor funds to address aspects of the problem you have already described. Choose three to five specific courses of action. Do not make these two extensive. They should be manageable and practical. D. Your Summary and Conclusion: Asking for Money 1. Briefly restate the problem and your organization’s goals using new wording when possible. 2. Connect the funds you need to your organization’s goals 3. Make your request for money. 4. End with a final compelling statement of why the donor should give. III. Strategies and Guidelines 1. Use the writing process steps to help you through your letter. 2. Use the proofreading guide to help you edit and the Learning Center on campus for support. 5. Cite all quotes with the author and page number. Create a works cited page at the end of your essay for the works you discuss. (See the MLA guide and sample student essays in your textbook for examples and step-by-step help with MLA. You may also pick up a guide at the campus writing center and ask them for extra help.) 6. This is NOT a research essay. Most background information should come from common knowledge, your own prior knowledge and experience, and the readings from class/the text. However, you may choose to include up one additional research source if necessary, provided this is a reliable source that you can cite correctly. Please visit OWL at Purdue University for a complete MLA citation guide. You text also has a chapter on MLA citation. 7. Follow the correct essay format for font, spacing, margins, heading, etc. (SEE sample in this document.) IV. Formatting: You are required to format your essay in the way that follows to receive full credit. • Page number in upper right-hand corner (Use “Insert” and “Pg. #”) • Times New Roman 12 Pt. font • Heading in left corner with title, student name, essay 1 (or 2, etc.), Eng 2, and date • Heading is single spaced • Skip two lines to start typing body of text • Body of text is double spaced • Margins remain at 1 inch all around. • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs • Indent each paragraph five lines • Use MLA format for citation Continue to the next page for format sample. Title of Your Campaign Project (Choose something compelling.) Student Name Essay 1 English 1 Date Dear _______, Start typing your essay here, two lines down from heading. The body of your essay is double spaced, but the heading is only single spaced. Note the page number in the upper right-hand corner. Note the exact content of the heading. There is no title page for short essays, nor is there a title across the top. For short essays of just a few pages, this format is standard. The title goes at the top of the heading. All words in the title are capitalized except pronouns, prepositions, and articles. Do not make your margins greater that one inch. Make sure you use Times New Roman 12 Point font. Do not include graphics or images of any kind in most essays for this class (see me if you think you have an exception). When you reach the end of your paragraph, just hit return and continue typing. Do not skip lines between your paragraphs or over-indent your paragraphs; indent only five lines as marked in the ruler. Do not attempt to write less for your essay by enlarging the font, margins, or spacing. This paragraph demonstrates a good length for an introduction. You next paragraph should start here. This is the way your essay should look. You may use this template to help you format your essay by saving it to your desktop and keeping the settings. You will, of course, have two to three pages when you finish, but this is what the first page would look like roughly. If you include a quote, be sure to cite the author and page number and to include a works cited page at the end of your essay.

. Pt 1. Making Observations (Introduction) Write a brief, introductory paragraph that includes general observations related to the topic. You may consider information from the news, media (tv, movies), social media, popular views, ideas from the general public, or your personal experiences. Your paragraph should specifically mention three (3) observations related to this topic and be sure to cite your sources. You should also include your thoughts on why this topic is of interest to you or relevant to society (i.e. what is the significance?). Pt 2. Apply The Content Choose five (5) terms or concepts that we have covered in this unit that are related to the chosen topic. Define each term in your own words and then write one (1) sentence that explains how it is related to the topic. The concept are: Define evolution. What was Darwin’s role in establishing the theory of evolution? What does the phrase “descent with modification” mean? How are fossils, anatomical studies, and molecular biology used to provide evidence for the theory of evolution? What is “fitness” in a biological organism? What role do mutations have in natural selection? What are the types of natural selection? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What is genetic drift? gene flow? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What forces can lead to adaptive evolution? What is the biological definition of a species? What are the three domains of living organisms? What are the six kingdoms? For each kingdom you should be able to describe the cellular structure, means of reproduction, ways of getting nutrients/food, general/adaptive features, and an example organism. How does Helicobacter pylori avoid competition? What extreme environment does a hermoacidophile occupy? What is unique about the Volvox compared to other protists? How do pitcher plants thrive in low nutrient environments? How does the puffball mushroom achieve reproductive success? What adaptations allowed plants to live on the land? What major adaptations occurred in the animal kingdom? In vertebrates? What domain, kingdom, phylum, sub phylum, and class do humans belong to? What do we share with organisms in these groups? What are the ecological levels of the biological hierarchy? What are the elements of a habitat? What are the criteria used by ecologists to measure and observe populations? What common patterns of population distribution are seen in nature? Compare the three kinds of survivorship curves? What do they show? What kind of reproductive behaviors lead to type I, II, and III survivorship curves? How does idealized population growth differ from how actual populations grow? What are factors that affect the growth of a population? How do density-dependent factors affect population growth? What are examples of density-independent factors that can affect population growth? What is a population boom? What is a population bust? Describe the boom and bust cycles often observed in nature. What kinds of competition occur in a habitat? What kinds of symbiotic relationships occur in a habitat? How do organisms avoid predation? What are the levels in a trophic structure? How can plants and animals avoid being eaten? Why is a food web a more accurate representation of the organisms in a community compared to a food chain? Why are most food chains limited to only three or four trophic levels.What are some common threats to biodiversity? What are common types of pollution? Explain why we must be concerned about even small levels of polluting chemicals in the environment. What is sustainability? How can we contribute to the sustainability of life on our planet? Pt 3. Form A Claim Write a claim statement related to the chosen topic. Consider the major question that you are addressing and then develop a statement that will guide your research and writing as you develop your scientific explanation (in Pt 4). Pt 4. Construct a Scientific Explanation Write a scientific explanation that includes evidence and reasoning to support your claim. Your explanation should demonstrate your understanding of the chosen topic using discussion and content from this course as a starting point. Your explanation should include information from a minimum of three (3) sources and one (1) of these sources must be a peer-reviewed scientific article or a review of a scientific study or studies (i.e. a primary or secondary source). You should cite your sources within the body of your explanation and include a list of references at the end (any standard formatting method is acceptable).

. Pt 1. Making Observations (Introduction) Write a brief, introductory paragraph that includes general observations related to the topic. You may consider information from the news, media (tv, movies), social media, popular views, ideas from the general public, or your personal experiences. Your paragraph should specifically mention three (3) observations related to this topic and be sure to cite your sources. You should also include your thoughts on why this topic is of interest to you or relevant to society (i.e. what is the significance?). Pt 2. Apply The Content Choose five (5) terms or concepts that we have covered in this unit that are related to the chosen topic. Define each term in your own words and then write one (1) sentence that explains how it is related to the topic. The concept are: Define evolution. What was Darwin’s role in establishing the theory of evolution? What does the phrase “descent with modification” mean? How are fossils, anatomical studies, and molecular biology used to provide evidence for the theory of evolution? What is “fitness” in a biological organism? What role do mutations have in natural selection? What are the types of natural selection? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What is genetic drift? gene flow? How do they effect the genetic variation in a population? What forces can lead to adaptive evolution? What is the biological definition of a species? What are the three domains of living organisms? What are the six kingdoms? For each kingdom you should be able to describe the cellular structure, means of reproduction, ways of getting nutrients/food, general/adaptive features, and an example organism. How does Helicobacter pylori avoid competition? What extreme environment does a hermoacidophile occupy? What is unique about the Volvox compared to other protists? How do pitcher plants thrive in low nutrient environments? How does the puffball mushroom achieve reproductive success? What adaptations allowed plants to live on the land? What major adaptations occurred in the animal kingdom? In vertebrates? What domain, kingdom, phylum, sub phylum, and class do humans belong to? What do we share with organisms in these groups? What are the ecological levels of the biological hierarchy? What are the elements of a habitat? What are the criteria used by ecologists to measure and observe populations? What common patterns of population distribution are seen in nature? Compare the three kinds of survivorship curves? What do they show? What kind of reproductive behaviors lead to type I, II, and III survivorship curves? How does idealized population growth differ from how actual populations grow? What are factors that affect the growth of a population? How do density-dependent factors affect population growth? What are examples of density-independent factors that can affect population growth? What is a population boom? What is a population bust? Describe the boom and bust cycles often observed in nature. What kinds of competition occur in a habitat? What kinds of symbiotic relationships occur in a habitat? How do organisms avoid predation? What are the levels in a trophic structure? How can plants and animals avoid being eaten? Why is a food web a more accurate representation of the organisms in a community compared to a food chain? Why are most food chains limited to only three or four trophic levels.What are some common threats to biodiversity? What are common types of pollution? Explain why we must be concerned about even small levels of polluting chemicals in the environment. What is sustainability? How can we contribute to the sustainability of life on our planet? Pt 3. Form A Claim Write a claim statement related to the chosen topic. Consider the major question that you are addressing and then develop a statement that will guide your research and writing as you develop your scientific explanation (in Pt 4). Pt 4. Construct a Scientific Explanation Write a scientific explanation that includes evidence and reasoning to support your claim. Your explanation should demonstrate your understanding of the chosen topic using discussion and content from this course as a starting point. Your explanation should include information from a minimum of three (3) sources and one (1) of these sources must be a peer-reviewed scientific article or a review of a scientific study or studies (i.e. a primary or secondary source). You should cite your sources within the body of your explanation and include a list of references at the end (any standard formatting method is acceptable).

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BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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