Assignment 11 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, April 30, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 13.2 The gravitational force of a star on orbiting planet 1 is . Planet 2, which is twice as massive as planet 1 and orbits at twice the distance from the star, experiences gravitational force . Part A What is the ratio ? ANSWER: Correct Conceptual Question 13.3 A 1500 satellite and a 2200 satellite follow exactly the same orbit around the earth. Part A What is the ratio of the force on the first satellite to that on the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct F1 F2 F1 F2 = 2 F1 F2 kg kg F1 F2 = 0.682 F1 F2 Part B What is the ratio of the acceleration of the first satellite to that of the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.2 The centers of a 15.0 lead ball and a 90.0 lead ball are separated by 9.00 . Part A What gravitational force does each exert on the other? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the ratio of this gravitational force to the weight of the 90.0 ball? ANSWER: a1 a2 = 1 a1 a2 kg g cm 1.11×10−8 N g 1.26×10−8 Correct Problem 13.6 The space shuttle orbits 310 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on a 7.5 sphere inside the space shuttle? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ± A Satellite in Orbit A satellite used in a cellular telephone network has a mass of 2310 and is in a circular orbit at a height of 650 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on the satellite? Take the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , the mass of the earth to be = 5.97×1024 , and the radius of the Earth to be = 6.38×106 . Express your answer in newtons. Hint 1. How to approach the problem Use the equation for the law of gravitation to calculate the force on the satellite. Be careful about the units when performing the calculations. km kg Fe on s = 67.0 N kg km Fgrav G N m2/kg2 me kg re m Hint 2. Law of gravitation According to Newton’s law of gravitation, , where is the gravitational constant, and are the masses of the two objects, and is the distance between the centers of mass of the two objects. Hint 3. Calculate the distance between the centers of mass What is the distance from the center of mass of the satellite to the center of mass of the earth? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B What fraction is this of the satellite’s weight at the surface of the earth? Take the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the earth to be = 9.80 . Hint 1. How to approach the problem All you need to do is to take the ratio of the gravitational force on the satellite to the weight of the satellite at ground level. There are two ways to do this, depending on how you define the force of gravity at the surface of the earth. ANSWER: F = Gm1m2/r2 G m1 m2 r r = 7.03×10r 6 m = 1.86×10Fgrav 4 N g m/s2 0.824 Correct Although it is easy to find the weight of the satellite using the constant acceleration due to gravity, it is instructional to consider the weight calculated using the law of gravitation: . Dividing the gravitational force on the satellite by , we find that the ratio of the forces due to the earth’s gravity is simply the square of the ratio of the earth’s radius to the sum of the earth’s radius and the height of the orbit of the satellite above the earth, . This will also be the fraction of the weight of, say, an astronaut in an orbit at the same altitude. Notice that an astronaut’s weight is never zero. When people speak of “weightlessness” in space, what they really mean is “free fall.” Problem 13.8 Part A What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the moon? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the Jupiter? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct w = G m/ me r2e Fgrav = Gmem/(re + h)2 w [re/(re + h)]2 gmoon = 1.62 m s2 gJupiter = 25.9 m s2 Enhanced EOC: Problem 13.14 A rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.90×104 . You may want to review ( pages 362 – 365) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Mathematical Expressions Involving Squares Part A What is its speed when it is very far away from the earth? Express your answer with the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is conserved in this problem? What is the rocket’s initial kinetic energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? What is the rocket’s initial gravitational potential energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? When the rocket is very far away from the Earth, what is its gravitational potential energy? Using conservation of energy, what is the rocket’s kinetic energy when it is very far away from the Earth? Therefore, what is the rocket’s velocity when it is very far away from the Earth? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.13 Part A m/s m m 1.54×104 ms What is the escape speed from Venus? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.17 The asteroid belt circles the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. One asteroid has a period of 4.2 earth years. Part A What is the asteroid’s orbital radius? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the asteroid’s orbital speed? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: vescape = 10.4 km s = 3.89×1011 R m = 1.85×104 v ms Correct Problem 13.32 Part A At what height above the earth is the acceleration due to gravity 15.0% of its value at the surface? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the speed of a satellite orbiting at that height? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.36 Two meteoroids are heading for earth. Their speeds as they cross the moon’s orbit are 2 . 1.01×107 m 4920 ms km/s Part A The first meteoroid is heading straight for earth. What is its speed of impact? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The second misses the earth by 5500 . What is its speed at its closest point? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.2 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates between the 11.0 mark and the 67.0 mark on the track. The glider completes 11.0 oscillations in 32.0 . Part A What is the period of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. v1 = 11.3 km s km v2 = cm cm s ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the amplitude? Express your answer with the appropriate units. 2.91 s 0.344 Hz 2.16 rad s ANSWER: Correct Part E What is the maximum speed of the glider? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Good Vibes: Introduction to Oscillations Learning Goal: To learn the basic terminology and relationships among the main characteristics of simple harmonic motion. Motion that repeats itself over and over is called periodic motion. There are many examples of periodic motion: the earth revolving around the sun, an elastic ball bouncing up and down, or a block attached to a spring oscillating back and forth. The last example differs from the first two, in that it represents a special kind of periodic motion called simple harmonic motion. The conditions that lead to simple harmonic motion are as follows: There must be a position of stable equilibrium. There must be a restoring force acting on the oscillating object. The direction of this force must always point toward the equilibrium, and its magnitude must be directly proportional to the magnitude of the object’s displacement from its equilibrium position. Mathematically, the restoring force is given by , where is the displacement from equilibrium and is a constant that depends on the properties of the oscillating system. The resistive forces in the system must be reasonably small. In this problem, we will introduce some of the basic quantities that describe oscillations and the relationships among them. Consider a block of mass attached to a spring with force constant , as shown in the figure. The spring can be either stretched or compressed. The block slides on a frictionless horizontal surface, as shown. When the spring is relaxed, the block is located at . If the 28.0 cm 60.5 cms F  F = −kx x k m k x = 0 block is pulled to the right a distance and then released, will be the amplitude of the resulting oscillations. Assume that the mechanical energy of the block-spring system remains unchanged in the subsequent motion of the block. Part A After the block is released from , it will ANSWER: Correct As the block begins its motion to the left, it accelerates. Although the restoring force decreases as the block approaches equilibrium, it still pulls the block to the left, so by the time the equilibrium position is reached, the block has gained some speed. It will, therefore, pass the equilibrium position and keep moving, compressing the spring. The spring will now be pushing the block to the right, and the block will slow down, temporarily coming to rest at . After is reached, the block will begin its motion to the right, pushed by the spring. The block will pass the equilibrium position and continue until it reaches , completing one cycle of motion. The motion will then repeat; if, as we’ve assumed, there is no friction, the motion will repeat indefinitely. The time it takes the block to complete one cycle is called the period. Usually, the period is denoted and is measured in seconds. The frequency, denoted , is the number of cycles that are completed per unit of time: . In SI units, is measured in inverse seconds, or hertz ( ). A A x = A remain at rest. move to the left until it reaches equilibrium and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and then begin to move to the right. x = −A x = −A x = −A x = −A x = A T f f = 1/T f Hz Part B If the period is doubled, the frequency is ANSWER: Correct Part C An oscillating object takes 0.10 to complete one cycle; that is, its period is 0.10 . What is its frequency ? Express your answer in hertz. ANSWER: Correct unchanged. doubled. halved. s s f f = 10 Hz Part D If the frequency is 40 , what is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct The following questions refer to the figure that graphically depicts the oscillations of the block on the spring. Note that the vertical axis represents the x coordinate of the oscillating object, and the horizontal axis represents time. Part E Which points on the x axis are located a distance from the equilibrium position? ANSWER: Hz T T = 0.025 s A Correct Part F Suppose that the period is . Which of the following points on the t axis are separated by the time interval ? ANSWER: Correct Now assume for the remaining Parts G – J, that the x coordinate of point R is 0.12 and the t coordinate of point K is 0.0050 . Part G What is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. Hint 1. How to approach the problem In moving from the point to the point K, what fraction of a full wavelength is covered? Call that fraction . Then you can set . Dividing by the fraction will give the R only Q only both R and Q T T K and L K and M K and P L and N M and P m s T t = 0 a aT = 0.005 s a period . ANSWER: Correct Part H How much time does the block take to travel from the point of maximum displacement to the opposite point of maximum displacement? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct Part I What distance does the object cover during one period of oscillation? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Part J What distance does the object cover between the moments labeled K and N on the graph? T T = 0.02 s t t = 0.01 s d d = 0.48 m d Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.4 Part A What is the amplitude of the oscillation shown in the figure? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct d = 0.36 m A = 20.0 cm Part B What is the frequency of this oscillation? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the phase constant? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.10 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates with a period of 1.50 . At the glider is 4.60 left of the equilibrium position and moving to the right at 33.4 . Part A What is the phase constant? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: f = 0.25 Hz 0 = -60 % s t = 0 s cm cm/s 0 = -2.09 rad Correct Part B What is the phase at ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the phase at ? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the phase at ? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: t = 0.5 s  = 0 rad t = 1.0 s  = 2.09 rad t = 1.5 s  = 4.19 rad Correct Problem 14.12 A 140 air-track glider is attached to a spring. The glider is pushed in 12.2 and released. A student with a stopwatch finds that 14.0 oscillations take 19.0 . Part A What is the spring constant? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.14 The position of a 50 g oscillating mass is given by , where is in s. If necessary, round your answers to three significant figures. Determine: Part A The amplitude. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct g cm s 3.00 Nm x(t) = (2.0 cm)cos(10t − /4) t 2.00 cm Part B The period. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C The spring constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D The phase constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct 0.628 s 5.00 Nm -0.785 rad Part E The initial coordinate of the mass. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part F The initial velocity. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part G The maximum speed. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct 1.41 cm 14.1 cms 20.0 cms Part H The total energy. Express your answer to one decimal place and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part I The velocity at . Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Enhanced EOC: Problem 14.17 A spring with spring constant 16 hangs from the ceiling. A ball is attached to the spring and allowed to come to rest. It is then pulled down 4.0 and released. The ball makes 35 oscillations in 18 seconds. You may want to review ( pages 389 – 391) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions Part A What is its the mass of the ball? 1.0 mJ t = 0.40 s 1.46 cms N/m cm s Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the period of oscillation? What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? How is the angular frequency related to the mass and spring constant? What is the mass? ANSWER: Correct Part B What is its maximum speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the amplitude of the oscillations? How is the maximum speed related to the amplitude of the oscillations and the angular frequency? ANSWER: Correct Changing the Period of a Pendulum m = 110 g vmax = 49 cms A simple pendulum consisting of a bob of mass attached to a string of length swings with a period . Part A If the bob’s mass is doubled, approximately what will the pendulum’s new period be? Hint 1. Period of a simple pendulum The period of a simple pendulum of length is given by , where is the acceleration due to gravity. ANSWER: Correct Part B If the pendulum is brought on the moon where the gravitational acceleration is about , approximately what will its period now be? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall the formula of the period of a simple pendulum. Since the gravitational acceleration appears in the denominator, the period must increase when the gravitational acceleration decreases. m L T T L T = 2 Lg −−  g T/2 T ‘2T 2T g/6 ANSWER: Correct Part C If the pendulum is taken into the orbiting space station what will happen to the bob? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall that the oscillations of a simple pendulum occur when a pendulum bob is raised above its equilibrium position and let go, causing the pendulum bob to fall. The gravitational force acts to bring the bob back to its equilibrium position. In the space station, the earth’s gravity acts on both the station and everything inside it, giving them the same acceleration. These objects are said to be in free fall. ANSWER: Correct In the space station, where all objects undergo the same acceleration due to the earth’s gravity, the tension in the string is zero and the bob does not fall relative to the point to which the string is attached. T/6 T/’6 ‘6T 6T It will continue to oscillate in a vertical plane with the same period. It will no longer oscillate because there is no gravity in space. It will no longer oscillate because both the pendulum and the point to which it is attached are in free fall. It will oscillate much faster with a period that approaches zero. Problem 14.20 A 175 ball is tied to a string. It is pulled to an angle of 8.0 and released to swing as a pendulum. A student with a stopwatch finds that 15 oscillations take 13 . Part A How long is the string? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.22 Part A What is the length of a pendulum whose period on the moon matches the period of a 2.1- -long pendulum on the earth? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.42 An ultrasonic transducer, of the type used in medical ultrasound imaging, is a very thin disk ( = 0.17 ) driven back and forth in SHM at by an electromagnetic coil. g % s L = 19 cm m lmoon = 0.35 m m g 1.0 MHz Part A The maximum restoring force that can be applied to the disk without breaking it is 4.4×104 . What is the maximum oscillation amplitude that won’t rupture the disk? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the disk’s maximum speed at this amplitude? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 94.2%. You received 135.71 out of a possible total of 144 points. N amax = 6.6 μm vmax = 41 ms

Assignment 11 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, April 30, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 13.2 The gravitational force of a star on orbiting planet 1 is . Planet 2, which is twice as massive as planet 1 and orbits at twice the distance from the star, experiences gravitational force . Part A What is the ratio ? ANSWER: Correct Conceptual Question 13.3 A 1500 satellite and a 2200 satellite follow exactly the same orbit around the earth. Part A What is the ratio of the force on the first satellite to that on the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct F1 F2 F1 F2 = 2 F1 F2 kg kg F1 F2 = 0.682 F1 F2 Part B What is the ratio of the acceleration of the first satellite to that of the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.2 The centers of a 15.0 lead ball and a 90.0 lead ball are separated by 9.00 . Part A What gravitational force does each exert on the other? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the ratio of this gravitational force to the weight of the 90.0 ball? ANSWER: a1 a2 = 1 a1 a2 kg g cm 1.11×10−8 N g 1.26×10−8 Correct Problem 13.6 The space shuttle orbits 310 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on a 7.5 sphere inside the space shuttle? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ± A Satellite in Orbit A satellite used in a cellular telephone network has a mass of 2310 and is in a circular orbit at a height of 650 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on the satellite? Take the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , the mass of the earth to be = 5.97×1024 , and the radius of the Earth to be = 6.38×106 . Express your answer in newtons. Hint 1. How to approach the problem Use the equation for the law of gravitation to calculate the force on the satellite. Be careful about the units when performing the calculations. km kg Fe on s = 67.0 N kg km Fgrav G N m2/kg2 me kg re m Hint 2. Law of gravitation According to Newton’s law of gravitation, , where is the gravitational constant, and are the masses of the two objects, and is the distance between the centers of mass of the two objects. Hint 3. Calculate the distance between the centers of mass What is the distance from the center of mass of the satellite to the center of mass of the earth? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B What fraction is this of the satellite’s weight at the surface of the earth? Take the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the earth to be = 9.80 . Hint 1. How to approach the problem All you need to do is to take the ratio of the gravitational force on the satellite to the weight of the satellite at ground level. There are two ways to do this, depending on how you define the force of gravity at the surface of the earth. ANSWER: F = Gm1m2/r2 G m1 m2 r r = 7.03×10r 6 m = 1.86×10Fgrav 4 N g m/s2 0.824 Correct Although it is easy to find the weight of the satellite using the constant acceleration due to gravity, it is instructional to consider the weight calculated using the law of gravitation: . Dividing the gravitational force on the satellite by , we find that the ratio of the forces due to the earth’s gravity is simply the square of the ratio of the earth’s radius to the sum of the earth’s radius and the height of the orbit of the satellite above the earth, . This will also be the fraction of the weight of, say, an astronaut in an orbit at the same altitude. Notice that an astronaut’s weight is never zero. When people speak of “weightlessness” in space, what they really mean is “free fall.” Problem 13.8 Part A What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the moon? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the Jupiter? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct w = G m/ me r2e Fgrav = Gmem/(re + h)2 w [re/(re + h)]2 gmoon = 1.62 m s2 gJupiter = 25.9 m s2 Enhanced EOC: Problem 13.14 A rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.90×104 . You may want to review ( pages 362 – 365) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Mathematical Expressions Involving Squares Part A What is its speed when it is very far away from the earth? Express your answer with the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is conserved in this problem? What is the rocket’s initial kinetic energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? What is the rocket’s initial gravitational potential energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? When the rocket is very far away from the Earth, what is its gravitational potential energy? Using conservation of energy, what is the rocket’s kinetic energy when it is very far away from the Earth? Therefore, what is the rocket’s velocity when it is very far away from the Earth? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.13 Part A m/s m m 1.54×104 ms What is the escape speed from Venus? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.17 The asteroid belt circles the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. One asteroid has a period of 4.2 earth years. Part A What is the asteroid’s orbital radius? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the asteroid’s orbital speed? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: vescape = 10.4 km s = 3.89×1011 R m = 1.85×104 v ms Correct Problem 13.32 Part A At what height above the earth is the acceleration due to gravity 15.0% of its value at the surface? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the speed of a satellite orbiting at that height? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.36 Two meteoroids are heading for earth. Their speeds as they cross the moon’s orbit are 2 . 1.01×107 m 4920 ms km/s Part A The first meteoroid is heading straight for earth. What is its speed of impact? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The second misses the earth by 5500 . What is its speed at its closest point? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.2 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates between the 11.0 mark and the 67.0 mark on the track. The glider completes 11.0 oscillations in 32.0 . Part A What is the period of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. v1 = 11.3 km s km v2 = cm cm s ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the amplitude? Express your answer with the appropriate units. 2.91 s 0.344 Hz 2.16 rad s ANSWER: Correct Part E What is the maximum speed of the glider? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Good Vibes: Introduction to Oscillations Learning Goal: To learn the basic terminology and relationships among the main characteristics of simple harmonic motion. Motion that repeats itself over and over is called periodic motion. There are many examples of periodic motion: the earth revolving around the sun, an elastic ball bouncing up and down, or a block attached to a spring oscillating back and forth. The last example differs from the first two, in that it represents a special kind of periodic motion called simple harmonic motion. The conditions that lead to simple harmonic motion are as follows: There must be a position of stable equilibrium. There must be a restoring force acting on the oscillating object. The direction of this force must always point toward the equilibrium, and its magnitude must be directly proportional to the magnitude of the object’s displacement from its equilibrium position. Mathematically, the restoring force is given by , where is the displacement from equilibrium and is a constant that depends on the properties of the oscillating system. The resistive forces in the system must be reasonably small. In this problem, we will introduce some of the basic quantities that describe oscillations and the relationships among them. Consider a block of mass attached to a spring with force constant , as shown in the figure. The spring can be either stretched or compressed. The block slides on a frictionless horizontal surface, as shown. When the spring is relaxed, the block is located at . If the 28.0 cm 60.5 cms F  F = −kx x k m k x = 0 block is pulled to the right a distance and then released, will be the amplitude of the resulting oscillations. Assume that the mechanical energy of the block-spring system remains unchanged in the subsequent motion of the block. Part A After the block is released from , it will ANSWER: Correct As the block begins its motion to the left, it accelerates. Although the restoring force decreases as the block approaches equilibrium, it still pulls the block to the left, so by the time the equilibrium position is reached, the block has gained some speed. It will, therefore, pass the equilibrium position and keep moving, compressing the spring. The spring will now be pushing the block to the right, and the block will slow down, temporarily coming to rest at . After is reached, the block will begin its motion to the right, pushed by the spring. The block will pass the equilibrium position and continue until it reaches , completing one cycle of motion. The motion will then repeat; if, as we’ve assumed, there is no friction, the motion will repeat indefinitely. The time it takes the block to complete one cycle is called the period. Usually, the period is denoted and is measured in seconds. The frequency, denoted , is the number of cycles that are completed per unit of time: . In SI units, is measured in inverse seconds, or hertz ( ). A A x = A remain at rest. move to the left until it reaches equilibrium and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and then begin to move to the right. x = −A x = −A x = −A x = −A x = A T f f = 1/T f Hz Part B If the period is doubled, the frequency is ANSWER: Correct Part C An oscillating object takes 0.10 to complete one cycle; that is, its period is 0.10 . What is its frequency ? Express your answer in hertz. ANSWER: Correct unchanged. doubled. halved. s s f f = 10 Hz Part D If the frequency is 40 , what is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct The following questions refer to the figure that graphically depicts the oscillations of the block on the spring. Note that the vertical axis represents the x coordinate of the oscillating object, and the horizontal axis represents time. Part E Which points on the x axis are located a distance from the equilibrium position? ANSWER: Hz T T = 0.025 s A Correct Part F Suppose that the period is . Which of the following points on the t axis are separated by the time interval ? ANSWER: Correct Now assume for the remaining Parts G – J, that the x coordinate of point R is 0.12 and the t coordinate of point K is 0.0050 . Part G What is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. Hint 1. How to approach the problem In moving from the point to the point K, what fraction of a full wavelength is covered? Call that fraction . Then you can set . Dividing by the fraction will give the R only Q only both R and Q T T K and L K and M K and P L and N M and P m s T t = 0 a aT = 0.005 s a period . ANSWER: Correct Part H How much time does the block take to travel from the point of maximum displacement to the opposite point of maximum displacement? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct Part I What distance does the object cover during one period of oscillation? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Part J What distance does the object cover between the moments labeled K and N on the graph? T T = 0.02 s t t = 0.01 s d d = 0.48 m d Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.4 Part A What is the amplitude of the oscillation shown in the figure? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct d = 0.36 m A = 20.0 cm Part B What is the frequency of this oscillation? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the phase constant? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.10 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates with a period of 1.50 . At the glider is 4.60 left of the equilibrium position and moving to the right at 33.4 . Part A What is the phase constant? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: f = 0.25 Hz 0 = -60 % s t = 0 s cm cm/s 0 = -2.09 rad Correct Part B What is the phase at ? Express your answer as an integer and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the phase at ? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the phase at ? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: t = 0.5 s  = 0 rad t = 1.0 s  = 2.09 rad t = 1.5 s  = 4.19 rad Correct Problem 14.12 A 140 air-track glider is attached to a spring. The glider is pushed in 12.2 and released. A student with a stopwatch finds that 14.0 oscillations take 19.0 . Part A What is the spring constant? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.14 The position of a 50 g oscillating mass is given by , where is in s. If necessary, round your answers to three significant figures. Determine: Part A The amplitude. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct g cm s 3.00 Nm x(t) = (2.0 cm)cos(10t − /4) t 2.00 cm Part B The period. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C The spring constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D The phase constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct 0.628 s 5.00 Nm -0.785 rad Part E The initial coordinate of the mass. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part F The initial velocity. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part G The maximum speed. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct 1.41 cm 14.1 cms 20.0 cms Part H The total energy. Express your answer to one decimal place and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part I The velocity at . Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Enhanced EOC: Problem 14.17 A spring with spring constant 16 hangs from the ceiling. A ball is attached to the spring and allowed to come to rest. It is then pulled down 4.0 and released. The ball makes 35 oscillations in 18 seconds. You may want to review ( pages 389 – 391) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions Part A What is its the mass of the ball? 1.0 mJ t = 0.40 s 1.46 cms N/m cm s Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the period of oscillation? What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? How is the angular frequency related to the mass and spring constant? What is the mass? ANSWER: Correct Part B What is its maximum speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the amplitude of the oscillations? How is the maximum speed related to the amplitude of the oscillations and the angular frequency? ANSWER: Correct Changing the Period of a Pendulum m = 110 g vmax = 49 cms A simple pendulum consisting of a bob of mass attached to a string of length swings with a period . Part A If the bob’s mass is doubled, approximately what will the pendulum’s new period be? Hint 1. Period of a simple pendulum The period of a simple pendulum of length is given by , where is the acceleration due to gravity. ANSWER: Correct Part B If the pendulum is brought on the moon where the gravitational acceleration is about , approximately what will its period now be? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall the formula of the period of a simple pendulum. Since the gravitational acceleration appears in the denominator, the period must increase when the gravitational acceleration decreases. m L T T L T = 2 Lg −−  g T/2 T ‘2T 2T g/6 ANSWER: Correct Part C If the pendulum is taken into the orbiting space station what will happen to the bob? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall that the oscillations of a simple pendulum occur when a pendulum bob is raised above its equilibrium position and let go, causing the pendulum bob to fall. The gravitational force acts to bring the bob back to its equilibrium position. In the space station, the earth’s gravity acts on both the station and everything inside it, giving them the same acceleration. These objects are said to be in free fall. ANSWER: Correct In the space station, where all objects undergo the same acceleration due to the earth’s gravity, the tension in the string is zero and the bob does not fall relative to the point to which the string is attached. T/6 T/’6 ‘6T 6T It will continue to oscillate in a vertical plane with the same period. It will no longer oscillate because there is no gravity in space. It will no longer oscillate because both the pendulum and the point to which it is attached are in free fall. It will oscillate much faster with a period that approaches zero. Problem 14.20 A 175 ball is tied to a string. It is pulled to an angle of 8.0 and released to swing as a pendulum. A student with a stopwatch finds that 15 oscillations take 13 . Part A How long is the string? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.22 Part A What is the length of a pendulum whose period on the moon matches the period of a 2.1- -long pendulum on the earth? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.42 An ultrasonic transducer, of the type used in medical ultrasound imaging, is a very thin disk ( = 0.17 ) driven back and forth in SHM at by an electromagnetic coil. g % s L = 19 cm m lmoon = 0.35 m m g 1.0 MHz Part A The maximum restoring force that can be applied to the disk without breaking it is 4.4×104 . What is the maximum oscillation amplitude that won’t rupture the disk? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the disk’s maximum speed at this amplitude? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 94.2%. You received 135.71 out of a possible total of 144 points. N amax = 6.6 μm vmax = 41 ms

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Assignment 11 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, April 30, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 13.2 The gravitational force of a star on orbiting planet 1 is . Planet 2, which is twice as massive as planet 1 and orbits at twice the distance from the star, experiences gravitational force . Part A What is the ratio ? ANSWER: Correct Conceptual Question 13.3 A 1500 satellite and a 2200 satellite follow exactly the same orbit around the earth. Part A What is the ratio of the force on the first satellite to that on the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct F1 F2 F1 F2 = 2 F1 F2 kg kg F1 F2 = 0.682 F1 F2 Part B What is the ratio of the acceleration of the first satellite to that of the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.2 The centers of a 15.0 lead ball and a 90.0 lead ball are separated by 9.00 . Part A What gravitational force does each exert on the other? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the ratio of this gravitational force to the weight of the 90.0 ball? ANSWER: a1 a2 = 1 a1 a2 kg g cm 1.11×10−8 N g 1.26×10−8 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 13.6 The space shuttle orbits 310 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on a 7.5 sphere inside the space shuttle? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ± A Satellite in Orbit A satellite used in a cellular telephone network has a mass of 2310 and is in a circular orbit at a height of 650 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on the satellite? Take the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , the mass of the earth to be = 5.97×1024 , and the radius of the Earth to be = 6.38×106 . Express your answer in newtons. Hint 1. How to approach the problem Use the equation for the law of gravitation to calculate the force on the satellite. Be careful about the units when performing the calculations. km kg Fe on s = 67.0 N kg km Fgrav G N m2/kg2 me kg re m Typesetting math: 100% Hint 2. Law of gravitation According to Newton’s law of gravitation, , where is the gravitational constant, and are the masses of the two objects, and is the distance between the centers of mass of the two objects. Hint 3. Calculate the distance between the centers of mass What is the distance from the center of mass of the satellite to the center of mass of the earth? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B What fraction is this of the satellite’s weight at the surface of the earth? Take the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the earth to be = 9.80 . Hint 1. How to approach the problem All you need to do is to take the ratio of the gravitational force on the satellite to the weight of the satellite at ground level. There are two ways to do this, depending on how you define the force of gravity at the surface of the earth. ANSWER: F = Gm1m2/r2 G m1 m2 r r = 7.03×10r 6 m = 1.86×10Fgrav 4 N g m/s2 0.824 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Although it is easy to find the weight of the satellite using the constant acceleration due to gravity, it is instructional to consider the weight calculated using the law of gravitation: . Dividing the gravitational force on the satellite by , we find that the ratio of the forces due to the earth’s gravity is simply the square of the ratio of the earth’s radius to the sum of the earth’s radius and the height of the orbit of the satellite above the earth, . This will also be the fraction of the weight of, say, an astronaut in an orbit at the same altitude. Notice that an astronaut’s weight is never zero. When people speak of “weightlessness” in space, what they really mean is “free fall.” Problem 13.8 Part A What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the moon? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the Jupiter? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct w = G m/ me r2e Fgrav = Gmem/(re + h)2 w [re/(re + h)]2 gmoon = 1.62 m s2 gJupiter = 25.9 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Enhanced EOC: Problem 13.14 A rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.90×104 . You may want to review ( pages 362 – 365) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Mathematical Expressions Involving Squares Part A What is its speed when it is very far away from the earth? Express your answer with the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is conserved in this problem? What is the rocket’s initial kinetic energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? What is the rocket’s initial gravitational potential energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? When the rocket is very far away from the Earth, what is its gravitational potential energy? Using conservation of energy, what is the rocket’s kinetic energy when it is very far away from the Earth? Therefore, what is the rocket’s velocity when it is very far away from the Earth? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.13 Part A m/s m m 1.54×104 ms Typesetting math: 100% What is the escape speed from Venus? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.17 The asteroid belt circles the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. One asteroid has a period of 4.2 earth years. Part A What is the asteroid’s orbital radius? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the asteroid’s orbital speed? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: vescape = 10.4 km s = 3.89×1011 R m = 1.85×104 v ms Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 13.32 Part A At what height above the earth is the acceleration due to gravity 15.0% of its value at the surface? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the speed of a satellite orbiting at that height? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.36 Two meteoroids are heading for earth. Their speeds as they cross the moon’s orbit are 2 . 1.01×107 m 4920 ms km/s Typesetting math: 100% Part A The first meteoroid is heading straight for earth. What is its speed of impact? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The second misses the earth by 5500 . What is its speed at its closest point? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.2 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates between the 11.0 mark and the 67.0 mark on the track. The glider completes 11.0 oscillations in 32.0 . Part A What is the period of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. v1 = 11.3 km s km v2 = cm cm s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the amplitude? Express your answer with the appropriate units. 2.91 s 0.344 Hz 2.16 rad s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part E What is the maximum speed of the glider? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Good Vibes: Introduction to Oscillations Learning Goal: To learn the basic terminology and relationships among the main characteristics of simple harmonic motion. Motion that repeats itself over and over is called periodic motion. There are many examples of periodic motion: the earth revolving around the sun, an elastic ball bouncing up and down, or a block attached to a spring oscillating back and forth. The last example differs from the first two, in that it represents a special kind of periodic motion called simple harmonic motion. The conditions that lead to simple harmonic motion are as follows: There must be a position of stable equilibrium. There must be a restoring force acting on the oscillating object. The direction of this force must always point toward the equilibrium, and its magnitude must be directly proportional to the magnitude of the object’s displacement from its equilibrium position. Mathematically, the restoring force is given by , where is the displacement from equilibrium and is a constant that depends on the properties of the oscillating system. The resistive forces in the system must be reasonably small. In this problem, we will introduce some of the basic quantities that describe oscillations and the relationships among them. Consider a block of mass attached to a spring with force constant , as shown in the figure. The spring can be either stretched or compressed. The block slides on a frictionless horizontal surface, as shown. When the spring is relaxed, the block is located at . If the 28.0 cm 60.5 cms F  F = −kx x k m k x = 0 Typesetting math: 100% block is pulled to the right a distance and then released, will be the amplitude of the resulting oscillations. Assume that the mechanical energy of the block-spring system remains unchanged in the subsequent motion of the block. Part A After the block is released from , it will ANSWER: Correct As the block begins its motion to the left, it accelerates. Although the restoring force decreases as the block approaches equilibrium, it still pulls the block to the left, so by the time the equilibrium position is reached, the block has gained some speed. It will, therefore, pass the equilibrium position and keep moving, compressing the spring. The spring will now be pushing the block to the right, and the block will slow down, temporarily coming to rest at . After is reached, the block will begin its motion to the right, pushed by the spring. The block will pass the equilibrium position and continue until it reaches , completing one cycle of motion. The motion will then repeat; if, as we’ve assumed, there is no friction, the motion will repeat indefinitely. The time it takes the block to complete one cycle is called the period. Usually, the period is denoted and is measured in seconds. The frequency, denoted , is the number of cycles that are completed per unit of time: . In SI units, is measured in inverse seconds, or hertz ( ). A A x = A remain at rest. move to the left until it reaches equilibrium and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and then begin to move to the right. x = −A x = −A x = −A x = −A x = A T f f = 1/T f Hz Typesetting math: 100% Part B If the period is doubled, the frequency is ANSWER: Correct Part C An oscillating object takes 0.10 to complete one cycle; that is, its period is 0.10 . What is its frequency ? Express your answer in hertz. ANSWER: Correct unchanged. doubled. halved. s s f f = 10 Hz Typesetting math: 100% Part D If the frequency is 40 , what is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct The following questions refer to the figure that graphically depicts the oscillations of the block on the spring. Note that the vertical axis represents the x coordinate of the oscillating object, and the horizontal axis represents time. Part E Which points on the x axis are located a distance from the equilibrium position? ANSWER: Hz T T = 0.025 s A Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part F Suppose that the period is . Which of the following points on the t axis are separated by the time interval ? ANSWER: Correct Now assume for the remaining Parts G – J, that the x coordinate of point R is 0.12 and the t coordinate of point K is 0.0050 . Part G What is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. Hint 1. How to approach the problem In moving from the point to the point K, what fraction of a full wavelength is covered? Call that fraction . Then you can set . Dividing by the fraction will give the R only Q only both R and Q T T K and L K and M K and P L and N M and P m s T t = 0 a aT = 0.005 s a Typesetting math: 100% period . ANSWER: Correct Part H How much time does the block take to travel from the point of maximum displacement to the opposite point of maximum displacement? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct Part I What distance does the object cover during one period of oscillation? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Part J What distance does the object cover between the moments labeled K and N on the graph? T T = 0.02 s t t = 0.01 s d d = 0.48 m d Typesetting math: 100% Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.4 Part A What is the amplitude of the oscillation shown in the figure? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct d = 0.36 m A = 20.0 cm Typesetting math: 100% Part B What is the frequency of this oscillation? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the phase constant? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.10 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates with a period of 1.50 . At the glider is 4.60 left of the equilibrium position and moving to the right at 33.4 . Part A What is the phase constant? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: f = 0.25 Hz 0 = s t = 0 s cm cm/s Typesetting math: 100% Incorrect; Try Again Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Problem 14.12 A 140 air-track glider is attached to a spring. The glider is pushed in 12.2 and released. A student with a stopwatch finds that 14.0 oscillations take 19.0 . Part A What is the spring constant? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: 0 = g cm s Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 14.14 The position of a 50 g oscillating mass is given by , where is in s. If necessary, round your answers to three significant figures. Determine: Part A The amplitude. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The period. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C 3.00 Nm x(t) = (2.0 cm)cos(10t − /4) t 2.00 cm 0.628 s Typesetting math: 100% The spring constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part D The phase constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G Typesetting math: 100% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part I This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Enhanced EOC: Problem 14.17 A spring with spring constant 16 hangs from the ceiling. A ball is attached to the spring and allowed to come to rest. It is then pulled down 4.0 and released. The ball makes 35 oscillations in 18 seconds. You may want to review ( pages 389 – 391) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions Part A What is its the mass of the ball? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the period of oscillation? What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? How is the angular frequency related to the mass and spring constant? What is the mass? N/m cm s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part B What is its maximum speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the amplitude of the oscillations? How is the maximum speed related to the amplitude of the oscillations and the angular frequency? ANSWER: Correct Changing the Period of a Pendulum A simple pendulum consisting of a bob of mass attached to a string of length swings with a period . Part A If the bob’s mass is doubled, approximately what will the pendulum’s new period be? Hint 1. Period of a simple pendulum The period of a simple pendulum of length is given by m = 110 g vmax = 49 cms m L T Typesetting math: 10T0% L , where is the acceleration due to gravity. ANSWER: Correct Part B If the pendulum is brought on the moon where the gravitational acceleration is about , approximately what will its period now be? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall the formula of the period of a simple pendulum. Since the gravitational acceleration appears in the denominator, the period must increase when the gravitational acceleration decreases. ANSWER: T = 2 Lg −−  g T/2 T &2T 2T g/6 T/6 T/&6 &6T 6T Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C If the pendulum is taken into the orbiting space station what will happen to the bob? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall that the oscillations of a simple pendulum occur when a pendulum bob is raised above its equilibrium position and let go, causing the pendulum bob to fall. The gravitational force acts to bring the bob back to its equilibrium position. In the space station, the earth’s gravity acts on both the station and everything inside it, giving them the same acceleration. These objects are said to be in free fall. ANSWER: Correct In the space station, where all objects undergo the same acceleration due to the earth’s gravity, the tension in the string is zero and the bob does not fall relative to the point to which the string is attached. Problem 14.20 A 175 ball is tied to a string. It is pulled to an angle of 8.0 and released to swing as a pendulum. A student with a stopwatch finds that 15 oscillations take 13 . Part A How long is the string? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. It will continue to oscillate in a vertical plane with the same period. It will no longer oscillate because there is no gravity in space. It will no longer oscillate because both the pendulum and the point to which it is attached are in free fall. It will oscillate much faster with a period that approaches zero. g ( s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.22 Part A What is the length of a pendulum whose period on the moon matches the period of a 2.1- -long pendulum on the earth? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.42 An ultrasonic transducer, of the type used in medical ultrasound imaging, is a very thin disk ( = 0.17 ) driven back and forth in SHM at by an electromagnetic coil. Part A The maximum restoring force that can be applied to the disk without breaking it is 4.4×104 . What is the maximum oscillation amplitude that won’t rupture the disk? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: L = 19 cm m lmoon = 0.35 m m g 1.0 MHz N amax = 6.6 μm Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B What is the disk’s maximum speed at this amplitude? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 81.4%. You received 117.25 out of a possible total of 144 points. vmax = 41 ms

Assignment 11 Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, April 30, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Conceptual Question 13.2 The gravitational force of a star on orbiting planet 1 is . Planet 2, which is twice as massive as planet 1 and orbits at twice the distance from the star, experiences gravitational force . Part A What is the ratio ? ANSWER: Correct Conceptual Question 13.3 A 1500 satellite and a 2200 satellite follow exactly the same orbit around the earth. Part A What is the ratio of the force on the first satellite to that on the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct F1 F2 F1 F2 = 2 F1 F2 kg kg F1 F2 = 0.682 F1 F2 Part B What is the ratio of the acceleration of the first satellite to that of the second satellite? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.2 The centers of a 15.0 lead ball and a 90.0 lead ball are separated by 9.00 . Part A What gravitational force does each exert on the other? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the ratio of this gravitational force to the weight of the 90.0 ball? ANSWER: a1 a2 = 1 a1 a2 kg g cm 1.11×10−8 N g 1.26×10−8 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 13.6 The space shuttle orbits 310 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on a 7.5 sphere inside the space shuttle? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct ± A Satellite in Orbit A satellite used in a cellular telephone network has a mass of 2310 and is in a circular orbit at a height of 650 above the surface of the earth. Part A What is the gravitational force on the satellite? Take the gravitational constant to be = 6.67×10−11 , the mass of the earth to be = 5.97×1024 , and the radius of the Earth to be = 6.38×106 . Express your answer in newtons. Hint 1. How to approach the problem Use the equation for the law of gravitation to calculate the force on the satellite. Be careful about the units when performing the calculations. km kg Fe on s = 67.0 N kg km Fgrav G N m2/kg2 me kg re m Typesetting math: 100% Hint 2. Law of gravitation According to Newton’s law of gravitation, , where is the gravitational constant, and are the masses of the two objects, and is the distance between the centers of mass of the two objects. Hint 3. Calculate the distance between the centers of mass What is the distance from the center of mass of the satellite to the center of mass of the earth? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: ANSWER: Correct Part B What fraction is this of the satellite’s weight at the surface of the earth? Take the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the earth to be = 9.80 . Hint 1. How to approach the problem All you need to do is to take the ratio of the gravitational force on the satellite to the weight of the satellite at ground level. There are two ways to do this, depending on how you define the force of gravity at the surface of the earth. ANSWER: F = Gm1m2/r2 G m1 m2 r r = 7.03×10r 6 m = 1.86×10Fgrav 4 N g m/s2 0.824 Typesetting math: 100% Correct Although it is easy to find the weight of the satellite using the constant acceleration due to gravity, it is instructional to consider the weight calculated using the law of gravitation: . Dividing the gravitational force on the satellite by , we find that the ratio of the forces due to the earth’s gravity is simply the square of the ratio of the earth’s radius to the sum of the earth’s radius and the height of the orbit of the satellite above the earth, . This will also be the fraction of the weight of, say, an astronaut in an orbit at the same altitude. Notice that an astronaut’s weight is never zero. When people speak of “weightlessness” in space, what they really mean is “free fall.” Problem 13.8 Part A What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the moon? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the free-fall acceleration at the surface of the Jupiter? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct w = G m/ me r2e Fgrav = Gmem/(re + h)2 w [re/(re + h)]2 gmoon = 1.62 m s2 gJupiter = 25.9 m s2 Typesetting math: 100% Enhanced EOC: Problem 13.14 A rocket is launched straight up from the earth’s surface at a speed of 1.90×104 . You may want to review ( pages 362 – 365) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Mathematical Expressions Involving Squares Part A What is its speed when it is very far away from the earth? Express your answer with the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is conserved in this problem? What is the rocket’s initial kinetic energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? What is the rocket’s initial gravitational potential energy in terms of its unknown mass, ? When the rocket is very far away from the Earth, what is its gravitational potential energy? Using conservation of energy, what is the rocket’s kinetic energy when it is very far away from the Earth? Therefore, what is the rocket’s velocity when it is very far away from the Earth? ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.13 Part A m/s m m 1.54×104 ms Typesetting math: 100% What is the escape speed from Venus? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.17 The asteroid belt circles the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. One asteroid has a period of 4.2 earth years. Part A What is the asteroid’s orbital radius? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the asteroid’s orbital speed? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: vescape = 10.4 km s = 3.89×1011 R m = 1.85×104 v ms Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 13.32 Part A At what height above the earth is the acceleration due to gravity 15.0% of its value at the surface? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the speed of a satellite orbiting at that height? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 13.36 Two meteoroids are heading for earth. Their speeds as they cross the moon’s orbit are 2 . 1.01×107 m 4920 ms km/s Typesetting math: 100% Part A The first meteoroid is heading straight for earth. What is its speed of impact? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The second misses the earth by 5500 . What is its speed at its closest point? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.2 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates between the 11.0 mark and the 67.0 mark on the track. The glider completes 11.0 oscillations in 32.0 . Part A What is the period of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. v1 = 11.3 km s km v2 = cm cm s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part B What is the frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part D What is the amplitude? Express your answer with the appropriate units. 2.91 s 0.344 Hz 2.16 rad s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part E What is the maximum speed of the glider? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Good Vibes: Introduction to Oscillations Learning Goal: To learn the basic terminology and relationships among the main characteristics of simple harmonic motion. Motion that repeats itself over and over is called periodic motion. There are many examples of periodic motion: the earth revolving around the sun, an elastic ball bouncing up and down, or a block attached to a spring oscillating back and forth. The last example differs from the first two, in that it represents a special kind of periodic motion called simple harmonic motion. The conditions that lead to simple harmonic motion are as follows: There must be a position of stable equilibrium. There must be a restoring force acting on the oscillating object. The direction of this force must always point toward the equilibrium, and its magnitude must be directly proportional to the magnitude of the object’s displacement from its equilibrium position. Mathematically, the restoring force is given by , where is the displacement from equilibrium and is a constant that depends on the properties of the oscillating system. The resistive forces in the system must be reasonably small. In this problem, we will introduce some of the basic quantities that describe oscillations and the relationships among them. Consider a block of mass attached to a spring with force constant , as shown in the figure. The spring can be either stretched or compressed. The block slides on a frictionless horizontal surface, as shown. When the spring is relaxed, the block is located at . If the 28.0 cm 60.5 cms F  F = −kx x k m k x = 0 Typesetting math: 100% block is pulled to the right a distance and then released, will be the amplitude of the resulting oscillations. Assume that the mechanical energy of the block-spring system remains unchanged in the subsequent motion of the block. Part A After the block is released from , it will ANSWER: Correct As the block begins its motion to the left, it accelerates. Although the restoring force decreases as the block approaches equilibrium, it still pulls the block to the left, so by the time the equilibrium position is reached, the block has gained some speed. It will, therefore, pass the equilibrium position and keep moving, compressing the spring. The spring will now be pushing the block to the right, and the block will slow down, temporarily coming to rest at . After is reached, the block will begin its motion to the right, pushed by the spring. The block will pass the equilibrium position and continue until it reaches , completing one cycle of motion. The motion will then repeat; if, as we’ve assumed, there is no friction, the motion will repeat indefinitely. The time it takes the block to complete one cycle is called the period. Usually, the period is denoted and is measured in seconds. The frequency, denoted , is the number of cycles that are completed per unit of time: . In SI units, is measured in inverse seconds, or hertz ( ). A A x = A remain at rest. move to the left until it reaches equilibrium and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and stop there. move to the left until it reaches and then begin to move to the right. x = −A x = −A x = −A x = −A x = A T f f = 1/T f Hz Typesetting math: 100% Part B If the period is doubled, the frequency is ANSWER: Correct Part C An oscillating object takes 0.10 to complete one cycle; that is, its period is 0.10 . What is its frequency ? Express your answer in hertz. ANSWER: Correct unchanged. doubled. halved. s s f f = 10 Hz Typesetting math: 100% Part D If the frequency is 40 , what is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct The following questions refer to the figure that graphically depicts the oscillations of the block on the spring. Note that the vertical axis represents the x coordinate of the oscillating object, and the horizontal axis represents time. Part E Which points on the x axis are located a distance from the equilibrium position? ANSWER: Hz T T = 0.025 s A Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part F Suppose that the period is . Which of the following points on the t axis are separated by the time interval ? ANSWER: Correct Now assume for the remaining Parts G – J, that the x coordinate of point R is 0.12 and the t coordinate of point K is 0.0050 . Part G What is the period ? Express your answer in seconds. Hint 1. How to approach the problem In moving from the point to the point K, what fraction of a full wavelength is covered? Call that fraction . Then you can set . Dividing by the fraction will give the R only Q only both R and Q T T K and L K and M K and P L and N M and P m s T t = 0 a aT = 0.005 s a Typesetting math: 100% period . ANSWER: Correct Part H How much time does the block take to travel from the point of maximum displacement to the opposite point of maximum displacement? Express your answer in seconds. ANSWER: Correct Part I What distance does the object cover during one period of oscillation? Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Part J What distance does the object cover between the moments labeled K and N on the graph? T T = 0.02 s t t = 0.01 s d d = 0.48 m d Typesetting math: 100% Express your answer in meters. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.4 Part A What is the amplitude of the oscillation shown in the figure? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct d = 0.36 m A = 20.0 cm Typesetting math: 100% Part B What is the frequency of this oscillation? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C What is the phase constant? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Problem 14.10 An air-track glider attached to a spring oscillates with a period of 1.50 . At the glider is 4.60 left of the equilibrium position and moving to the right at 33.4 . Part A What is the phase constant? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: f = 0.25 Hz 0 = s t = 0 s cm cm/s Typesetting math: 100% Incorrect; Try Again Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Problem 14.12 A 140 air-track glider is attached to a spring. The glider is pushed in 12.2 and released. A student with a stopwatch finds that 14.0 oscillations take 19.0 . Part A What is the spring constant? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: 0 = g cm s Typesetting math: 100% Correct Problem 14.14 The position of a 50 g oscillating mass is given by , where is in s. If necessary, round your answers to three significant figures. Determine: Part A The amplitude. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part B The period. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Part C 3.00 Nm x(t) = (2.0 cm)cos(10t − /4) t 2.00 cm 0.628 s Typesetting math: 100% The spring constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Part D The phase constant. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part F This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part G Typesetting math: 100% This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part H This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part I This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Enhanced EOC: Problem 14.17 A spring with spring constant 16 hangs from the ceiling. A ball is attached to the spring and allowed to come to rest. It is then pulled down 4.0 and released. The ball makes 35 oscillations in 18 seconds. You may want to review ( pages 389 – 391) . For help with math skills, you may want to review: Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions Part A What is its the mass of the ball? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the period of oscillation? What is the angular frequency of the oscillations? How is the angular frequency related to the mass and spring constant? What is the mass? N/m cm s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Part B What is its maximum speed? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. Hint 1. How to approach the problem What is the amplitude of the oscillations? How is the maximum speed related to the amplitude of the oscillations and the angular frequency? ANSWER: Correct Changing the Period of a Pendulum A simple pendulum consisting of a bob of mass attached to a string of length swings with a period . Part A If the bob’s mass is doubled, approximately what will the pendulum’s new period be? Hint 1. Period of a simple pendulum The period of a simple pendulum of length is given by m = 110 g vmax = 49 cms m L T Typesetting math: 10T0% L , where is the acceleration due to gravity. ANSWER: Correct Part B If the pendulum is brought on the moon where the gravitational acceleration is about , approximately what will its period now be? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall the formula of the period of a simple pendulum. Since the gravitational acceleration appears in the denominator, the period must increase when the gravitational acceleration decreases. ANSWER: T = 2 Lg −−  g T/2 T &2T 2T g/6 T/6 T/&6 &6T 6T Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part C If the pendulum is taken into the orbiting space station what will happen to the bob? Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall that the oscillations of a simple pendulum occur when a pendulum bob is raised above its equilibrium position and let go, causing the pendulum bob to fall. The gravitational force acts to bring the bob back to its equilibrium position. In the space station, the earth’s gravity acts on both the station and everything inside it, giving them the same acceleration. These objects are said to be in free fall. ANSWER: Correct In the space station, where all objects undergo the same acceleration due to the earth’s gravity, the tension in the string is zero and the bob does not fall relative to the point to which the string is attached. Problem 14.20 A 175 ball is tied to a string. It is pulled to an angle of 8.0 and released to swing as a pendulum. A student with a stopwatch finds that 15 oscillations take 13 . Part A How long is the string? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. It will continue to oscillate in a vertical plane with the same period. It will no longer oscillate because there is no gravity in space. It will no longer oscillate because both the pendulum and the point to which it is attached are in free fall. It will oscillate much faster with a period that approaches zero. g ( s Typesetting math: 100% ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.22 Part A What is the length of a pendulum whose period on the moon matches the period of a 2.1- -long pendulum on the earth? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Problem 14.42 An ultrasonic transducer, of the type used in medical ultrasound imaging, is a very thin disk ( = 0.17 ) driven back and forth in SHM at by an electromagnetic coil. Part A The maximum restoring force that can be applied to the disk without breaking it is 4.4×104 . What is the maximum oscillation amplitude that won’t rupture the disk? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: L = 19 cm m lmoon = 0.35 m m g 1.0 MHz N amax = 6.6 μm Typesetting math: 100% Correct Part B What is the disk’s maximum speed at this amplitude? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units. ANSWER: Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 81.4%. You received 117.25 out of a possible total of 144 points. vmax = 41 ms

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11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices

11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices

11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station … Read More...
1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs … Read More...
An FM radio-station located at Pasadena College with call id KPCC 89.3 broadcasts at carrier frequency of 89.3 MHz. What is the wavelength of the carrier signal of the station? A. 214 cm B. 753 cm C. 0.14 cm D. 336 cm + E. 154 cm

An FM radio-station located at Pasadena College with call id KPCC 89.3 broadcasts at carrier frequency of 89.3 MHz. What is the wavelength of the carrier signal of the station? A. 214 cm B. 753 cm C. 0.14 cm D. 336 cm + E. 154 cm

info@checkyourstudy.com An FM radio-station located at Pasadena College with call … Read More...
1 15325 Pre-work assignment Preparing your conflict scenario (four copies of your scenario must be brought to the workshop) Dear Participant, This letter introduces some pre-course work that is essential for you to complete before arriving at the workshop for the subject Negotiations and Conflict Management: 15325 – in which you are enrolled. The workshop will combine theory and practice in a manner intended to use the wisdom in the room to bring together our thinking about enacting the practices you will learn about. You will bring with you a scenario to work through during the workshop. This letter explains how to write that. 1 The situation (you can give it a title if that helps to frame it for you) Your first task is to identify a situation that is (or in your opinion is) unresolved and has potential to escalate into a matter causing stress, tension, delay or confusion. This may be something at work or in a context where you have the power to take action. You will use fictional names and disguise other facts to ensure confidentiality, but it is essential that this is a real situation – not a hypothetical or fictional one. 2 The Details To enable others to understand the context you will need to describe the following – A The people. Describe each person using the following items – Name – Use a fictional name for each person and do not include more than four others apart from yourself. You can use your own name if you wish or also disguise that as well. General facts about each person – gender, age range, role title, marital status (if relevant) work/life location (if other than yours) Personal characteristics – select at least 5 key words/phrases chosen from the list at the end of this letter Relationship to others in the scenario – boss, subordinate, peer, family member, relative etc. B The context. Type of business or other relevant information to provide a general setting for the moment you will use to describe the unresolved issue. C The event (moment in time). This can be at least partly imagined in that you will need to summarise a lot of information and it might be easier to do so if you write it as conversation even if that has not happened. 2 A sample example written in this way follows. This is a real scenario written by a person who will not be attending the workshop. It took 40 minutes to write. That involved 10 minutes to collect thoughts, select words and frame the setting and then 30 minutes to put it into the words you are reading. The advice is to allow yourself at least this amount of time and also to find a quiet space and time to write your scenario. Example Case Study Title – Where is that space? Setting – a Sydney residential street, in a smallish inner city suburb. There is a main road at one end of the street and a large schoolyard at the other end. At the corner of the street and the main road is a temporary church site whose owners are seeking to extend and develop the site. On the opposite corner is a second hand car yard with the imaginative title of “Junk your Jalopy” (JyJ). Aside from a block of six flats next to the home Eva has lived in for 12 years, all the other residences are single storey homes most built in the first two decades of the 20th century. Most residents have at least one car – often two. Umberto works at JyJ and may be a part owner. He doesn’t live nearby. On a recent occasion Eva, who is reasonably laid back but can be forgetful, was moved to anger by the presence, in the street outside her front door, of a very old and battered panel van that she knew did not belong to any of the residents. It has been there for nearly two weeks and meant that she was parking her car out of sight in a side lane, on land owned by the church. This is not official parking for the street and is often blocked off by the church. Walking to the corner one morning she saw Umberto taking photos of a motorbike and went to raise the issue of the van with him. He is not particularly interested in others’ concerns about the lack of parking and merely wants to make a success of the business. If that means parking extra cars in the street and annoying a few residents he’s opportunistic enough to do so without compunction. Although she is usually fearful of conflict Eva was determined to do something to try and put a stop to JYJ’s habit of parking cars illegally in the residential area. She opened the conversation by asking if Umberto knew anything about the van. He denied all knowledge of it and became quite aggressive (or at least it seemed that way to Eva) about the matter of cars in the street, denying that any were from JyJ, suggesting she talk to the owners of the spare parts yard facing the main road. As Eva tried to ask him to consider the needs and rights of residents, Umberto became ever more inflexible disregarding her issue and suggesting she leave his premises. Although she is quite creative, and has worked for 30 years in a variety of roles Eva is not always able to speak her mind easily, and his denials were not helping. He even began whinging about having to ‘cop the s—t’ for the spare parts yard but resisted the idea of marking his cars so residents could see those parked illegally were not his. 3 As she walked away Eva heard herself say “well if you do nothing about it, then you’ll have to continue copping the s—t, and I hope it hurts”, realising as she did so that she would not be any better off for her efforts. When she got home that night the van was gone – but a different one had arrived within four days. The issue is unresolved. Words to describe the people in your scenario accurate inquisitive empire building adaptable knowledgeable erratic analytical logical fearful of conflict broad in outlook loyal forgetful calm & confident observant frightened of failure caring opportunistic fussy challenging original impatient clever outgoing impulsive competitive outspoken indecisive conscientious perfectionist inflexible conscious of priorities persistent insular consultative persuasive laid back 4 co-operative practical manipulative creative professionally dedicated not interested in others diplomatic Marking Criteria for the Case Study How to get the maximum marks for the case study! For 10 marks – the case study – Accurately uses more than the required number of suggested words to describe the people in the scenario. That is the words used to describe the people are descriptive and placed appropriately to ensure a reader is able to create an informative word picture of each person. The sequence of events is presented in a manner that ensures the current situation, and possible consequences of any future actions, are easily understood by a reader not familiar with the context. Includes enough information to ensure that a stranger does not need to ask additional questions to affirm understanding of the situation as described in the case study. For 8 – 9 marks – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. The words are used correctly. The sequence is reasonably ordered, but readers find they need to ask one or two questions about the actual context, order of events. There is less that a sufficient amount of information to ensure that a stranger will quickly understand the nature of issues that remain unresolved. For 5 – 7 – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. Not all words are used appropriately in the context, but a stranger is able to gain an impression of the people. The sequence of events – as presented in the case study text – needs some re-ordering in response to questions from other readers to enable them to understand the issues. Strangers will need to seek additional information before they feel able to understand the issue and/or the context. For F = less than 5 – the case study – Uses fewer than the set minimum number of words. They do not add to the information about the people. 5 The sequence of events is unclear and does not represent the issue/s in a manner that can be understood by a stranger. A good deal of additional information is required before a stranger can understand the nature of the issues and context.

1 15325 Pre-work assignment Preparing your conflict scenario (four copies of your scenario must be brought to the workshop) Dear Participant, This letter introduces some pre-course work that is essential for you to complete before arriving at the workshop for the subject Negotiations and Conflict Management: 15325 – in which you are enrolled. The workshop will combine theory and practice in a manner intended to use the wisdom in the room to bring together our thinking about enacting the practices you will learn about. You will bring with you a scenario to work through during the workshop. This letter explains how to write that. 1 The situation (you can give it a title if that helps to frame it for you) Your first task is to identify a situation that is (or in your opinion is) unresolved and has potential to escalate into a matter causing stress, tension, delay or confusion. This may be something at work or in a context where you have the power to take action. You will use fictional names and disguise other facts to ensure confidentiality, but it is essential that this is a real situation – not a hypothetical or fictional one. 2 The Details To enable others to understand the context you will need to describe the following – A The people. Describe each person using the following items – Name – Use a fictional name for each person and do not include more than four others apart from yourself. You can use your own name if you wish or also disguise that as well. General facts about each person – gender, age range, role title, marital status (if relevant) work/life location (if other than yours) Personal characteristics – select at least 5 key words/phrases chosen from the list at the end of this letter Relationship to others in the scenario – boss, subordinate, peer, family member, relative etc. B The context. Type of business or other relevant information to provide a general setting for the moment you will use to describe the unresolved issue. C The event (moment in time). This can be at least partly imagined in that you will need to summarise a lot of information and it might be easier to do so if you write it as conversation even if that has not happened. 2 A sample example written in this way follows. This is a real scenario written by a person who will not be attending the workshop. It took 40 minutes to write. That involved 10 minutes to collect thoughts, select words and frame the setting and then 30 minutes to put it into the words you are reading. The advice is to allow yourself at least this amount of time and also to find a quiet space and time to write your scenario. Example Case Study Title – Where is that space? Setting – a Sydney residential street, in a smallish inner city suburb. There is a main road at one end of the street and a large schoolyard at the other end. At the corner of the street and the main road is a temporary church site whose owners are seeking to extend and develop the site. On the opposite corner is a second hand car yard with the imaginative title of “Junk your Jalopy” (JyJ). Aside from a block of six flats next to the home Eva has lived in for 12 years, all the other residences are single storey homes most built in the first two decades of the 20th century. Most residents have at least one car – often two. Umberto works at JyJ and may be a part owner. He doesn’t live nearby. On a recent occasion Eva, who is reasonably laid back but can be forgetful, was moved to anger by the presence, in the street outside her front door, of a very old and battered panel van that she knew did not belong to any of the residents. It has been there for nearly two weeks and meant that she was parking her car out of sight in a side lane, on land owned by the church. This is not official parking for the street and is often blocked off by the church. Walking to the corner one morning she saw Umberto taking photos of a motorbike and went to raise the issue of the van with him. He is not particularly interested in others’ concerns about the lack of parking and merely wants to make a success of the business. If that means parking extra cars in the street and annoying a few residents he’s opportunistic enough to do so without compunction. Although she is usually fearful of conflict Eva was determined to do something to try and put a stop to JYJ’s habit of parking cars illegally in the residential area. She opened the conversation by asking if Umberto knew anything about the van. He denied all knowledge of it and became quite aggressive (or at least it seemed that way to Eva) about the matter of cars in the street, denying that any were from JyJ, suggesting she talk to the owners of the spare parts yard facing the main road. As Eva tried to ask him to consider the needs and rights of residents, Umberto became ever more inflexible disregarding her issue and suggesting she leave his premises. Although she is quite creative, and has worked for 30 years in a variety of roles Eva is not always able to speak her mind easily, and his denials were not helping. He even began whinging about having to ‘cop the s—t’ for the spare parts yard but resisted the idea of marking his cars so residents could see those parked illegally were not his. 3 As she walked away Eva heard herself say “well if you do nothing about it, then you’ll have to continue copping the s—t, and I hope it hurts”, realising as she did so that she would not be any better off for her efforts. When she got home that night the van was gone – but a different one had arrived within four days. The issue is unresolved. Words to describe the people in your scenario accurate inquisitive empire building adaptable knowledgeable erratic analytical logical fearful of conflict broad in outlook loyal forgetful calm & confident observant frightened of failure caring opportunistic fussy challenging original impatient clever outgoing impulsive competitive outspoken indecisive conscientious perfectionist inflexible conscious of priorities persistent insular consultative persuasive laid back 4 co-operative practical manipulative creative professionally dedicated not interested in others diplomatic Marking Criteria for the Case Study How to get the maximum marks for the case study! For 10 marks – the case study – Accurately uses more than the required number of suggested words to describe the people in the scenario. That is the words used to describe the people are descriptive and placed appropriately to ensure a reader is able to create an informative word picture of each person. The sequence of events is presented in a manner that ensures the current situation, and possible consequences of any future actions, are easily understood by a reader not familiar with the context. Includes enough information to ensure that a stranger does not need to ask additional questions to affirm understanding of the situation as described in the case study. For 8 – 9 marks – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. The words are used correctly. The sequence is reasonably ordered, but readers find they need to ask one or two questions about the actual context, order of events. There is less that a sufficient amount of information to ensure that a stranger will quickly understand the nature of issues that remain unresolved. For 5 – 7 – the case study – Uses the set minimum number of words. Not all words are used appropriately in the context, but a stranger is able to gain an impression of the people. The sequence of events – as presented in the case study text – needs some re-ordering in response to questions from other readers to enable them to understand the issues. Strangers will need to seek additional information before they feel able to understand the issue and/or the context. For F = less than 5 – the case study – Uses fewer than the set minimum number of words. They do not add to the information about the people. 5 The sequence of events is unclear and does not represent the issue/s in a manner that can be understood by a stranger. A good deal of additional information is required before a stranger can understand the nature of the issues and context.

(Conflict scenario) Title – Who steal the gold?   Setting: … Read More...
2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 1/22 Assignment 2 Due: 6:43pm on Saturday, February 28, 2015 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Adding and Subtracting Vectors Conceptual Question Six vectors (A to F) have the magnitudes and directions indicated in the figure. Part A Which two vectors, when added, will have the largest (positive) x component? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Which two vectors, when added, will have the largest (positive) y component? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: C and E E and F A and F C and D B and D 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 2/22 Part C Which two vectors, when subtracted (i.e., when one vector is subtracted from the other), will have the largest magnitude? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Components of Vectors Shown is a 10 by 10 grid, with coordinate axes x and y . The grid runs from 5 to 5 on both axes. Drawn on this grid are four vectors, labeled through . This problem will ask you various questions about these vectors. All answers should be in decimal notation, unless otherwise specified. Part A C and D A and F E and F A and B E and D A and F A and E D and B C and D E and F _._ _._ ._ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 3/22 What is the x component of ? Express your answer to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the y component of ? Express your answer to the nearest integer. ANSWER: Part C What is the y component of ? Express your answer to the nearest integer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D What is the component of ? Express your answer to the nearest integer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: _._ _4 = _._ _5 = _._ _5 = 4 _._ _4 = 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 4/22 The following questions will ask you to give both components of vectors using the ordered pairs method. In this method, the x component is written first, followed by a comma, and then the y component. For example, the components of would be written 2.5,3 in ordered pair notation. The answers below are all integers, so estimate the components to the nearest whole number. Part E In ordered pair notation, write down the components of vector . Express your answers to the nearest integer. ANSWER: Part F In ordered pair notation, write down the components of vector . Express your answers to the nearest integer. ANSWER: Part G What is true about and ? Choose from the pulldown list below. ANSWER: Finding the Cross Product The figure shows two vectors and separated by an angle . You are given that , , and . _._ _._ _4, _5 = _._ _4 , _5 = _._ _._ They have different components and are not the same vectors. They have the same components but are not the same vectors. They are the same vectors. _ ._ _._ J56 _ .__ _ _ _ _.__ _ _ _ _ ._g_.__ _ ._ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 5/22 Part A Express as an ordered triplet of values, separated by commas. ANSWER: Part B Find the magnitude of . ANSWER: Part C Find the sine of the angle between and . ANSWER: Significant Figures Conceptual Question In the parts that follow select whether the number presented in statement A is greater than, less than, or equal to the number presented in statement B. Be sure to follow all of the rules concerning significant figures. _ ._ _ ._= _ ._ ]_ ]._ = _ ._ _._ TJO J__ = 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 6/22 Part A Statement A: 2.567 , to two significant figures. Statement B: 2.567 , to three significant figures. Determine the correct relationship between the statements. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Statement A: (2.567 + 3.146 ), to two significant figures. Statement B: (2.567 , to two significant figures) + (3.146 , to two significant figures). Determine the correct relationship between the statements. ANSWER: Part C Statement A: Area of a rectangle with measured length = 2.536 and width = 1.4 . Statement B: Area of a rectangle with measured length = 2.536 and width = 1.41 . Since you are not told specific numbers of significant figures to round to, you must use the rules for multiplying numbers while respecting significant figures. If you need a reminder, consult the hint. Determine the correct relationship between the statements. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: LN LN Statement A is greater than less than equal to Statement B. LN LN LN LN Statement A is greater than less than equal to Statement B. N N N N 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 7/22 ± Vector Dot Product Let vectors , , and . Calculate the following: Part A You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the angle between and ? Express your answer using one significant figure. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C ANSWER: Part D ANSWER: Statement A is greater than less than equal to Statement B. _.__ _ _Ã_ _.__ Ã_ _ _ _.__ Ã_Ã_ _ _._ø _._ = J”# _._ _._ J”# = SBEJBOT __._ø __._ = 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 8/22 Part E Which of the following can be computed? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: and are different vectors with lengths and respectively. Find the following: Part F Express your answer in terms of You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part G If and are perpendicular, You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: _ _._ø __._ = _._ø _._ø _._ _._ø _._ø _._ _._ø _.___._ _ ø _._ _ .__ _ .__ __ __ __ = ø _ .__ _ .__ _ .__ _ .__ = ø _ .__ _ .__ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 9/22 Part H If and are parallel, Express your answer in terms of and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: ± Resolving Vector Components with Trigonometry Often a vector is specified by a magnitude and a direction; for example, a rope with tension exerts a force of magnitude in a direction 35 north of east. This is a good way to think of vectors; however, to calculate results with vectors, it is best to select a coordinate system and manipulate the components of the vectors in that coordinate system. Part A Find the components of the vector with length = 1.00 and angle =20.0 with respect to the x axis as shown. Enter the x component followed by the y component, separated by a comma. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B _ .__ _ .__ __ __ = ø _ .__ _ .__ _ ._ _ È _._ _ C È _._ = ._ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 10/22 Find the components of the vector with length = 1.00 and angle =20.0 with respect to the x axis as shown. Enter the x component followed by the y component, separated by a comma. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Find the components of the vector with length = 1.00 and angle 30.0 as shown. Enter the x component followed by the y component, separated by a comma. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Exercise 1.28 Part A How many dollar bills would you have to stack to reach the moon? (Depending on age, dollar bills can be stacked with about 23 per millimeter.) Express your answer using one significant figure. ANSWER: Problem 1.80 A boulder of weight rests on a hillside that rises at a constant angle above the horizontal, as shown in the figure . Its weight is a force on the boulder that has direction vertically downward. _._ _ D È _._ = _._ _ ] _ È _._ = dollar bills 3 C 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 11/22 Part A In terms of and , what is the component of the weight of the boulder in the direction parallel to the surface of the hill? Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: Part B What is the component of the weight in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the hill? Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: Part C An air conditioner unit is fastened to a roof that slopes upward at an angle of . In order that the unit not slide down the roof, the component of the unit’s weight parallel to the roof cannot exceed 550 N. What is the maximum allowed weight of the unit? ANSWER: Problem 1.84 You are camping with two friends, Joe and Karl. Since all three of you like your privacy, you don’t pitch your tents close together. Joe’s tent is 23.5 from yours, in the direction 19.0 north of east. Karl’s tent is 40.0 from yours, in the direction 36.0 south of east. C 3 C 3 ]3,_. ] = C 3 ]3,!., ] = ____È 3 = / N È N È 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 12/22 Part A What is the distance between Karl’s tent and Joe’s tent? ANSWER: Multiple Choice Question 1.8 Part A The components of vectors and are given as follows: Ax = +5.7 Bx = 9.8 Ay = 3.6 By = 6.5 The magnitude of the vector difference , is closest to: ANSWER: OneDimensional Kinematics with Constant Acceleration Learning Goal: To understand the meaning of the variables that appear in the equations for onedimensional kinematics with constant acceleration. Motion with a constant, nonzero acceleration is not uncommon in the world around us. Falling (or thrown) objects and cars starting and stopping approximate this type of motion. It is also the type of motion most frequently involved in introductory kinematics problems. The kinematic equations for such motion can be written as , , where the symbols are defined as follows: is the position of the particle; _ = N _ ¥ _ ¥ à _ ¥ _ ¥ 5.0 11 5.0 16 250 4 0_ 4J_2J0_ _ __ 0_ 2 0 _ 2J __0 4 0 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 13/22 is the initial position of the particle; is the velocity of the particle; is the initial velocity of the particle; is the acceleration of the particle. In anwering the following questions, assume that the acceleration is constant and nonzero: . Part A The quantity represented by is a function of time (i.e., is not constant). ANSWER: Part B The quantity represented by is a function of time (i.e., is not constant). ANSWER: Part C The quantity represented by is a function of time (i.e., is not constant). ANSWER: Part D The quantity represented by is a function of time (i.e., is not constant). ANSWER: 4J 2 0 2J _ _ Ü _ 4 true false 4J true false 2J true false 2 true false 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 14/22 Part E Which of the given equations is not an explicit function of and is therefore useful when you don’t know or don’t need the time? ANSWER: Part F A particle moves with constant acceleration . The expression represents the particle’s velocity at what instant in time? ANSWER: More generally, the equations of motion can be written as and . Here is the time that has elapsed since the beginning of the particle’s motion, that is, , where is the current time and is the time at which we start measuring the particle’s motion. The terms and are, respectively, the position and velocity at . As you can now see, the equations given at the beginning of this problem correspond to the case , which is a convenient choice if there is only one particle of interest. To illustrate the use of these more general equations, consider the motion of two particles, A and B. The position of particle A depends on time as . That is, particle A starts moving at time with velocity , from . At time , particle B has twice the acceleration, half the velocity, and the same position that particle A had at time . Part G What is the equation describing the position of particle B? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: 0 4_ 4J_2J0_ _ __ 0_ 2 _ 2J __0 _ ___ 4à 2_ 2_J 4J _ 2J __0 only at time only at the “initial” time when a time has passed since the particle’s velocity was 0 _ _ 0 2J 4 0_ 4J_2J 0_ _ 0 __ _ 2 0 _ 2J __ 0 0 0 _ 0Ã0J 0 0J 4J 2J 0 _ 0J 0J _ _ 4″ 0 _ 4J _2J0_ ____0_ 0 _ 0J” _ _ 2J” _ 2J 4J” _ 4J 0 _ 0_ 0 _ _ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 15/22 Part H At what time does the velocity of particle B equal that of particle A? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Given Positions, Find Velocity and Acceleration Learning Goal: To understand how to graph position, velocity, and acceleration of an object starting with a table of positions vs. time. The table shows the x coordinate of a moving object. The position is tabulated at 1s intervals. The x coordinate is indicated below each time. You should make the simplification that the acceleration of the object is bounded and contains no spikes. time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x (m) 0 1 4 9 16 24 32 40 46 48 Part A Which graph best represents the function , describing the object’s position vs. time? 4# 0_ 4J__2J0_ _ __ 0_ 4# 0 _ 4J ____2J0__0_ 4# 0_ 4J__2J 0_0__ _ 0_ __ 0__ 4# 0 _ 4J ____2J 0_0_ __ 0_0_ _ 4# 0_ 4J__2J 0Ã0__ _ 0à __ 0__ 4# 0 _ 4J ____2J 0Ã0_ __ 0Ã0_ _ The two particles never have the same velocity. 0_ 0__ 2J __ 0__0__ 2J __ 0__0__ 2J __ 4 0 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 16/22 You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Which of the following graphs best represents the function , describing the object’s velocity as a function of time? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: 1 2 3 4 2 0 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 17/22 Part C Which of the following graphs best represents the function , describing the acceleration of this object? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: A Man Running to Catch a Bus A man is running at speed (much less than the speed of light) to catch a bus already at a stop. At , when he is a distance from the door to the bus, the bus starts moving with the positive acceleration . Use a coordinate system with at the door of the stopped bus. 1 2 3 4 _ 0 1 2 3 4 _ 0 _ _ _ _ 4 _ _ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 18/22 Part A What is , the position of the man as a function of time? Answer symbolically in terms of the variables , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is , the position of the bus as a function of time? Answer symbolically in terms of and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What condition is necessary for the man to catch the bus? Assume he catches it at time . You did not open hints for this part. 4NBO 0 _ _ 0 4NBO 0 = 4CVT 0 _ 0 4CVT = 0DBUDI 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 19/22 ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Stopping on Snow Light, dry snow is called powder. Skiing on a powder day is different than skiing on a day when the snow is wet and heavy. When you slow down on dry snow the maximum (negative) acceleration caused by the snow acting on your skis is about twofifths as much as that of stopping on wet snow. Part A For a given initial velocity, how does the time it takes to stop on dry snow differ from the time it takes to stop on wet snow? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B For a given initial velocity, how does the stopping distance on dry snow differ from the stopping distance on wet snow? 4NBO 0DBUDI _ 4CVT 0DBUDI 4NBO 0DBUDI _ 4CVT 0DBUDI 4NBO 0DBUDI _ 4CVT 0DBUDI _ _ _ Ç 0DBUDI 0E 0X 0E _ ___0X 0E _ 0X 0E _ ___0X 4E 4X 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 20/22 You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Exercise 2.34 A subway train starts from rest at a station and accelerates at a rate of for 14.0 . It runs at constant speed for 70.0 and slows down at a rate of until it stops at the next station. Part A Find the total distance covered. ANSWER: Problem 2.57 Dan gets on Interstate Highway I280 at Seward, Nebraska, and drives due west in a straight line and at an average velocity of magnitude 88.0 . After traveling 76 km, he reaches the Aurora exit . Realizing he has gone too far, he turns around and drives due east 34 back to the York exit at an average velocity of magnitude 75.0 . Part A For his whole trip from Seward to the York exit, what is his average speed? 4E _ ___4X 4E _ 4X 4E _ ___4X ____ N_T_ T T ____ N_T_ = LN LN_I LN LN_I 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 21/22 ANSWER: Part B For his whole trip from Seward to the York exit, what is the magnitude of his average velocity? ANSWER: Multiple Choice Question 2.1 Part A A train starts from rest and accelerates uniformly, until it has traveled 5.9 km and acquired a velocity of 35 m/s. The train then moves at a constant velocity of 35 m/s for 400 s. The train then decelerates uniformly at 0.065 m/s2, until it is brought to a halt. The acceleration during the first 5.9 km of travel is closest to: ANSWER: Multiple Choice Question 2.8 Part A A racquetball strikes a wall with a speed of 30 m/s and rebounds with a speed of 26 m/s. The collision takes 20 ms. What is the average acceleration of the ball during collision? ANSWER: 2 = LN_I 2 = LN_I 0.13 m/s2 0.11 m/s2 0.12 m/s2 0.10 m/s2 0.093 m/s2 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 18 points. zero 200 m/s2 1500 m/s2 1300 m/s2 2800 m/s2

2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 1/22 Assignment 2 Due: 6:43pm on Saturday, February 28, 2015 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Adding and Subtracting Vectors Conceptual Question Six vectors (A to F) have the magnitudes and directions indicated in the figure. Part A Which two vectors, when added, will have the largest (positive) x component? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Which two vectors, when added, will have the largest (positive) y component? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: C and E E and F A and F C and D B and D 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 2/22 Part C Which two vectors, when subtracted (i.e., when one vector is subtracted from the other), will have the largest magnitude? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Components of Vectors Shown is a 10 by 10 grid, with coordinate axes x and y . The grid runs from 5 to 5 on both axes. Drawn on this grid are four vectors, labeled through . This problem will ask you various questions about these vectors. All answers should be in decimal notation, unless otherwise specified. Part A C and D A and F E and F A and B E and D A and F A and E D and B C and D E and F _._ _._ ._ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 3/22 What is the x component of ? Express your answer to two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the y component of ? Express your answer to the nearest integer. ANSWER: Part C What is the y component of ? Express your answer to the nearest integer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part D What is the component of ? Express your answer to the nearest integer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: _._ _4 = _._ _5 = _._ _5 = 4 _._ _4 = 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 4/22 The following questions will ask you to give both components of vectors using the ordered pairs method. In this method, the x component is written first, followed by a comma, and then the y component. For example, the components of would be written 2.5,3 in ordered pair notation. The answers below are all integers, so estimate the components to the nearest whole number. Part E In ordered pair notation, write down the components of vector . Express your answers to the nearest integer. ANSWER: Part F In ordered pair notation, write down the components of vector . Express your answers to the nearest integer. ANSWER: Part G What is true about and ? Choose from the pulldown list below. ANSWER: Finding the Cross Product The figure shows two vectors and separated by an angle . You are given that , , and . _._ _._ _4, _5 = _._ _4 , _5 = _._ _._ They have different components and are not the same vectors. They have the same components but are not the same vectors. They are the same vectors. _ ._ _._ J56 _ .__ _ _ _ _.__ _ _ _ _ ._g_.__ _ ._ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 5/22 Part A Express as an ordered triplet of values, separated by commas. ANSWER: Part B Find the magnitude of . ANSWER: Part C Find the sine of the angle between and . ANSWER: Significant Figures Conceptual Question In the parts that follow select whether the number presented in statement A is greater than, less than, or equal to the number presented in statement B. Be sure to follow all of the rules concerning significant figures. _ ._ _ ._= _ ._ ]_ ]._ = _ ._ _._ TJO J__ = 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 6/22 Part A Statement A: 2.567 , to two significant figures. Statement B: 2.567 , to three significant figures. Determine the correct relationship between the statements. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Statement A: (2.567 + 3.146 ), to two significant figures. Statement B: (2.567 , to two significant figures) + (3.146 , to two significant figures). Determine the correct relationship between the statements. ANSWER: Part C Statement A: Area of a rectangle with measured length = 2.536 and width = 1.4 . Statement B: Area of a rectangle with measured length = 2.536 and width = 1.41 . Since you are not told specific numbers of significant figures to round to, you must use the rules for multiplying numbers while respecting significant figures. If you need a reminder, consult the hint. Determine the correct relationship between the statements. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: LN LN Statement A is greater than less than equal to Statement B. LN LN LN LN Statement A is greater than less than equal to Statement B. N N N N 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 7/22 ± Vector Dot Product Let vectors , , and . Calculate the following: Part A You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is the angle between and ? Express your answer using one significant figure. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C ANSWER: Part D ANSWER: Statement A is greater than less than equal to Statement B. _.__ _ _Ã_ _.__ Ã_ _ _ _.__ Ã_Ã_ _ _._ø _._ = J”# _._ _._ J”# = SBEJBOT __._ø __._ = 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 8/22 Part E Which of the following can be computed? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: and are different vectors with lengths and respectively. Find the following: Part F Express your answer in terms of You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part G If and are perpendicular, You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: _ _._ø __._ = _._ø _._ø _._ _._ø _._ø _._ _._ø _.___._ _ ø _._ _ .__ _ .__ __ __ __ = ø _ .__ _ .__ _ .__ _ .__ = ø _ .__ _ .__ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 9/22 Part H If and are parallel, Express your answer in terms of and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: ± Resolving Vector Components with Trigonometry Often a vector is specified by a magnitude and a direction; for example, a rope with tension exerts a force of magnitude in a direction 35 north of east. This is a good way to think of vectors; however, to calculate results with vectors, it is best to select a coordinate system and manipulate the components of the vectors in that coordinate system. Part A Find the components of the vector with length = 1.00 and angle =20.0 with respect to the x axis as shown. Enter the x component followed by the y component, separated by a comma. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B _ .__ _ .__ __ __ = ø _ .__ _ .__ _ ._ _ È _._ _ C È _._ = ._ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 10/22 Find the components of the vector with length = 1.00 and angle =20.0 with respect to the x axis as shown. Enter the x component followed by the y component, separated by a comma. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C Find the components of the vector with length = 1.00 and angle 30.0 as shown. Enter the x component followed by the y component, separated by a comma. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Exercise 1.28 Part A How many dollar bills would you have to stack to reach the moon? (Depending on age, dollar bills can be stacked with about 23 per millimeter.) Express your answer using one significant figure. ANSWER: Problem 1.80 A boulder of weight rests on a hillside that rises at a constant angle above the horizontal, as shown in the figure . Its weight is a force on the boulder that has direction vertically downward. _._ _ D È _._ = _._ _ ] _ È _._ = dollar bills 3 C 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 11/22 Part A In terms of and , what is the component of the weight of the boulder in the direction parallel to the surface of the hill? Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: Part B What is the component of the weight in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the hill? Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: Part C An air conditioner unit is fastened to a roof that slopes upward at an angle of . In order that the unit not slide down the roof, the component of the unit’s weight parallel to the roof cannot exceed 550 N. What is the maximum allowed weight of the unit? ANSWER: Problem 1.84 You are camping with two friends, Joe and Karl. Since all three of you like your privacy, you don’t pitch your tents close together. Joe’s tent is 23.5 from yours, in the direction 19.0 north of east. Karl’s tent is 40.0 from yours, in the direction 36.0 south of east. C 3 C 3 ]3,_. ] = C 3 ]3,!., ] = ____È 3 = / N È N È 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 12/22 Part A What is the distance between Karl’s tent and Joe’s tent? ANSWER: Multiple Choice Question 1.8 Part A The components of vectors and are given as follows: Ax = +5.7 Bx = 9.8 Ay = 3.6 By = 6.5 The magnitude of the vector difference , is closest to: ANSWER: OneDimensional Kinematics with Constant Acceleration Learning Goal: To understand the meaning of the variables that appear in the equations for onedimensional kinematics with constant acceleration. Motion with a constant, nonzero acceleration is not uncommon in the world around us. Falling (or thrown) objects and cars starting and stopping approximate this type of motion. It is also the type of motion most frequently involved in introductory kinematics problems. The kinematic equations for such motion can be written as , , where the symbols are defined as follows: is the position of the particle; _ = N _ ¥ _ ¥ à _ ¥ _ ¥ 5.0 11 5.0 16 250 4 0_ 4J_2J0_ _ __ 0_ 2 0 _ 2J __0 4 0 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 13/22 is the initial position of the particle; is the velocity of the particle; is the initial velocity of the particle; is the acceleration of the particle. In anwering the following questions, assume that the acceleration is constant and nonzero: . Part A The quantity represented by is a function of time (i.e., is not constant). ANSWER: Part B The quantity represented by is a function of time (i.e., is not constant). ANSWER: Part C The quantity represented by is a function of time (i.e., is not constant). ANSWER: Part D The quantity represented by is a function of time (i.e., is not constant). ANSWER: 4J 2 0 2J _ _ Ü _ 4 true false 4J true false 2J true false 2 true false 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 14/22 Part E Which of the given equations is not an explicit function of and is therefore useful when you don’t know or don’t need the time? ANSWER: Part F A particle moves with constant acceleration . The expression represents the particle’s velocity at what instant in time? ANSWER: More generally, the equations of motion can be written as and . Here is the time that has elapsed since the beginning of the particle’s motion, that is, , where is the current time and is the time at which we start measuring the particle’s motion. The terms and are, respectively, the position and velocity at . As you can now see, the equations given at the beginning of this problem correspond to the case , which is a convenient choice if there is only one particle of interest. To illustrate the use of these more general equations, consider the motion of two particles, A and B. The position of particle A depends on time as . That is, particle A starts moving at time with velocity , from . At time , particle B has twice the acceleration, half the velocity, and the same position that particle A had at time . Part G What is the equation describing the position of particle B? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: 0 4_ 4J_2J0_ _ __ 0_ 2 _ 2J __0 _ ___ 4à 2_ 2_J 4J _ 2J __0 only at time only at the “initial” time when a time has passed since the particle’s velocity was 0 _ _ 0 2J 4 0_ 4J_2J 0_ _ 0 __ _ 2 0 _ 2J __ 0 0 0 _ 0Ã0J 0 0J 4J 2J 0 _ 0J 0J _ _ 4″ 0 _ 4J _2J0_ ____0_ 0 _ 0J” _ _ 2J” _ 2J 4J” _ 4J 0 _ 0_ 0 _ _ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 15/22 Part H At what time does the velocity of particle B equal that of particle A? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Given Positions, Find Velocity and Acceleration Learning Goal: To understand how to graph position, velocity, and acceleration of an object starting with a table of positions vs. time. The table shows the x coordinate of a moving object. The position is tabulated at 1s intervals. The x coordinate is indicated below each time. You should make the simplification that the acceleration of the object is bounded and contains no spikes. time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x (m) 0 1 4 9 16 24 32 40 46 48 Part A Which graph best represents the function , describing the object’s position vs. time? 4# 0_ 4J__2J0_ _ __ 0_ 4# 0 _ 4J ____2J0__0_ 4# 0_ 4J__2J 0_0__ _ 0_ __ 0__ 4# 0 _ 4J ____2J 0_0_ __ 0_0_ _ 4# 0_ 4J__2J 0Ã0__ _ 0à __ 0__ 4# 0 _ 4J ____2J 0Ã0_ __ 0Ã0_ _ The two particles never have the same velocity. 0_ 0__ 2J __ 0__0__ 2J __ 0__0__ 2J __ 4 0 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 16/22 You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B Which of the following graphs best represents the function , describing the object’s velocity as a function of time? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: 1 2 3 4 2 0 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 17/22 Part C Which of the following graphs best represents the function , describing the acceleration of this object? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: A Man Running to Catch a Bus A man is running at speed (much less than the speed of light) to catch a bus already at a stop. At , when he is a distance from the door to the bus, the bus starts moving with the positive acceleration . Use a coordinate system with at the door of the stopped bus. 1 2 3 4 _ 0 1 2 3 4 _ 0 _ _ _ _ 4 _ _ 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 18/22 Part A What is , the position of the man as a function of time? Answer symbolically in terms of the variables , , and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B What is , the position of the bus as a function of time? Answer symbolically in terms of and . You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C What condition is necessary for the man to catch the bus? Assume he catches it at time . You did not open hints for this part. 4NBO 0 _ _ 0 4NBO 0 = 4CVT 0 _ 0 4CVT = 0DBUDI 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 19/22 ANSWER: Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Stopping on Snow Light, dry snow is called powder. Skiing on a powder day is different than skiing on a day when the snow is wet and heavy. When you slow down on dry snow the maximum (negative) acceleration caused by the snow acting on your skis is about twofifths as much as that of stopping on wet snow. Part A For a given initial velocity, how does the time it takes to stop on dry snow differ from the time it takes to stop on wet snow? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part B For a given initial velocity, how does the stopping distance on dry snow differ from the stopping distance on wet snow? 4NBO 0DBUDI _ 4CVT 0DBUDI 4NBO 0DBUDI _ 4CVT 0DBUDI 4NBO 0DBUDI _ 4CVT 0DBUDI _ _ _ Ç 0DBUDI 0E 0X 0E _ ___0X 0E _ 0X 0E _ ___0X 4E 4X 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 20/22 You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Exercise 2.34 A subway train starts from rest at a station and accelerates at a rate of for 14.0 . It runs at constant speed for 70.0 and slows down at a rate of until it stops at the next station. Part A Find the total distance covered. ANSWER: Problem 2.57 Dan gets on Interstate Highway I280 at Seward, Nebraska, and drives due west in a straight line and at an average velocity of magnitude 88.0 . After traveling 76 km, he reaches the Aurora exit . Realizing he has gone too far, he turns around and drives due east 34 back to the York exit at an average velocity of magnitude 75.0 . Part A For his whole trip from Seward to the York exit, what is his average speed? 4E _ ___4X 4E _ 4X 4E _ ___4X ____ N_T_ T T ____ N_T_ = LN LN_I LN LN_I 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 =3484333 21/22 ANSWER: Part B For his whole trip from Seward to the York exit, what is the magnitude of his average velocity? ANSWER: Multiple Choice Question 2.1 Part A A train starts from rest and accelerates uniformly, until it has traveled 5.9 km and acquired a velocity of 35 m/s. The train then moves at a constant velocity of 35 m/s for 400 s. The train then decelerates uniformly at 0.065 m/s2, until it is brought to a halt. The acceleration during the first 5.9 km of travel is closest to: ANSWER: Multiple Choice Question 2.8 Part A A racquetball strikes a wall with a speed of 30 m/s and rebounds with a speed of 26 m/s. The collision takes 20 ms. What is the average acceleration of the ball during collision? ANSWER: 2 = LN_I 2 = LN_I 0.13 m/s2 0.11 m/s2 0.12 m/s2 0.10 m/s2 0.093 m/s2 2/24/2015 Assignment 2 Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0.0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 18 points. zero 200 m/s2 1500 m/s2 1300 m/s2 2800 m/s2

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Essential Statistics for Public Managers and Policy Analysts / Edition 3 by Evan M Berman, Xiaohu Wang 1-Use the public perception dataset. Is the relationship between watching Orange TV (watch), the county’s cable television station, and trusting the government to do what is right most of the time (trust) statistically significant? Do you consider this a causal relationship or an association? Does the analysis satisfy the assumptions of the Chi-square test? If not, how might you address this problem? 2-Use the public perception dataset. Examine the relationship between residents who trust the county government to do what is right most of the time (trust) and their belief that county government works efficiently (works). What is the practical significant of this relationship? 3-Use the public perception dataset. In Chapter 10 of this workbook, you used Chi-square to examine the relationship between residents who trust the county government to do what is right most of the time (trust) and their belief that county government works efficiently (works). Reexamine this relationship using measures of gamma, Somer’s d, Kendall’s tau-c. What do you conclude? 4-Table W 12.1 is the printout of a t-test (independent samples). The continuous variable is an index variable of environmental concern. The dichotomous variable is a measure of education (college versus no college). Interpret and write up the results. What other information would you like to have about this relationship? 5-Table W 12.2 is the printout of a period-samples t-test. The data are before-and-after measurements of a public safety program. Interpret and write up the results. What other information would you like to have about this relationship? 6-Use the Public Perception dataset. An analyst wants to know whether incomes vary by age group. Treat the income variable as a continuous variable, and treat the age variable as an ordinal variable. Calculate the means for each of these groups, and then use ANOVA to determine whether any of these differences are statistically significant. For which group is the relationship linear?

Essential Statistics for Public Managers and Policy Analysts / Edition 3 by Evan M Berman, Xiaohu Wang 1-Use the public perception dataset. Is the relationship between watching Orange TV (watch), the county’s cable television station, and trusting the government to do what is right most of the time (trust) statistically significant? Do you consider this a causal relationship or an association? Does the analysis satisfy the assumptions of the Chi-square test? If not, how might you address this problem? 2-Use the public perception dataset. Examine the relationship between residents who trust the county government to do what is right most of the time (trust) and their belief that county government works efficiently (works). What is the practical significant of this relationship? 3-Use the public perception dataset. In Chapter 10 of this workbook, you used Chi-square to examine the relationship between residents who trust the county government to do what is right most of the time (trust) and their belief that county government works efficiently (works). Reexamine this relationship using measures of gamma, Somer’s d, Kendall’s tau-c. What do you conclude? 4-Table W 12.1 is the printout of a t-test (independent samples). The continuous variable is an index variable of environmental concern. The dichotomous variable is a measure of education (college versus no college). Interpret and write up the results. What other information would you like to have about this relationship? 5-Table W 12.2 is the printout of a period-samples t-test. The data are before-and-after measurements of a public safety program. Interpret and write up the results. What other information would you like to have about this relationship? 6-Use the Public Perception dataset. An analyst wants to know whether incomes vary by age group. Treat the income variable as a continuous variable, and treat the age variable as an ordinal variable. Calculate the means for each of these groups, and then use ANOVA to determine whether any of these differences are statistically significant. For which group is the relationship linear?

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