Lab #03 Studying Beam Flexion Summary: Beams are fundamental structural elements used in a variety of engineering applications and have been studied for centuries. Beams can be assembled to create large structures that carry heavy loads, such as motor vehicle traffic. Beams are also used in micro- or nano-scale accelerometers to delicately measure and detect motions that trigger the deployment of an airbag. From a technical standpoint, a beam is a structure that supports transverse load. Transverse load is load that is perpendicular to the long axis of the beam. As a result, of transverse load, beams undergo bending, in which the beam develops a curvature. As the beam bends, material fibers along the beam’s long axis are forced to stretch or contract, which in turn causes a resistance to the bending. The fibers that are the farthest away from the center of the beam are forced to stretch or contract the most and thus, material at these extremities is the most important to resist bending and deflection. This topic is studied quantitatively in Strength of Materials (CE-303). Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to accomplish the following goals: • Develop a simple experiment to achieve a goal. • Statistically and observationally analyze your data and interpret the results. • Summarize and present your data, results and interpretations. Procedure: 1. Working as a team, develop a procedure to carefully document the amount of bending a beam under-goes as loads are placed on it (this is your experimental protocol). You must select at least two different beam styles. 2. Collect the data points your experimental protocol calls for. You should conduct at least three trials and the order of data collection within those trials should be randomized. 3. Using the provided Excel deflection calculator, calculate the “predicted” deflection for each of the trials in your protocol. 4. Please observe the following MAXIMUM test torques to avoid damaging the beams. • Width Effect Beams: Small beam: 48 in-lbs, Medium beam: 80 in-lbs, Large beam: 120 in-lbs • Depth Effect Beams: Small beam: 8 in-lbs, Medium beam: 48 in-lbs, Large beam: 160 in-lbs Report and Presentation Requirements: 1. Title Page: Should include the title of the lab experiment, groups individual names (in alphabetical order by last name), data collection date, report due date, and course name and section. 2. Introduction: Briefly explain what you are trying to accomplish with this experiment. 3. Hypothesis Development: Should clearly state the three hypotheses, with respect to distance, beam size, and calculated versus actual deflection. Be sure to include logic to support your educated guess. 4. Method: Explain each activity performed during the data collection and analysis process. Provide a list of the equipment used and its purpose. 5. Analysis and Results: (1) Using the raw data, provide a table of descriptive statistics (mean, variance, and range) for each beam at each distance. (2) Provide a data table (average across 3 trials) showing the deflection for each beam at each distance. (3) Create one or more charts demonstrating the difference, if any, between the calculated and observed deflection for each beam. (4) Use the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means in Excel to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between predicted (calculated) deflection and actual (observed) deflection, assuming α = 0.05. Show the results for each beam. Note: To add in the Data Analysis package (under the data tab), go to Office Button -> Excel Options -> Add-Ins -> Manage Excel Add-Ins -> GO… -> check Analysis TookPak and click OK. For each table or chart, provide a description and explanation of what is being displayed. 6. Conclusions: Restate the hypotheses and explain whether or not the educated guess was correct. Include limitations of the experiment (in other words, describe other factors that would make the experiment better or possible errors associated with the experiment). Provide suggestions for future research. 7. Last Page: Include, at the end of the document, a summary of all the tasks required to complete the assignment, and which member or members of the group were principally responsible for completing those tasks. This should be in the form of a simple list. 8. Presentation: Summarize the report, excluding the last page. Due Date: This assignment is to be completed and turned in at the beginning of your laboratory meeting during the week of 11th March. Microsoft office package: Excel: Data tab functions, round, drag-drop, $-sign functions, Beginning of analysis toolpak-t-tests

Lab #03 Studying Beam Flexion Summary: Beams are fundamental structural elements used in a variety of engineering applications and have been studied for centuries. Beams can be assembled to create large structures that carry heavy loads, such as motor vehicle traffic. Beams are also used in micro- or nano-scale accelerometers to delicately measure and detect motions that trigger the deployment of an airbag. From a technical standpoint, a beam is a structure that supports transverse load. Transverse load is load that is perpendicular to the long axis of the beam. As a result, of transverse load, beams undergo bending, in which the beam develops a curvature. As the beam bends, material fibers along the beam’s long axis are forced to stretch or contract, which in turn causes a resistance to the bending. The fibers that are the farthest away from the center of the beam are forced to stretch or contract the most and thus, material at these extremities is the most important to resist bending and deflection. This topic is studied quantitatively in Strength of Materials (CE-303). Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to accomplish the following goals: • Develop a simple experiment to achieve a goal. • Statistically and observationally analyze your data and interpret the results. • Summarize and present your data, results and interpretations. Procedure: 1. Working as a team, develop a procedure to carefully document the amount of bending a beam under-goes as loads are placed on it (this is your experimental protocol). You must select at least two different beam styles. 2. Collect the data points your experimental protocol calls for. You should conduct at least three trials and the order of data collection within those trials should be randomized. 3. Using the provided Excel deflection calculator, calculate the “predicted” deflection for each of the trials in your protocol. 4. Please observe the following MAXIMUM test torques to avoid damaging the beams. • Width Effect Beams: Small beam: 48 in-lbs, Medium beam: 80 in-lbs, Large beam: 120 in-lbs • Depth Effect Beams: Small beam: 8 in-lbs, Medium beam: 48 in-lbs, Large beam: 160 in-lbs Report and Presentation Requirements: 1. Title Page: Should include the title of the lab experiment, groups individual names (in alphabetical order by last name), data collection date, report due date, and course name and section. 2. Introduction: Briefly explain what you are trying to accomplish with this experiment. 3. Hypothesis Development: Should clearly state the three hypotheses, with respect to distance, beam size, and calculated versus actual deflection. Be sure to include logic to support your educated guess. 4. Method: Explain each activity performed during the data collection and analysis process. Provide a list of the equipment used and its purpose. 5. Analysis and Results: (1) Using the raw data, provide a table of descriptive statistics (mean, variance, and range) for each beam at each distance. (2) Provide a data table (average across 3 trials) showing the deflection for each beam at each distance. (3) Create one or more charts demonstrating the difference, if any, between the calculated and observed deflection for each beam. (4) Use the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means in Excel to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between predicted (calculated) deflection and actual (observed) deflection, assuming α = 0.05. Show the results for each beam. Note: To add in the Data Analysis package (under the data tab), go to Office Button -> Excel Options -> Add-Ins -> Manage Excel Add-Ins -> GO… -> check Analysis TookPak and click OK. For each table or chart, provide a description and explanation of what is being displayed. 6. Conclusions: Restate the hypotheses and explain whether or not the educated guess was correct. Include limitations of the experiment (in other words, describe other factors that would make the experiment better or possible errors associated with the experiment). Provide suggestions for future research. 7. Last Page: Include, at the end of the document, a summary of all the tasks required to complete the assignment, and which member or members of the group were principally responsible for completing those tasks. This should be in the form of a simple list. 8. Presentation: Summarize the report, excluding the last page. Due Date: This assignment is to be completed and turned in at the beginning of your laboratory meeting during the week of 11th March. Microsoft office package: Excel: Data tab functions, round, drag-drop, $-sign functions, Beginning of analysis toolpak-t-tests

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“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

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AUCS 340: Ethics in the Profession Written Video Presentation Response Paper As a component of this course you will have the opportunity to view the movie “My Sister’s Keeper” (2009) starring Cameron Diaz, Jason Patric and Abigail Breslin. This movie is an adaptation of the book of the same title written by Jodi Picoult. Your answers are to be based on the movie adaptation of the book. While this movie offers a profound family story it also reflects upon issues related to current technological advancements in medicine and it will also offer you the opportunity to identify and respond to some of ethical issues represented in the movie. After viewing this movie, respond to the following questions. Your answers should be insightful and reflective of the topics researched for class, in regards to the ethical treatment to be afforded all citizens. 1. Identify at least two ethical issues/situations portrayed in the movie. These issues must be separate from the issue of stem cell research which will be addressed in questions later in this assignment. 2. Discuss a solution or solutions to each of the ethical issues that you identified in question number one. If multiple solutions are offered, identify your solutions as to first preference, second preference and so on until concluded. 3. Are your solutions feasible? What cost would it take to implement your solutions: taxes, wholesale system changes, society as a whole? 4. This movie incorporates the topic of stem cell usage for the treatment of medical conditions. Discuss the difference between the acquisition of fetal stem cells and adult stem cells. List ethical arguments both for and against the concept of expanding stem cell research to have a more active role in the development of treatment options for patients. 5. List at least five medical conditions that have the potential to be treated with stem cells. 6. Discuss the attitude of former President George W. Bush and current President Barack Obama in their philosophical approach to the issue of stem cell research. (Do they accept or reject the idea of stem cell research? Is there legislation that supports their views?) 7. From your previous assignment on the administration of healthcare in the United States you should have a general view of some of the problems facing the distribution of healthcare services in the United States. Research the changes to the health care system as proposed by President Barack Obama, and passed into legislation as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and outline/list these changes for healthcare reform in the United States. What are the financial implications of this plan? What portions of this plan do you find feasible to solving the problem of inadequate healthcare coverage for all Americans? What portions of this plan do you find unacceptable? 8. Overall, do you feel that these proposed changes will benefit or cause harm to the distribution of healthcare in the United States? Explain the rationale behind your answer. 9. Discuss problems in implication of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) that have occurred since October 2013. Have theses issues been resolved? 10. To date, how many people have been enrolled in the Affordable Care Act? Is this number above expectations, below expectations or at the level of expectation for enrollment at this point in time? 11. How will future enrollment in Medicaid be affected by the passage of the Affordable Care Act? This assignment is due on the date posted in the syllabus. Grading: Content of responses: thought provoking, rationale defended = 70% of grade Correct use of sentence structure, grammar and spelling, stapled for presentation = 20% of grade Appropriate use of citations and references = 10% of grade (No www.Wikipedia.com) It is expected that the length of the computer generated responses to these questions will be presented in at least three – four pages of text. Use 12 font and double spacing for your responses. Format: you may either respond to the questions as a running essay or use the questions as a header for each individual answer.

AUCS 340: Ethics in the Profession Written Video Presentation Response Paper As a component of this course you will have the opportunity to view the movie “My Sister’s Keeper” (2009) starring Cameron Diaz, Jason Patric and Abigail Breslin. This movie is an adaptation of the book of the same title written by Jodi Picoult. Your answers are to be based on the movie adaptation of the book. While this movie offers a profound family story it also reflects upon issues related to current technological advancements in medicine and it will also offer you the opportunity to identify and respond to some of ethical issues represented in the movie. After viewing this movie, respond to the following questions. Your answers should be insightful and reflective of the topics researched for class, in regards to the ethical treatment to be afforded all citizens. 1. Identify at least two ethical issues/situations portrayed in the movie. These issues must be separate from the issue of stem cell research which will be addressed in questions later in this assignment. 2. Discuss a solution or solutions to each of the ethical issues that you identified in question number one. If multiple solutions are offered, identify your solutions as to first preference, second preference and so on until concluded. 3. Are your solutions feasible? What cost would it take to implement your solutions: taxes, wholesale system changes, society as a whole? 4. This movie incorporates the topic of stem cell usage for the treatment of medical conditions. Discuss the difference between the acquisition of fetal stem cells and adult stem cells. List ethical arguments both for and against the concept of expanding stem cell research to have a more active role in the development of treatment options for patients. 5. List at least five medical conditions that have the potential to be treated with stem cells. 6. Discuss the attitude of former President George W. Bush and current President Barack Obama in their philosophical approach to the issue of stem cell research. (Do they accept or reject the idea of stem cell research? Is there legislation that supports their views?) 7. From your previous assignment on the administration of healthcare in the United States you should have a general view of some of the problems facing the distribution of healthcare services in the United States. Research the changes to the health care system as proposed by President Barack Obama, and passed into legislation as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and outline/list these changes for healthcare reform in the United States. What are the financial implications of this plan? What portions of this plan do you find feasible to solving the problem of inadequate healthcare coverage for all Americans? What portions of this plan do you find unacceptable? 8. Overall, do you feel that these proposed changes will benefit or cause harm to the distribution of healthcare in the United States? Explain the rationale behind your answer. 9. Discuss problems in implication of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) that have occurred since October 2013. Have theses issues been resolved? 10. To date, how many people have been enrolled in the Affordable Care Act? Is this number above expectations, below expectations or at the level of expectation for enrollment at this point in time? 11. How will future enrollment in Medicaid be affected by the passage of the Affordable Care Act? This assignment is due on the date posted in the syllabus. Grading: Content of responses: thought provoking, rationale defended = 70% of grade Correct use of sentence structure, grammar and spelling, stapled for presentation = 20% of grade Appropriate use of citations and references = 10% of grade (No www.Wikipedia.com) It is expected that the length of the computer generated responses to these questions will be presented in at least three – four pages of text. Use 12 font and double spacing for your responses. Format: you may either respond to the questions as a running essay or use the questions as a header for each individual answer.

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Assignment 2 – Summary/Response – 150 points For your second essay assignment, you will summarize and then respond/react to an article from the book They Say I Say. Choose either Don’t Blame the Eater (462), Should Everyone go to College? (208), I Had A Nice Time With You Tonight. On The App (393) or What Are You Buying When You Buy Organic? (428). Steps in writing this essay: 1. Give the essay a title that lets the reader know a little about the essay. Think about what your main point is and try to show that idea in your title. Center the title. Make it the same size and font as the rest of your essay. 2. For your first paragraph, write a summary of the article. This will be your introduction. The first sentence of your essay should include the author’s name, the title of the article, and the main point of the article. 3. At the end of the summary, add a thesis stating your overall reaction to the article. 4. For the body, each paragraph needs a topic sentence stating one of your main points that support your thesis. Your supporting sentences in each paragraph should provide specific reasons and examples of why you agree or disagree with the author. Occasionally refer to the author’s ideas since your essay is a response to his or her ideas. When referring to the author’s ideas, use both paraphrases and quotes. 5. For your conclusion, restate your position and your reasons for taking that position. The following sentences should become more general so that the reader can see the “bigger picture” of why taking your position is important. 6. Add a Reference page with the article cited in APA format. Formatting: • use APA formatting for in-text citations and the Reference page • double space • one-inch margins • use Times New Roman, Cambria, or Calibri • use 12-point font • the essay needs to be between 1,000 to 1,500 words, not including the Reference page Tentative schedule: • Thursday, Sept. 24 – Writing Workshop • Tuesday, Sept. 29 – Autobiography Review/ Peer Review (Bring TWO copies of your essay to class) • Thursday, Oct. 1 – Timed Autobiography • Tuesday, Oct. 6 – Conferences with Joshua • Sunday, Oct. 11 – Instructor draft due at 11:59 p.m. on Bb under Assignments   Scoring Rubric for Assignment 2: Summary/Response Essay Name:____________________________ Summary of article _____ /15 – Is the summary objective and comprehensive? – Does it include the main points and leave out minor details? – Does it include the author and title of article? Thesis statement _____ /10 – Does the thesis capture the main point/purpose of the entire paper? Response _____ /40 – Does the student take a clear position regarding the article? – Is the argument logical, well developed, and convincing? – Is there a personal anecdote that supports the student’s thesis? – Does the student explain how the anecdote relates to the article and to the thesis? – Is the anecdote developed? References to article _____ /35 – Is the article referenced multiple times to link the student’s argument and anecdote to the article? – Do the references to the article support the student’s argument or are they random? Organization _____ /15 – Does each paragraph flow well to the next? – Are transitional phrases used? – Does the organization of the paragraphs make sense? – Does the organization of sentences within each paragraph make sense? – Do paragraphs have a topic sentence? Presentation _____ /25 – Is the essay free of grammatical, mechanical, and spelling errors? – Is the idea in each sentence clear? – Are there a variety of sentence structures and varied, sophisticated vocabulary? – Does the student follow formatting guidelines? Citations _____ /10 – Are in-text citations used for paraphrases and quotes? – Are quotes used properly? – Is there a Reference page that is formatted correctly? Total points: _____ /150

Assignment 2 – Summary/Response – 150 points For your second essay assignment, you will summarize and then respond/react to an article from the book They Say I Say. Choose either Don’t Blame the Eater (462), Should Everyone go to College? (208), I Had A Nice Time With You Tonight. On The App (393) or What Are You Buying When You Buy Organic? (428). Steps in writing this essay: 1. Give the essay a title that lets the reader know a little about the essay. Think about what your main point is and try to show that idea in your title. Center the title. Make it the same size and font as the rest of your essay. 2. For your first paragraph, write a summary of the article. This will be your introduction. The first sentence of your essay should include the author’s name, the title of the article, and the main point of the article. 3. At the end of the summary, add a thesis stating your overall reaction to the article. 4. For the body, each paragraph needs a topic sentence stating one of your main points that support your thesis. Your supporting sentences in each paragraph should provide specific reasons and examples of why you agree or disagree with the author. Occasionally refer to the author’s ideas since your essay is a response to his or her ideas. When referring to the author’s ideas, use both paraphrases and quotes. 5. For your conclusion, restate your position and your reasons for taking that position. The following sentences should become more general so that the reader can see the “bigger picture” of why taking your position is important. 6. Add a Reference page with the article cited in APA format. Formatting: • use APA formatting for in-text citations and the Reference page • double space • one-inch margins • use Times New Roman, Cambria, or Calibri • use 12-point font • the essay needs to be between 1,000 to 1,500 words, not including the Reference page Tentative schedule: • Thursday, Sept. 24 – Writing Workshop • Tuesday, Sept. 29 – Autobiography Review/ Peer Review (Bring TWO copies of your essay to class) • Thursday, Oct. 1 – Timed Autobiography • Tuesday, Oct. 6 – Conferences with Joshua • Sunday, Oct. 11 – Instructor draft due at 11:59 p.m. on Bb under Assignments   Scoring Rubric for Assignment 2: Summary/Response Essay Name:____________________________ Summary of article _____ /15 – Is the summary objective and comprehensive? – Does it include the main points and leave out minor details? – Does it include the author and title of article? Thesis statement _____ /10 – Does the thesis capture the main point/purpose of the entire paper? Response _____ /40 – Does the student take a clear position regarding the article? – Is the argument logical, well developed, and convincing? – Is there a personal anecdote that supports the student’s thesis? – Does the student explain how the anecdote relates to the article and to the thesis? – Is the anecdote developed? References to article _____ /35 – Is the article referenced multiple times to link the student’s argument and anecdote to the article? – Do the references to the article support the student’s argument or are they random? Organization _____ /15 – Does each paragraph flow well to the next? – Are transitional phrases used? – Does the organization of the paragraphs make sense? – Does the organization of sentences within each paragraph make sense? – Do paragraphs have a topic sentence? Presentation _____ /25 – Is the essay free of grammatical, mechanical, and spelling errors? – Is the idea in each sentence clear? – Are there a variety of sentence structures and varied, sophisticated vocabulary? – Does the student follow formatting guidelines? Citations _____ /10 – Are in-text citations used for paraphrases and quotes? – Are quotes used properly? – Is there a Reference page that is formatted correctly? Total points: _____ /150

Refer to Chapter 8 (pgs. 177 – 179), which explains how public relations management supports and otherwise influences public opinion. Choose ONE of the categories below to provide an example based on something presently going on in the media. Make sure to include the website address – so your colleagues can read article and respond intelligently. Public relations communicationeffects include (pgs. 172-177): Creating perceptions of the worldaround us—forming “pictures in our heads” about events, things, people andplaces we could not experience directly ourselves. Setting the agenda—determiningsalience (importance) of issues and of positions taken by others in the news. Diffusing information andinnovations—increasing the information available for subsequentinterpersonal communication and thus helping new ideas to spread throughsociety. Defining social support—definingsocially accepted expression and behavior by providing “feedback” on our socialenvironments. Example: CEO Dan Cathy (Chick Fil A) certainly set the agenda for discussion a while back when he made his comments Example: Coke is defining social support of trying to fight obesity. See article below: http://www.bulldogreporter.com/dailydog/article/coke-comes-out-swinging-new-campaign-countering-its-products-role-obesity-crisis-be

Refer to Chapter 8 (pgs. 177 – 179), which explains how public relations management supports and otherwise influences public opinion. Choose ONE of the categories below to provide an example based on something presently going on in the media. Make sure to include the website address – so your colleagues can read article and respond intelligently. Public relations communicationeffects include (pgs. 172-177): Creating perceptions of the worldaround us—forming “pictures in our heads” about events, things, people andplaces we could not experience directly ourselves. Setting the agenda—determiningsalience (importance) of issues and of positions taken by others in the news. Diffusing information andinnovations—increasing the information available for subsequentinterpersonal communication and thus helping new ideas to spread throughsociety. Defining social support—definingsocially accepted expression and behavior by providing “feedback” on our socialenvironments. Example: CEO Dan Cathy (Chick Fil A) certainly set the agenda for discussion a while back when he made his comments Example: Coke is defining social support of trying to fight obesity. See article below: http://www.bulldogreporter.com/dailydog/article/coke-comes-out-swinging-new-campaign-countering-its-products-role-obesity-crisis-be

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BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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Public Communication Campaign Proposal Your public communication campaign proposal should be a minimum of 20 pages campaign proposal or project for a local or international organization. The proposal should address the following campaign design areas: 1. An introduction to your choice of organization 2. Background research about the topic or issue you are proposing the campaign for 3. Theoretical grounding for your campaign a. What theoretical foundation supports your campaign and what is the theory about? Define the theory b. Provide examples from the literature on how your choice of particular theory has been used. 4. Define the target audience and provide justification for your choice of audience 5. I d e n t i f y y o u r c hoice of medium/mediums and provide justification for your choice of medium/mediums and an explanation of how the medium/mediums will be used in the campaign 6. Choice of evaluation and explanation of how the campaign will be evaluated Students will propose campaign projects from the perspective of a consultant. Imagine yourself as consultant and in competition with other consultants to develop a public communication campaign for your topic/issue of choice. Students will be evaluated on the quality and cohesiveness of their public communication campaign proposals with focus on the different components required above.

Public Communication Campaign Proposal Your public communication campaign proposal should be a minimum of 20 pages campaign proposal or project for a local or international organization. The proposal should address the following campaign design areas: 1. An introduction to your choice of organization 2. Background research about the topic or issue you are proposing the campaign for 3. Theoretical grounding for your campaign a. What theoretical foundation supports your campaign and what is the theory about? Define the theory b. Provide examples from the literature on how your choice of particular theory has been used. 4. Define the target audience and provide justification for your choice of audience 5. I d e n t i f y y o u r c hoice of medium/mediums and provide justification for your choice of medium/mediums and an explanation of how the medium/mediums will be used in the campaign 6. Choice of evaluation and explanation of how the campaign will be evaluated Students will propose campaign projects from the perspective of a consultant. Imagine yourself as consultant and in competition with other consultants to develop a public communication campaign for your topic/issue of choice. Students will be evaluated on the quality and cohesiveness of their public communication campaign proposals with focus on the different components required above.

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Name: Lab Time: BIO 218 Experiment Paper Rubric (20 points) General Formatting: (2 pts.) • Margins should be 1 inch top, bottom, left, and right. • Font should be 12 point Times New Roman or similar font. • Double-spaced. • Pages numbered. Title page is unnumbered. Next page is numbered at the bottom right corner with a 2 followed by pages 3, 4, and 5. • All sections must be included: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited. • At least 3 pages (double spaced) but no more than five pages long. • All scientific names should be formatted correctly by italicizing and capitalizing the genus name and having the species name in lowercase (Bufo americanus). • Title page should have a specific title, student name, course, lab section time, and date. Project elements (18 pts. Total) • Abstract (2 points) o Summarize most important points using past tense. Use present tense to suggest a general conclusion which supports or refutes the hypothesis. • Introduction (3 points) o General background on topic and species (state scientific name!) o Discuss the possible tests of the hypothesis. o Reads from general to specific. o States hypothesis/hypotheses to be addressed. May discuss null and all alternative hypotheses. • Methods (2 points) o Reports how experiment was conducted and all materials used. Use enough detail so others could repeat the study. o Discuss the type(s) of data collected. o Discuss how data was to be analyzed/compared/used to test hypothesis. • Results (3 points) o Reports what happened in the experiment. o If comparisons made, discuss how they were made. o Report statistical and other data. Use “significant” only for statistical significance. o NO interpretation of data (no data analysis). o At least one original figure present and formatted correctly. Figures such as pictures and graphs are numbered and have captions underneath. o At least one table present and formatted correctly. Tables such as charts are numbered and have captions above them. • Discussion: (3 points) o Discusses the results of the experiment and ties in how the results fit with the literature. o Use past tense to discuss your results and shift to present tense to discuss previously published information. o States how results supported or refuted the original hypothesis. Hypotheses are never proven! o Ties in results with big picture within topic of biology. • Literature Cited: (2 points: .5 per citation) o At least 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (provided) + 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (found on your own). o References used in text properly. o References all listed in this section are alphabetized by author’s last name and formatted correctly. o All references listed in the Literature Cited section are cited in text. Writing Elements (3 pts.) • Grammar or spelling is error-free and excellent print quality. (1 pt) • Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper. (1 pt) • Appropriate content in each section? (1 pt) Additional Comments:

Name: Lab Time: BIO 218 Experiment Paper Rubric (20 points) General Formatting: (2 pts.) • Margins should be 1 inch top, bottom, left, and right. • Font should be 12 point Times New Roman or similar font. • Double-spaced. • Pages numbered. Title page is unnumbered. Next page is numbered at the bottom right corner with a 2 followed by pages 3, 4, and 5. • All sections must be included: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited. • At least 3 pages (double spaced) but no more than five pages long. • All scientific names should be formatted correctly by italicizing and capitalizing the genus name and having the species name in lowercase (Bufo americanus). • Title page should have a specific title, student name, course, lab section time, and date. Project elements (18 pts. Total) • Abstract (2 points) o Summarize most important points using past tense. Use present tense to suggest a general conclusion which supports or refutes the hypothesis. • Introduction (3 points) o General background on topic and species (state scientific name!) o Discuss the possible tests of the hypothesis. o Reads from general to specific. o States hypothesis/hypotheses to be addressed. May discuss null and all alternative hypotheses. • Methods (2 points) o Reports how experiment was conducted and all materials used. Use enough detail so others could repeat the study. o Discuss the type(s) of data collected. o Discuss how data was to be analyzed/compared/used to test hypothesis. • Results (3 points) o Reports what happened in the experiment. o If comparisons made, discuss how they were made. o Report statistical and other data. Use “significant” only for statistical significance. o NO interpretation of data (no data analysis). o At least one original figure present and formatted correctly. Figures such as pictures and graphs are numbered and have captions underneath. o At least one table present and formatted correctly. Tables such as charts are numbered and have captions above them. • Discussion: (3 points) o Discusses the results of the experiment and ties in how the results fit with the literature. o Use past tense to discuss your results and shift to present tense to discuss previously published information. o States how results supported or refuted the original hypothesis. Hypotheses are never proven! o Ties in results with big picture within topic of biology. • Literature Cited: (2 points: .5 per citation) o At least 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (provided) + 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (found on your own). o References used in text properly. o References all listed in this section are alphabetized by author’s last name and formatted correctly. o All references listed in the Literature Cited section are cited in text. Writing Elements (3 pts.) • Grammar or spelling is error-free and excellent print quality. (1 pt) • Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper. (1 pt) • Appropriate content in each section? (1 pt) Additional Comments:

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Part I. (20%) Multiple Choice Questions (only one answer) 1. What is the SS7 A-link? a. Signaling Link between SSP and STP b. Signaling Link between STP and STP c. Signaling Link between SCP and SCP d. Signaling Link between SSP and SSP 2. How is a TDM trunk identified on the SS7 network? It is identified by _____. a. IP Address b. ISDN B channel c. UDP port number d. Circuit Identificaiton Code (CIC) 3. What is the layer-3 protocol for ISUP? a. IP b. Q.931 c. MTP3 d. TCAP 4. Which of the following signaling is required to support Local Number Portability (LNP)? a. SIP b. Q.931 c. SS7 d. MGCP 5. Which of the following signlaing is NOT supported on the local telephone switch? a. ISDN/Q.931 b. SIP c. SS7 d. Station Signaling 6. Which of the following protocol is used by Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) for remote database query? One of the AIN features is 1-800/1-900 calls. a. TCAP b. ISUP c. MGCP d. SIP 7. Which of the following is an NNI signaling? a. ISDN/Q.931 b. SIP c. MGCP d. SS7 8. Which of the following message is used by Access Media Gateway (MG) to inform Media Gateway Controller (MGC) that a phone is off-hook? a. NTFY b. RQNT c. CRCX d. MDCX 9. Which of the following device supports codec (such as G.711)? a. Media Gateway Contoller b. Media Gateway (Access Gateway) c. Analog Phone d. Signaling Transfer Point (STP) 10. In MGCP, a connection is _______________ ? a. The same as a TCP connection b. The same as a phone call. c. An end-point and its associated RTP session. d. A TDM channel identified by CIC Part II Questions (10%). 1. Provide two reasons for separating Media Gateway Controller (MGC) and Media Gateway. Media gateways are often controlled by a separate Media Gateway Controller which provides the call control and signaling functionality. 2. Identify the signaling between the network devices. (enter N/A if not applicable) 1 Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Controller 2 Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway 3 Media Gateway Controller Class-5 (local) Switch 4 Media Gateway Controller SIP Proxy 5 Media Gateway Media Gateway Part III (20%) Call Flow Diagram and protocol stacks Media Gateway Controller (MGC) also has the function of SS7 Signaling Gateway. 1. Show the call flow diagram from Phone-22 (SIP) to Phone-33 (SIP). 2. Show the call flow diagram from Phone-41 (analog) to Phone-42(analog) over the VoIP Carrier Network. Note: each signaling message is an arrow with its own label. Do not use one arrow and one label to represent multiple messages.

Part I. (20%) Multiple Choice Questions (only one answer) 1. What is the SS7 A-link? a. Signaling Link between SSP and STP b. Signaling Link between STP and STP c. Signaling Link between SCP and SCP d. Signaling Link between SSP and SSP 2. How is a TDM trunk identified on the SS7 network? It is identified by _____. a. IP Address b. ISDN B channel c. UDP port number d. Circuit Identificaiton Code (CIC) 3. What is the layer-3 protocol for ISUP? a. IP b. Q.931 c. MTP3 d. TCAP 4. Which of the following signaling is required to support Local Number Portability (LNP)? a. SIP b. Q.931 c. SS7 d. MGCP 5. Which of the following signlaing is NOT supported on the local telephone switch? a. ISDN/Q.931 b. SIP c. SS7 d. Station Signaling 6. Which of the following protocol is used by Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) for remote database query? One of the AIN features is 1-800/1-900 calls. a. TCAP b. ISUP c. MGCP d. SIP 7. Which of the following is an NNI signaling? a. ISDN/Q.931 b. SIP c. MGCP d. SS7 8. Which of the following message is used by Access Media Gateway (MG) to inform Media Gateway Controller (MGC) that a phone is off-hook? a. NTFY b. RQNT c. CRCX d. MDCX 9. Which of the following device supports codec (such as G.711)? a. Media Gateway Contoller b. Media Gateway (Access Gateway) c. Analog Phone d. Signaling Transfer Point (STP) 10. In MGCP, a connection is _______________ ? a. The same as a TCP connection b. The same as a phone call. c. An end-point and its associated RTP session. d. A TDM channel identified by CIC Part II Questions (10%). 1. Provide two reasons for separating Media Gateway Controller (MGC) and Media Gateway. Media gateways are often controlled by a separate Media Gateway Controller which provides the call control and signaling functionality. 2. Identify the signaling between the network devices. (enter N/A if not applicable) 1 Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Controller 2 Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway 3 Media Gateway Controller Class-5 (local) Switch 4 Media Gateway Controller SIP Proxy 5 Media Gateway Media Gateway Part III (20%) Call Flow Diagram and protocol stacks Media Gateway Controller (MGC) also has the function of SS7 Signaling Gateway. 1. Show the call flow diagram from Phone-22 (SIP) to Phone-33 (SIP). 2. Show the call flow diagram from Phone-41 (analog) to Phone-42(analog) over the VoIP Carrier Network. Note: each signaling message is an arrow with its own label. Do not use one arrow and one label to represent multiple messages.

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COMM 1311: Written Communication Assignment 5 Argumentation Essay (Chapter 10, pp. 218-232, Arlov) Purpose of Assignment • The purpose of this assignment is to enable the student to write an essay with a compelling argumentation that shows critical thinking. A persuasive essay is a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. Objectives • The student will be able to correctly structure an essay and bring forward a compelling thesis and argument. • The student will understand the creativity of the writing process and use his own ideas. • The student will be able to craft a compelling essay and show critical thinking. • The student will show that he is able to argue both sides of a topic and is willing to acknowledge a different opinion. Instructions 1. Establish a subject Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about but it has to be approved by the instructor. 2. Present a clear thesis and identify the controversy Your thesis should inform readers of your purpose and how you will proceed in your argumentation. 3. Follow an organizational pattern and provide support The body paragraphs of the essay should provide specific support. These supports may include personal experience, statistics, facts, or experts’ opinions. They may be garnered from scientific journals, magazines, books, newspapers, textbooks, studies, or interviews. Select only the facts that are relevant. 4. Consider differing opinions A persuasive essay may be strengthened by acknowledging conflict viewpoints and discussing them. 4. Draw a conclusion Restate your position in different words from the introduction. Do not introduce new material in the conclusion. You may want to conclude by encouraging some specific call to action. Requirements The essay topic must meet the approval of the instructor: • Have a complete cover page • have at least 500 words • use full sentences (and no bullet points) • must have page numbers • must have a reference page Example writing (not a complete essay): Boxing: Countdown to Injury A left hook smashes into the fighter’s jaw. A following right slams his head the opposite direction. An uppercut to the jaw snaps his head back, momentarily stopping the blood flow to his brain. The boxer drops, hitting the mat with a thud. His brain bounces off his skull for the second time in a matter of seconds. Is this what we should call a sport? Because of injuries, neurological damage, and ring deaths, the rules of professional boxing should be changed. Boxing has always been a brutal sport. The ancient Greeks used gloves studded with metal spikes, which slashed the face and body and split skulls. Although gloves are no longer spiked, boxers today sustain injuries ranging from cuts and bruises to broken bones. It is not uncommon to see a boxer leave the ring with a cut on his face, an eye swollen shut, and a nose enlarged and bloody. Often, healing in is incomplete because these areas receive the same blows again and again in other matches. In fact, repeated blows almost cost Sugar Ray Leonard his sight when his retina detached in his left eye. Besides superficial injuries, boxers suffer short-term neurological damage as a result of staggering blows to the head. A knockout punch, for example, is often delivered with such force that the brain smashes against the skull, tearing nerve fibers and blood vessels, resulting in a concussion. Even a blow to the neck can close the carotid artery, the main artery to the brain, whereby oxygen and blood to the brain are disrupted, resulting in dizziness and confusion. Later, the boxers often have no memory of the moments before or after a knockout blow. Submission Criteria Due Date: Sunday, December 6, 2015. Late assignments will receive an automatic ZERO grade. Where to deliver hard copies: In class Assessment Criteria CRITERIA Assessment Rubric Argumentation Essay SCORES Introduction Introduces the issue and its importance, says what your essay will cover 2 Organization The sound structure of the essay 1 Expression Sentences, phrases, metaphors, verbs etc. The strength of the language used 4 Conclusion Restate the issue, summarizes the strength of the arguments in the essays, gives your opinion about which essay is the strongest with supporting reasons 1 Mechanics Followed guidelines, professional format, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization are correct, use of headings, no bullet points 2 TOTAL 10% Plagiarism, copying from the internet or any other sources without citation will result in an automatic ZERO grade and a procedure of Academic Misconduct will filed against you. The complete essay has to be created and written by you alone. Prior assignments CAN NOT be used.

COMM 1311: Written Communication Assignment 5 Argumentation Essay (Chapter 10, pp. 218-232, Arlov) Purpose of Assignment • The purpose of this assignment is to enable the student to write an essay with a compelling argumentation that shows critical thinking. A persuasive essay is a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. Objectives • The student will be able to correctly structure an essay and bring forward a compelling thesis and argument. • The student will understand the creativity of the writing process and use his own ideas. • The student will be able to craft a compelling essay and show critical thinking. • The student will show that he is able to argue both sides of a topic and is willing to acknowledge a different opinion. Instructions 1. Establish a subject Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about but it has to be approved by the instructor. 2. Present a clear thesis and identify the controversy Your thesis should inform readers of your purpose and how you will proceed in your argumentation. 3. Follow an organizational pattern and provide support The body paragraphs of the essay should provide specific support. These supports may include personal experience, statistics, facts, or experts’ opinions. They may be garnered from scientific journals, magazines, books, newspapers, textbooks, studies, or interviews. Select only the facts that are relevant. 4. Consider differing opinions A persuasive essay may be strengthened by acknowledging conflict viewpoints and discussing them. 4. Draw a conclusion Restate your position in different words from the introduction. Do not introduce new material in the conclusion. You may want to conclude by encouraging some specific call to action. Requirements The essay topic must meet the approval of the instructor: • Have a complete cover page • have at least 500 words • use full sentences (and no bullet points) • must have page numbers • must have a reference page Example writing (not a complete essay): Boxing: Countdown to Injury A left hook smashes into the fighter’s jaw. A following right slams his head the opposite direction. An uppercut to the jaw snaps his head back, momentarily stopping the blood flow to his brain. The boxer drops, hitting the mat with a thud. His brain bounces off his skull for the second time in a matter of seconds. Is this what we should call a sport? Because of injuries, neurological damage, and ring deaths, the rules of professional boxing should be changed. Boxing has always been a brutal sport. The ancient Greeks used gloves studded with metal spikes, which slashed the face and body and split skulls. Although gloves are no longer spiked, boxers today sustain injuries ranging from cuts and bruises to broken bones. It is not uncommon to see a boxer leave the ring with a cut on his face, an eye swollen shut, and a nose enlarged and bloody. Often, healing in is incomplete because these areas receive the same blows again and again in other matches. In fact, repeated blows almost cost Sugar Ray Leonard his sight when his retina detached in his left eye. Besides superficial injuries, boxers suffer short-term neurological damage as a result of staggering blows to the head. A knockout punch, for example, is often delivered with such force that the brain smashes against the skull, tearing nerve fibers and blood vessels, resulting in a concussion. Even a blow to the neck can close the carotid artery, the main artery to the brain, whereby oxygen and blood to the brain are disrupted, resulting in dizziness and confusion. Later, the boxers often have no memory of the moments before or after a knockout blow. Submission Criteria Due Date: Sunday, December 6, 2015. Late assignments will receive an automatic ZERO grade. Where to deliver hard copies: In class Assessment Criteria CRITERIA Assessment Rubric Argumentation Essay SCORES Introduction Introduces the issue and its importance, says what your essay will cover 2 Organization The sound structure of the essay 1 Expression Sentences, phrases, metaphors, verbs etc. The strength of the language used 4 Conclusion Restate the issue, summarizes the strength of the arguments in the essays, gives your opinion about which essay is the strongest with supporting reasons 1 Mechanics Followed guidelines, professional format, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization are correct, use of headings, no bullet points 2 TOTAL 10% Plagiarism, copying from the internet or any other sources without citation will result in an automatic ZERO grade and a procedure of Academic Misconduct will filed against you. The complete essay has to be created and written by you alone. Prior assignments CAN NOT be used.

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