## 4. Using your knowledge of the Stevenson’s career management model identify and briefly describe one activity that should be included in an organization’s career management program. Identify which element of the model the activity you identified fits within.

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## Describe and discuss: how your study of special education has informed your professional identity

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## Lab #02 Relationship between distance & illumination As engineers, we deal with the effects of light on many projects. The first key to working with light is understanding how the light waves propagate. Once we understand light waves, we will test a manufacturers claim that lower wattage fluorescent bulbs output the same quantity of light as incandescent bulbs. This experiment is designed for you to work as a class to collect data regarding a given light source and then, working within your individual group, attempt to determine the re-lationship(s) between the measured parameter (lux) and the distance (meter) from the source. Measure and record data, in the manner described below, as a class. Work on your so-lutions as a group of 2-3. Your first task is to develop a mathematical formula, or a simple relationship that predicts the amount of lux that can be expected at a given distance from the light source. Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to accomplish the following goals: • Gain experience collecting data in a controlled, systematic fashion. • Practice working as a group to infer relationships between variables from your collected data. • Use the data you collect to draw conclusions. In this case, to evaluate the hypothesis that the fluorescent and incandescent bulb output the same quantity of light. • Become accustomed to working in teams (note, teamwork often requires individual work as well). • Learn to balance workload across your team. (Individuals will be responsible for certain tasks, and ensure they are performed on time and to the desired quality level. • Demonstrate to me what your group’s attention to detail is, as well as your ability to construct a written explanation of work. Problem: What effect does distance have on the lux, intensity, emitted from a light source and are the 5 light bulbs producing the same intensity light? Use the rough protocol listed below and the data sheet provided to collect your data, then complete the assignment outlined below. 1. Set up a light source on one of the lab tables. 2. Using the illumination meter, measure the lux at 0.5 meter increments from the source back to 3 meters from the source. • Be sure the keep the meter perpendicular to the horizontal line from the source at all times! 3. Record your measurements on your data sheets. 4. Measurements should be taken in a random order 5. Repeat the experiment 3 times, using different people and a different order of collection and different colors. Assignment Requirements: 1. Create the appropriate graph(s) to express the data you have collected. Your report must, at the minimum, contain the following: a. An X-Y Scatter plot showing the data from both bulbs. The chart should follow all conventions taught in lecture, and display the equation for the trend-line you choose. b. A column or bar chart of your choosing showing the difference, if any, between the two bulbs. 2. Write an introduction, briefly explaining what you are accomplishing with this exper-iment. 3. Create a hierarchal outline that states, step by step, each activity that was performed to conduct the experiment and analyze the experimental data. 4. Anova analysis for data collected 5. Write a verbal explanation of what each of the charts from requirement #1 are showing. 6. Include, at the end of the document, a summary of all the tasks required to complete the assignment, including the 5 listed above, and which member or members of the group were principally responsible for completing those tasks. This should be in the form of a simple list. 7. Write at least 3 possible applications of the experiment with detailed explanation. DUE DATE: This assignment is to be completed and turned in at the beginning of your laboratory meeting during the week of 18th February Microsoft office package: Excel: Insert, page layout tab functions, Mean, standard deviation, graph functions

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## Critical Thinking: Comprehensive Sexual Education versus Abstinence-Only The Bush Administration spent over 175 million dollars annually on abstinence-only sex education programs. These programs could only discuss the failure rates of other methods, nothing more (Ott and Santelli, 2007). Comprehensive programs educate students on a range of contraceptive options – including abstinence. Two separate studies now indicate that comprehensive programs delay the start of sexual activity and cut teen pregnancy when compared to abstinence-only education programs (Ott and Santelli, 2007; Center for the Advancement of Health, 2008). Research this topic and use the newly learned information to support your opinions. Use reliable scientific resources such as scientific research-based articles; or relevant web sites such as .gov, .edu, .org. When looking at the issues surrounding sex education, you can consider ethical arguments for or against how society should deal with the possibilities, but refrain from religious comments on this issue (or any other one) in this science course. When using ideas from a web site or the text book, you must include page numbers in the citation for your reference at the end of your post. In ~ 300 to 350 words, answer the following questions: 1. What program should school children be taught? 2. Why?

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## unit 6 only Part 1: Analysis of a unit of work (1000-1500) Part 1 requires you to critically evaluate a unit of work given in terms of: • the range of approaches and methodologies to language learning and teaching this unit of work encompasses. Discuss whether there is a focus on a particular approach, eg, are the students asked to memorise / rote learn/ repeat (audio-lingual); are students required to complete a task (task based learning) or an information-gap type activity (communicative language learning); is there a focus on a specific genre? 300 – 400 • the clarity of the objectives and target language/ exponents being taught 200-300 • the selection and sequencing of the activities 200 – 300 • to what extent language exponents and skills are integrated in the activities 200 -300 • the learner group, their needs and their language level for which the unit of work would be most appropriate 100 Describe the learner group this unit is designed for: ESL students, students of English as an international language etc; what language level the unit assumes and; the students language learning needs. Part 2: Extension, addition, omission and substitution (1500 – 2000) This section of the assignment requires you to focus on the unit of work: • Comment on any extensions, additions, omissions or substitutions you would make if you were teaching this unit to the learner group you identified in Part 1, above. 500 • Give reasons for your decisions. 500 • Describe how you will assess student learning. 300 • Describe how you will evaluate the success of the unit of work. 200 • Identify any problems you anticipate in carrying out the unit of work and suggest how you would go about overcoming these. 300 • For added or substituted activities, list the resources you will need for these, and reference the materials you have used or drawn on. 200

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## PHL 210- Intro to Philosophy Paper 1- Fall 2015 PAPER 1- Pick from ONE of the questions below and answer in essay form. Chapter INTRO 1. Do you think that all knowledge is really just a matter of opinion? (Be honest.) If you do, how do you explain scientific and technological progress? If you do not think that all knowledge is really just a matter of opinion, how do you account for the persistence of different religions, moralities, and political ideals? 2. To what extent do you think an individual’s gender and ethnic background should be considered in evaluating his or her philosophical beliefs? Chapter 1 1. What are some of the difficulties you might encounter by trying to follow the Eightfold Path? What, for example, might consist of “wrong livelihoods” (or “wrong college majors”)? Are there some jobs that no truly enlightened person could perform? What determines whether an occupation (or college major) is right? 2. Write a reflective essay on the concept of “unsatisfactoriness” as it relates to Buddhist teaching. 3. Which of the three sages did you find the most compelling and why? 4. Based what you’ve read so far, can you think of any contemporary examples of sages? If you can, what specific qualities or teachings impress you as sage like? How does this sage differ from Lao-tzu, Confucius and the Buddha? 5. The tension between “beliefs” and “facts” recurs throughout the history of Western philosophy and explodes in our time in the form of challenges to the very possibilities of objectivity and universality. Can you sport signs of this division in current affairs? Religion? Politics? Among your friends? Which side of the fence are you on? Do you think the problem has a solution that is fair to both sides? 6. Interestingly, the concept of a mean serves as the basis for Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, one of the most influential moral philosophies in the Western philosophical tradition. Compare Aristotle’s more linear characterization of the mean with Confucius’s more holistic or poetic one. Why do you suppose two of the most influential moral philosophers of all time stressed moderation and balance as the basis for human well-being and happiness? 7. In broad strokes, human history can almost be reduced to an ongoing struggle between two distinct approaches to managing human affairs. One advocates minimal governance—managing by not managing—and the cultivation of healthy (natural) instincts. The other calls for the inculcation of formal manners and habits of repression combined with rules and regulations governing all aspects of our lives. See if you can find examples of each in contemporary politics, education, or parenting. Do you think one approach is (generally) superior to the other? Why? Do you agree that these two approaches to life seem to persist throughout history? 8. The notion of the noble or great soul has intrigued philosophers from Confucius’s time to our own. Does it have any resonance for you? Is the concept of the petty or inferior soul clearer? If it is, why do you suppose it is easier to come up with examples of pettiness than of nobility? What do you think Confucius was really saying in his reply to the rapacious official? 9. Compare what Marcus Aurelius says about “the perpetual renewing of the world’s youthfulness” with Buddha’s insight that the whole universe is “forever moving from one form to another.” To what philosophical and personal use do Marcus and the Buddha put their notions in this regard? Chapter 2 1. How do you think it would go over today if we treated philosophers, preachers, and anyone who professes not to value money and wealth as much as integrity, honor, God, or truth as if they mean what they say and hold them personally and legally accountable for living like they talk? 2. Make a convincing case that advertisers are Sophists. What would nonsophistic advertising be like? Do you agree that advertisers are Sophists? Explain. 3. Discuss Protagoras’s notion that disagreements can be “cured.” 4. Is there a contradiction involved in the way the Sophists present their doctrine that “might makes right”? Can you present a better version of it? 5. Is there any way to refute the idea that might makes right? Explain why or why not. 6. Suppose that relativism is true. How would this belief change the practice of moral criticism? 7. Is it reasonable—or fair—to judge a person’s philosophical claims in terms of behavior? Do we trivialize “being” a philosopher—or “being” a Christian or Muslim or liberal or conservative—when we make a radical distinction between persons and their beliefs? Chapter 3 1. Discuss some of the pros and cons of personal education versus commercialized education. Try to consider a variety of factors: efficiency; effects of money on pupils, teachers, teachers, and institutions; mediocrity; conformity. Do you agree that it is wrong to “sell wisdom”? Is it realistic to expect teachers (or philosophers) to teach for free, for love only? Can’t any source of financial support lead to bias? Must it? (page 76) 2. Can you think of any ways you are ethnocentric? What are some close parallels between Athens of the fifth century B.C.E. and America after September 11, 2001? 3. Analyze Protagoras’ speech. Has he convinced you? Explain. See if you can identify the trick used by both Protagoras and his pupil in the Wager. 4. Is “might makes right” the only explanation for social changes like the civil rights movements? Could other factors besides self-interest account for a shift in basic social values? What factors? Is anything lost by accepting a might-makes-right interpretation? Is anything gained? Explain. 5. Is some part of you stirred by all this talk of power and superiority? The Sophist would say that if you can be honest, you’ll answer in the affirmative. What might prevent you (in the Sophists’ view) from admitting that you agree with them? Are they correct? Even if you personally reject Callicles’ position, how common do you think it is? Lastly, what do you think of the Sophists’ overall assessment of the way society really operates? Are they onto something or not? What’s your evidence? Chapter 4 1. One of my college friends resembled Socrates. I first noticed him in the cafeteria. I thought he was one of the most unfortunate-looking persons I had ever seen. He knew some acquaintances of mine, and so I eventually met him. I initially felt uncomfortable even being around him because of his looks, I’m sorry to say. But, slowly I discovered an intelligent, funny, kind, strong, and courageous man. Over the years of our friendship, I lost the capacity to see him as ugly. Sadly, the converse has been true in my experience as well. A beautiful or handsome countenance that belongs to a slothful or self-centered or shallow or cruel person over time becomes less handsome or beautiful to me. Have you noticed this pattern in yourself? Analyze it, if you have. 2. What do you think of Socrates’ views on self-control? Does the current concern with healthy diets, exercise, and so on seem to be in line with what Socrates thought, or are we, perhaps, overdoing it or acting from love of beauty, not self-control? Discuss. 3. How might we explain the fact that many churches and schools are luxurious? Don’t both educators and preachers (not to mention gurus and therapists) say that material success does not guarantee happiness? Don’t many of them say that the life of the mind or soul is most important? Why, then, do they live as if they don’t believe it? There are plenty of famous examples of this inconsistency. Discuss one or two of them. If the Socratic view is wrong, why do so many people give it lip service? 4. Can you think of other paradigmatic individuals? Remember, a paradigmatic individual is more than a merely influential teacher, adviser, social reformer, or significant religious figure. Do you think that contemporary America, with its present diversity, can produce archetypal philosophers? Or must each community or ethnic group have its own human paradigms? What qualities do you think a contemporary American sophos must possess? 5. Statistically, poorer, less-educated people make up a disproportionate segment of our prison population. Just how relevant to Thrasymachus’ position is it that white-collar and celebrity criminals are often punished less severely than poor or obscure defendants are? Other studies suggest that physically attractive job candidates are most likely to be hired. Have you ever noticed how some students seem to get by mostly on cleverness and charm? Should we draw conclusions about the nature of justice from these cases or just chalk them up to the way things sometimes go? Try to separate our lip-service moral values from those we practice. Try to separate a storybook conception of life from a realistic one. Are moral realists onto something or not? Explain. 6. Do some informal research among your friends to get a sense of some contemporary conceptions of the soul. Compare and contrast what you discover with Socrates’ conception of the psyche. How might a person’s conception of the soul influence his or her response to the issue of the unexamined life? 7. Socrates claims that an unexamined life is not worth living. What do you think it means to live an examined life? Do you agree that a life with self-examination is not worth living? 8. Have you ever met a highly educated specialist (physician, biochemist, psychologist, philosophy teacher, preacher) who thinks nothing of pontificating on the economy, sex education, or how you should raise your child? Discuss in light of Socratic statements concerning human wisdom. 9. Compare Socrates’ attitude toward the soul with your own—and with that of your religion, if you practice one. What do you see as the main differences? What are some advantages and disadvantages of Socrates’ view? 10. Do you agree that no one knowingly does evil? Explain. 11. If all evil is ignorance, can we ever justly punish evildoers? Discuss. Chapter 5 1. As persistent voting controversies make clear, Americans have reason to be wary of requirements for voting. In the past, voting requirements have been used to prevent women and people of certain ethnic groups from voting. On the other hand, a case might be made that by not having some minimal standard of preparedness and awareness, we make a mockery of “choosing.” How can an ignorant voter “choose” anything? Does “choosing” matter? Can I be truly free if I am uninformed and ignorant? Discuss from both sides. 2. Reflect on the following objection to the preceding paragraphs: “The glass bead example is only playing with semantics. When we talk about two physical objects being ‘identical,’ we don’t mean literally identical–we mean so similar that human beings are unable to distinguish one object from the other. Obviously we can distinguish different things from each other when they’re right next to each other. But if we find no differences when we analyze them one at a time, we are justified in saying that they are identical, ‘indistinguishable’! Identical means indistinguishable to human beings; that is, so closely resembling each other that we cannot tell them apart.” How might Plato answer this objection? 3. Is it possible to know that no one does know? Is it possible to know that no one does know that no one does know? Is it possible to know that no one can know that no one does know? How do you know? Or, how do you know that you don’t know? 4. Compare Plato’s use of similes to show that there are levels of knowledge with John Stuart Mill’s more “ordinary” argument regarding levels of knowledge in judgments of quality (Chapter 12). Which approach seems most compelling, if either does? Assess. 5. The Allegory of the Cave has intrigued students of Plato since it first appeared. Do you think it fairly expresses the way we experience knowledge? For instance, in childhood, everything is black and white, but with experience, we discover rich nuances and hues, as it were. What level are you on? Society in general? The world? Explain. Do you believe in levels of reality? In enlightenment? Why or why not? 6. Consider the family as a functional system: If young children are allowed to spend the money, determine bedtimes, and so on, the whole family suffers. If the parents try to live like children, the whole family suffers. If every family member is free to pick and choose what he or she feels like doing or not doing every day, there can be no family. You might try similar analyses of marriages, churches, schools, or factories. Discuss the need for hierarchy, authority, and a governing power. 7. Do you agree with Plato that democracy is incompatible with self-discipline? What sort of self-discipline do you think Plato was concerned about? 8. Can you spot any symptoms in our society of the pattern Plato attributes to injustice in individuals and the state? Can you identify individuals or groups that “fall into sickness and dissension at the slightest provocation”? What–if anything–does justice (or a lack of justice) have to do with these reactions? Explain. 9. Do you think things like laws against hate speech and fundamentalist reactions against “the excesses of Western democracy” support Plato’s argument that the inevitable result of democracy is “too much liberty” and that widespread “abuses” of liberty lead to demands for “law and order” and, ultimately, tyranny? What other examples can you think of to buttress Plato’s case? What examples to weaken it? (As you ponder this, note that calls for restrictions on personal freedom come from both liberal and conservative thinkers.) Chapter 6 1. Discuss some of the common obstacles to becoming a fully functioning, balanced, individual. 2. As an example of the importance of luck in the good life, think about this Aristotelian maxim (derived from Solon): “Count no man happy until he is dead.” Aristotle taught that a good life can be marred by a bad death. Discuss this general idea and then tie it to our present attitudes toward death, dying, euthanasia, and the all-too-frequent instances of individuals kept barely alive, condemned to spend their last months or years in nursing homes. Do you agree with Aristotle that a bad death or dying can transform a good life into a bad one? Or do you think that biological life is sacred—period? 3. Consider Aristotle’s position carefully here. It might conform more closely to our true feelings about virtue than our sentimental and idealistic platitudes imply. We might be taught that “virtue is its own reward” but how many of us really think as highly of a “good” person who hides away from the world as we do of someone who has faults and makes mistakes, but gets out there and gets involved in life. Is being “good” really enough? 4. Study and discuss Table 6.1, Aristotelian Virtues and Vices, using principles from the Nicomachean Ethics and the concept of the mean. Then add and discuss your own examples of virtues and vices. Chapter 7 1. Stop for a moment and reflect on this: Is it possible to be calm under all circumstances? Or do certain circumstances force us to be distressed and agitated? Why do some people seem happy in horrible circumstances, while others suffer in the midst of being loved, healthy, and financially well-off? Do you think happiness is mostly a matter of attitude or not? Discuss. 2. Do you agree that the test of faith is anxiety? Are the Stoics correct in insisting that one who truly realizes that everything is governed by a divine plan will lose all fear and anxiety? Justify your position. 3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of disinterestedness. When is it a virtue? When is it not? Give some examples and explain them. 4. Reflect on letting go in the sense of doing what seems right and then relaxing. Provide a few of your own examples of how fear of consequences and an obsession with control can affect us. Discuss ways for identifying and striking a balance between letting go in a wise way and in an irresponsible way. 5. By some estimates, 60 percent of Americans are overweight or obese. Some 95 percent of those who try to lose and maintain a clinically healthy weight will fail. Could being obese be part of a person’s fate? Could being an alcoholic? Sexually promiscuous? Lazy? As more and more behaviors are linked to genetics, how can we distinguish between defects of character and things not in our control? 6. Discuss the preceding passage from Epictetus about relationships. What lessons might it offer regarding our relationships and the things that make us unhappy?

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## Read the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, or any other major newspaper or weekly publication and select a single article or articles that (1) either report on interesting economic news that can be analyzed by the concepts or models taught in this course and/or (2) discusses one or more economic issues related to the concepts or models taught in this course. It is OK to use an online economics news article. Please cite your source. Useful Link: http://www.smc.edu/AcademicAffairs/Library/Pages/Citation-Style-Guidelines.aspx Write a FIVE TO SIX page essay analyzing the topic or critique the article from economic perspectives. Essay must be typed and double-spaced, (Times New Roman, font 12). The questions that you may address in this essay may include, but are not limited, to the following: What is the main economic issue? How is the economic issue related to the concepts or models that you have learned from this course? What sorts of arguments/opinions have been discussed? Do you agree or disagree with the analyses/opinions? Why? What argument would you, as an economist, make? The following is a suggested list of topics. This list is not exhaustive. INDUSTRY STUDY. For a specific industry, choose a current issue such as deregulation, foreign competition, and the impact of new technologies, mergers/takeovers, changing methods of competition, labor problems, or financial changes. COMPANY STUDY. Study the recent growth or decline of a particular company or its current position. This topic might include such points as the market structure within which the company grew and now operates, the elasticity of demand for its products, the degree of unionization, the cost structure (degree of fixed cost, economies of scale), the role of advertising, the degree of international competition, etc. INTERNATIONAL ISSUES. Possible topics are: current economic problems of a particular country, OPEC, the European Union, the U. S. trade deficit, protectionism, U. S. trade relations with Japan or other countries, economic development of a particular country, the World Trade Organization, etc. GOVERNMENT REGULATION. Analyze some particular government regulation or antitrust policy relative to a specific industry or company or analyze a current regulatory issue (environmental protection, OSHA, the FDA, etc.).

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## Tornado Eddy Investigation Abstract The objective of this lab was to write a bunch of jibberish to provide students with a formatting template. Chemical engineering, bioengineering, and environmental engineering are “process engineering” disciplines. Good abstracts contains real content, such as 560 mL/min, 35 deg, and 67 percent yield. Ideal degreed graduates are technically strong, bring broad system perspectives to problem solving, and have the professional “soft skills” to make immediate contributions in the workplace. The senior lab sequence is the “capstone” opportunity to realize this ideal by integrating technical skills and developing professional soft skills to ensure workforce preparedness. The best conclusions are objective and numerical, such as operating conditions of 45 L/min at 32 deg C with expected costs of $4.55/lb. Background Insect exchange processes are often used in bug filtration, as they are effective at removing either positive or negative insects from water. An insect exchange column is a packed or fluidized bed filled with resin beads. Water flows through the column and most of the insects from the water enter the beads, but some of them pass in between the beads, which makes the exchange of insects non-ideal. Insectac 249 resin is a cation exchange resin, as it is being used to attract cationic Ca2+ from the toxic waste stream. This means the resin is negatively charged, and needs to be regenerated with a solution that produces positively charged insects, in this case, salt water which contains Na+ insects. The resin contains acidic styrene backbones which capture the cationic insects in a reversible process. A curve of Ca2+ concentration concentration vs. time was obtained after a standard curve was made to determine how many drops from the low cost barium test kit from Aquarium Pharmaceuticals (API)1 bottle #2 would correspond to a certain concentration in solution. A standard curve works by preparing solutions with known concentrations and testing these concentrations using the kit to create a curve of number of drops from bottle #2 (obtained result) vs. concentration of Ca2+ in solution (desired response). The standard curve can then be used for every test on the prototype and in the field, to quickly and accurately obtain a concentration from the test kit. The barium concentration vs. time curve can be used to calculate the exchange capacity of the resin and, in later tests, the regeneration efficiency. The curves must be used to get the total amount of barium removed from the water, m. Seen in Equation 2, the volumetric flow rate of water, , is multiplied by the integral from tinitial to tfinal of the total concentration of Ca2+ absorbed by the resin as a function of time, C. (2) 1 http://aquariumpharm.com/Products/Product.aspx?ProductID=72 , date accessed: 11/26/10 CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 9 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A graphical trapezoid method was used to evaluate the integral and get the final solution in equivalents of Ca2+ per L, it must be noted that there are 2 equivalents per mole of barium, as the charge of the barium insect is +2. An initial exchange capacity was calculated for the virgin resin, and an adjusted exchange capacity was calculated once the resin was regenerated. The regenerated resin capacity was found by multiplying the virgin resin capacity by the regeneration efficiency, expressed in Equation 3. (3) See Appendix A for the calculation of the exchange capacities and the regeneration efficiency. Materials and Methods Rosalie and Peter Johnson of Corvallis established the Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Engineering to honor Oregon State University’s most famous graduate. Peter Johnson, former President and owner of Tekmax, Inc., a company which revolutionized battery manufacturing equipment, is a 1955 graduate of the College of Engineering.2 The Chair, also known as the Linus Pauling Distinguished Engineer or Linus Pauling Engineer (LPE), was originally designed to focus on the traditional “capstone” senior lab sequence in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. The focus is now extended to all the process engineering disciplines. The LPE is charged with establishing strong ties with industry, ensuring current and relevant laboratory experiences, and helping upperclass students develop skills in communication, teamwork, project management, and leadership. Include details about lab procedures not sufficiently detailed in the SOP, problems you had, etc. The bulk solution prepared to create the standard curve was used in the second day of testing to obtain the exchange capacity of the insectac 249 resin. The solution was pumped through a bathroom scale into the prototype insect exchange column. 45 mL of resin was rinsed and added to the column. The bed was fluidized as the solution was pumped through the resin, but for the creation of the Ca2+ concentration vs. time curve, the solution was pumped down through the column, as illustrated in the process flow diagram seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. Process sketch of the insect exchange column used for the project. Ref: http://www.generon.co.uk/acatalog/Chromatography.html 2 Harding, P. Viscosity Measurement SOP, Spring, 2010. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 10 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE A bathroom scale calibration curve was created to ensure that the 150 mL/min, used to calculate the breakthrough time, would be delivered to the resin. The bathroom scale used was a Dwyer brand with flowrates between 0 and 300 cc/min of water. Originally, values between 120 and 180 mL/min were chosen for the calibration, with three runs for each flowrate, however the bathroom scale values were so far away from the measure values the range was extended to 100 to 200 mL/min. The regeneration experiment was performed using a method similar to that used in the water softening experiment, however instead of using a 640 ppm Ca2+ solution to fill the resin, a 6000 ppm Na+ solution was used to eject the Ca2+ from the resin. Twelve samples times were chosen and adjusted as the experiment progressed, with more than half of the samples taken at times less than 10 minutes, and the last sample taken at 45 minutes. The bulk exit solution was also tested to determine the regeneration efficiency. Results and Discussion The senior lab sequence has its roots in the former Department of Chemical Engineering. CHE 414 and 415 were taught in Winter and Spring and included 6 hours of lab time per week. The School has endeavored to incorporate the courses into the BIOE and ENVE curriculum, and this will be complete in 2008-2009. Recent development of the senior lab course sequence is shown chronologically in Fig. 1. In 2006-2007, CHE 414 and 415 were moved to Fall and Winter to enable CHE 416, an elective independent senior project course. Also that year, BIOE students took BIOE 414 in the Fall and BIOE 415 was developed and taught. No BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE. In 2007-2008, the program transitioned in a new Linus Pauling Engineer and ENVE 414 was offered. Also, approximately 30 percent of BIOE students enrolled in the optional CHE 416. Accommodating the academic calendars of the three disciplines required a reduction in weekly student lab time from 6 to 3 hours. The expected relationship between coughing rate, y, and length of canine, x, is Bx z y Fe− (1) where F is a pre-exponential constant, B is vitamin B concentration and z is the height of an average trapeze artist. 3 The 2008-2009 brings the challenge of the dramatic enrollment increase shown in Fig. 1 and the first offering of ENVE 415. The result, shown on the right in Fig. 1, is the delivery of the senior lab sequence uniformly across the process engineering disciplines. CBEE 416 is expected to drawn approximately of the students that take the 415 courses. In 2007-2008, 414 and 415 were required for CHEs, 414 and 415 for BIOEs, and only 414 for ENVEs. CHE 416 is ostensibly an elective for all disciplines. In 2008-2009, 414 and 415 is required for all disciplines and CHE 416 will be an elective. The content of 414 is essentially 3 Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer, Welty, J.R. et al., 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11 Josephine Hornsnogger CBEE 414, Lab Section M 1300–‐1550 April 19, 2010 Oregon State University School of CBEE identical for all three disciplines, 415 has discipline-specific labs, and 416 consists of senior projects with potentially cross-discipline teams of 2 to 4 students. Tremendous labor and struggling with the lab equipment resulted in the data shown in y = –‐0.29x + 1.71 y = –‐0.25x + 2.03 y = –‐0.135x + 2.20 –‐1.5 –‐1.0 –‐0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 ln y (units) x (units) ln y_1 ln y_2 ln y_3 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Slope (units) (a) (b) Figure 1. (a) Data for y and x plotted for various values of z and (b) a comparison of slopes for the 3 cases investigate. The log plot slope yields the vitamin B concentration. The slopes were shown to be significantly at the 90% confidence level, but the instructor ran out of time and did not include error bars. The slope changed as predicted by the Snirtenhoffer equation. Improvements to the lab might include advice on how to legally change my name to something less embarrassing. My whole life I have been forced to repeat and spell it. I really feel that this has affected my psychologically. This was perhaps the worst lab I have ever done in my academic career, primarily due to the fact that there was no lab time. I simply typed in this entire report and filled it with jibberish. Some might think nobody will notice, but I know that …… Harding reads every word. Acknowledgments The author acknowledges his elementary teacher for providing truly foundational instruction in addition and subtraction. Jenny Burninbalm was instrumental with guidance on use of the RT-345 dog scratching device. CBEE 102: ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPUTATIONS PROJECT DESCRIPTION 12

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## Statistical Methods (STAT 4303) Review for Final Comprehensive Exam Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion Q.1. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in college algebra class. 10,12,15,20,13,16,14 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) Q.2. The data below represents the test scores obtained by students in English class. 12,15,16,18,13,10,17,20 Calculate (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Mode (d) Variance, s2 (e) Coefficient of variation (CV) (f) Compare the results of Q.1 and Q.2, Which scores College Algebra or English do you think is more precise (less spread)? Q.3 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics (a) mean (b) median (c) mode (d) first and third quartiles (e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. (f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. (g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). (h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 26 is replaced by 37 (i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? (j) What will be the new median? (k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.4 Following data represents the score obtained by students in one of the exams 19, 14, 14, 15, 17, 16, 17, 20, 20, 21, 21, 22, 25, 25, 26, 27, 28 Create a frequency table to calculate the following descriptive statistics a) mean b) median c) mode d) first and third quartiles e) Construct Box and Whisker plot. f) Comment on the shape of the distribution. g) Find inter quartile range (IQR). h) Are there any outliers (based on IQR technique)? In the above problem, if the score 28 is replaced by 48 i) What will happen to the mean? Will it increase, decrease or remains the same? j) What will be the new median? k) What can you say about the effect of outliers on mean and median? Q.5 Consider the following data of height (in inch) and weight(in lbs). Height(x) Frequency 50 2 52 3 55 2 60 4 62 3 Find the mean height. What is the variance of height? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.6. The following table shows the number of miles run during one week for a sample of 20 runners: Miles Mid-value (x) Frequency (f) 5.5-10.5 1 10.5-15.5 2 15.5-20.5 3 20.5-25.5 5 25.5-30.5 4 (a) Find the average (mean) miles run. (Hint: Find mid-value of mile range first) (b) What is the variance of miles run? Also, find the standard deviation. (c) Find the coefficient of variation (CV). Q.7. (a) If the mean of 20 observations is 20.5, find the sum of all observations? (b) If the mean of 30 observations is 40, find the sum of all observations? Probability Q.8 Out of forty students, 14 are taking English Composition and 29 are taking Chemistry. a) How many students are in both classes? b) What is the probability that a randomly-chosen student from this group is taking only the Chemistry class? Q.9 A drawer contains 4 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and then replaced. Another ball is taken from the drawer. What is the probability that (Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation). (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q.10 A drawer contains 3 red balls, 5 green balls, and 5 blue balls. One ball is taken from the drawer and not replaced. Another ball is then taken from the drawer. Draw tree diagram to facilitate your calculation. What is the probability that (a) both balls are red (b) first ball is red (c) both balls are of same colors (d) both balls are of different colors (e) first ball is red and second ball is blue (f) first ball is red or blue Q. 11 Missile A has 45% chance of hitting target. Missile B has 55% chance of hitting a target. What is the probability that (i) both miss the target. (ii) at least one will hit the target. (iii) exactly one will hit the target. Q. 12 A politician from D party speaks truth 65% of times; another politician from rival party speaks truth 75% of times. Both politicians were asked about their personal love affair with their own office secretary, what is the probability that (i) both lie the actual fact . (ii) at least one will speak truth. (iii) exactly one speaks the truth. (iv) both speak the truth. Q.13 The question, “Do you drink alcohol?” was asked to 220 people. Results are shown in the table. . Yes No Total Male 48 82 Female 24 66 Total (a) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a male also drinks? (b) What is the probability of a randomly selected individual being a female? (c) What is the probability that a randomly selected individual drinks? (d) A person is selected at random and if the person is female, what is the probability that she drinks? (e) What is the probability that a randomly selected alcoholic person is a male? Q.14 A professor, Dr. Drakula, taught courses that included statements from across the five colleges abbreviated as AH, AS, BA, ED and EN. He taught at Texas A&M University – Kingsville (TAMUK) during the span of five academic years AY09 to AY13. The following table shows the total number of graduates during AY09 to AY13. One day, he was running late to his class. He was so focused on the class that he did not stop for a red light. As soon as he crossed through the intersection, a police officer Asked him to stop. ( a ) It is turned out that the police officer was TAMUK graduate during the past five years. What is the probability that the Police Officer was from ED College? ( b ) What is the probability that the Police Officer graduated in the academic year of 2011? ( c ) If the traffic officer graduated from TAMUK in the academic year of 2011(AY11). What is the conditional probability that he graduated from the ED college? ( d ) Are the events the academic year “AY 11” and the college of Education “ED” independent? Yes or no , why? Discrete Distribution Q.15 Find k and probability for X=2 and X=4. X 1 2 3 4 5 P(X=x) 0.1 3k 0.2 2k 0.2 (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers.What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Q.16 Find k. X 3 4 5 6 7 P(X=x) k 2k 2k k 2k (Hint: First find k, and then plug in) Also, calculate the expected value of X, E(X) and variance V(X). A game plan is derived based on above table, a player wins $5 if he can blindly choose 3 and loses $1 if he chooses other numbers. What is his expected win or loss per game? If he plays this game for 20 times, what is total win or lose? Binomial Distribution: Q.17 (a) Hospital records show that of patients suffering from a certain disease, 75% die of it. What is the probability that of 6 randomly selected patients, 4 will recover? (b) A (blindfolded) marksman finds that on the average he hits the target 4 times out of 5. If he fires 4 shots, what is the probability of (i) more than 2 hits? (ii) at least 3 misses? (c) which of the following are binomial experiments? Explain the reason. i. Telephone surveying a group of 200 people to ask if they voted for George Bush. ii. Counting the average number of dogs seen at a veterinarian’s office daily. iii. You take a survey of 50 traffic lights in a certain city, at 3 p.m., recording whether the light was red, green, or yellow at that time. iv. You are at a fair, playing “pop the balloon” with 6 darts. There are 20 balloons. 10 of the balloons have a ticket inside that say “win,” and 10 have a ticket that says “lose.” Normal Distribution Q.18 Use standard normal distribution table to find the following probabilities: (a) P(Z<2.5) (b) P(Z< -1.3) (c) P(Z>0.12) (d) P(Z> -2.15) (e) P(0.11 ?)=0.87 (d) P(Z> ?)=0.34 Q.20. The length of life of certain type of light bulb is normally distributed with mean=220hrs and standard deviation=20hrs. (a) Define a random variable, X A light bulb is randomly selected, what is the probability that (b) it will last will last more than 207 hrs. ? (c) it will last less than 214 hrs. (d) it will last in between 199 to 207 hrs. Q.21. The length of life of an instrument produced by a machine has a normal distribution with a mean of 22 months and standard deviation of 4 months. Find the probability that an instrument produced by this machine will last (a) less than 10 months. (b) more than 28 months (c) between 10 and 28 months. Distribution of sample mean and Central Limit Theorem (CLT) Q.22 It is assumed that weight of teenage student is normally distributed with mean=140 lbs. and standard deviation =15 lbs. A simple random sample of 40 teenage students is taken and sample mean is calculated. If several such samples of same size are taken (i) what could be the mean of all sample means. (ii) what could be the standard deviation of all sample means. (iii) will the distribution of sample means be normal ? (iv) What is CLT? Write down the distribution of sample mean in the form of ~ ( , ) 2 n X N . Q.23 The time it takes students in a cooking school to learn to prepare seafood gumbo is a random variable with a normal distribution where the average is 3.2 hours and a standard deviation of 1.8 hours. A sample of 40 students was investigated. What is the distribution of sample mean (express in numbers)? Hypothesis Testing Q.24 The NCHS reported that the mean total cholesterol level in 2002 for all adults was 203 with standard deviation of 37. Total cholesterol levels in participants who attended the seventh examination of the Offspring in the Framingham Heart Study are summarized as follows: n=3,00, =200.3. Is there statistical evidence of a difference in mean cholesterol levels in the Framingham Offspring (means does the result form current examination differs from 2002 report)?? (Follow the steps below to reach the conclusion) (i) Define null and alternate hypothesis (Also write what is , and x in words at the beginning) (ii) Identify the significance level , and check whether it is one sided or two sided test. (iii) Calculate test statistics, Z. (iv) Use standard normal table to find the p-value and state whether you reject or accept (fail to reject) the null hypothesis. (v) what is the critical value, do you reject or accept the H0. (vi) Write down the conclusion based on part (iv). Q.25 A sample of 145 boxes of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran contain in average 1.95 scoops of raisins. It is known from past experiments that the standard deviation for the number of scoops of raisins is 0.25. The manufacturer of Kellogg’s Raisin Bran claimed that in average their product contains more than 2 scoops of raisins, do you reject or accept the manufacturers claim (follow all five steps)? Q.26 It is assumed that the mean systolic blood pressure is μ = 120 mm Hg. In the Honolulu Heart Study, a sample of n = 100 people had an average systolic blood pressure of 130.1 mm Hg. The standard deviation from the population is 21.21 mm Hg. Is the group significantly different (with respect to systolic blood pressure!) from the regular population? Use 10% level of significance. Q.27 A CEO claims that at least 80 percent of the company’s 1,000,000 customers are very satisfied. Again, 100 customers are surveyed using simple random sampling. The result: 73 percent are very satisfied. Based on these results, should we accept or reject the CEO’s hypothesis? Assume a significance level of 0.05. Q.28 True/False questions (These questions are collected from previous HW, review and exam problems, see the previous solutions for answers) (a) Total sum of probability can exceed 1. (b) If you throw a die, getting 2 or any even number are independent events. (c) If you roll a die for 20 times, the probability of getting 5 in 15th roll is 20 15 . (d) A student is taking a 5 question True-False quiz but he has not been doing any work in the course and does not know the material so he randomly guesses at all the answers. Probability that he gets the first question right is 2 1 . (e) Typing in laptop and writing emails using the same laptop are independent events. (f) Normal distribution is right skewed. (g) Mean is more robust to outliers. So mean is used for data with extreme values. (h) It is possible to have no mode in the data. (i) Standard normal variable, Z has some unit. (j) Only two parameters are required to describe the entire normal distribution. (k) Mean of standard normal variable, Z is 1. (l) If p-value of more than level of significance (alpha), we reject the H0. (m) Very small p-value indicates rejection of H0. (n) H0 always contains equality sign. (o) CLT indicates that distribution of sample mean can be anything, not just normal. (p) Sample mean is always equal to population mean. (q) Variance of sample mean is less than population mean. (r) Variance of sample mean does not depend on sample size. (s) Mr. A has cancer but a medical doctor diagnosed him as “no cancer”. It is a type I error. (t) Level of significance is probability of making type II error. (u) Type II error can be controlled. (v) Type I error is more serious than type II error. (w) Type I and Type II errors are based on null hypothesis. Q.29 Type I and Type II Errors : Make statements about Type I (False Positive) and Type II errors (False Negative). (a) The Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) Test has both Type I and Type II error possibilities. This test screens the mother’s blood during pregnancy for AFP and determines risk. Abnormally high or low levels may indicate Down syndrome. (Hint: Take actual status as down syndrome or not) Ho: patient is healthy Ha: patient is unhealthy (b) The mechanic inspects the brake pads for the minimum allowable thickness. Ho: Vehicles breaks meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. Ha: Vehicles brakes do not meet the standard for the minimum allowable thickness. (c) Celiac disease is one of the diseases which can be misdiagnosed or have less diagnosis. Following table shows the actual celiac patients and their diagnosis status by medical doctors: Actual Status Yes No Diagnosed as celiac Yes 85 5 No 25 105 I. Calculate the probability of making type I and type II error rates. II. Calculate the power of the test. (Power of the test= 1- P(type II error) Answers: USEFUL FORMULAE: Descriptive Statistics Possible Outliers, any value beyond the range of Q 1.5( ) and Q 1.5( ) Range = Maximum value -Minimum value 100 where 1 ( ) (Preferred) 1 and , n fx x For data with repeats, 1 ( ) (Preferred ) OR 1 and n x x For data without repeats, 1 3 1 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Q Q Q Q x s CV n f n f x x OR s n fx nx s n x x s n x nx s Discrete Distribution ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { ( )} ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 E X x P X x V X E X E X E X xP X x Binomial Distribution Probability mass function, P(X=x)= x n x n x C p q for x=0,1,2,…,n. E(X)=np, Var(X)=npq Hypothesis Testing based on Normal Distribution X std X mean Z Standard Normal Variable, Probability Bayes Rule, ( ) ( and ) ( ) ( ) ( | ) P B P A B P B P A B P A B Central Limit Theorem For large n (n>30), ~ ( , ) 2 n X N and ˆ ~ ( , ) n pq p N p For hypothesis testing of μ, σ known n x Z For hypothesis testing of p n pq p p Z ˆ ANSWERS: Q.1 (a) 14.286 (b) 14 (c) none (d) 10.24 (e) 22.40 Q.2 (a) 15.125 (b) 15.5 (c) No (d) 10.98 (e) 21.9 (f) English Q.3 (a) 18.6 (b)19 (c) 16, 21, and 25 (d) 15, 22 (f) slightly left (g) 7 (h) no outliers (i) increase (j) same Q.4 (a) 0.41 (b) 20 (c)14, 17, 20, 21,25 (d) 16.5, 25 (f) slightly right (g) 8.5 (h) no (i) increase (j) same Q.5 (a)56.57 (b) 22.26 (c) 8.34 Q.6 (a) 21 (b) 38.57 (c) 29.57 Q.7 (a) 410 (b) 1200 Q.8 (a)3 (b) 0.65 Q.9 (a) 0.082 (b) 0.29 (c)0.34 (d) 0.66 (e)0.10 (f) 0.64 Q.10 (a) 0.038 (b)0.23 (c) 0.71 (d) 0.29 (e)0.096 (f) 0.62 Q.11 (i)0.248 (ii)0.752 (iii)0.505 Q.12 (i)0.0875 (ii)0.913 (iii)0.425 (iii)0.488 Q.13 (a)0.22 (b)0.41 (c)0.33 (d)0.27 (e) 0.67 Q.14 (a) 0.13 (b) 0.18 (c)0.12 Q.15 E(X)=3.1 , V(X)=1.69, $0.2 per game, $ 4 win. Q.16 E(X)=5.125, V(X)=1.86, $0.25 loss per game, $5 loss. Q.17 (a)0.201 (b) 0.819, 0.027 Q.18 (a)0.9938 (b)0.0968 (c)0.452 (d)0.984 (e) 0.0433 (f)0.2353 Q.19 (a) -0.25 (b)0.71 (c) -1.13 (d)0.41 Q.20 (b) 0.7422 (c) 0.3821 (d) 0.1109 Q.21 (a)0.0014 (b) 0.0668 (c) 0.9318 Q.22 (a) 140 (b)2.37 Q.24 Z=-1.26, Accept null. Q.25 Z=-2.41, accept null Q.26 Z=4.76, reject H0 Q.27 Z=-1.75, reject H0 Q.28 F, F, F, T , F, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T, F, F, T, F, T, F, F, T, T Q.29 (c)0.113 , 0.022 , 0.977 (or 98%)

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