Watch this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5uKqs3D0Z0M What do you think the teacher did well? Is there anything he could have done better? Be specific in your answer

Watch this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5uKqs3D0Z0M What do you think the teacher did well? Is there anything he could have done better? Be specific in your answer

Yes, the teacher did extremely well. The entire class was … Read More...
Week 8 Lessons: Fertility, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Contraception, Abortion and Sexuality Across the Life Span. After reading chapters 11, 12 and 13, focus on information presented in Boxes, Tables and Figures. Select a topic or information presented in Boxes, Tables or Figures in each of the three chapters. Identify at least one important topic from each chapter, use page citations, and make specific references to one of the additional teaching aids related to EACH chapter, giving each chapter and related teaching aid its own paragraph. (3 pts) In your 4th paragraph, briefly discuss one single piece of information from the readings and related teaching aids, that stood out for you and why. (1 pt) Capture the essence of your posting in a fifth paragraph, using ten words or less. Be sure to read classmate postings so you do not repeat topical information in your own posting.

Week 8 Lessons: Fertility, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Contraception, Abortion and Sexuality Across the Life Span. After reading chapters 11, 12 and 13, focus on information presented in Boxes, Tables and Figures. Select a topic or information presented in Boxes, Tables or Figures in each of the three chapters. Identify at least one important topic from each chapter, use page citations, and make specific references to one of the additional teaching aids related to EACH chapter, giving each chapter and related teaching aid its own paragraph. (3 pts) In your 4th paragraph, briefly discuss one single piece of information from the readings and related teaching aids, that stood out for you and why. (1 pt) Capture the essence of your posting in a fifth paragraph, using ten words or less. Be sure to read classmate postings so you do not repeat topical information in your own posting.

Chapter 11: Pregnancy is confirmed by Hormonal Tests: Page 320 … Read More...
Describe and discuss: . the significance of teaching for social justice.

Describe and discuss: . the significance of teaching for social justice.

By accepting that diverse societies have dissimilar cultures, they appreciate … Read More...
C. STEM / STEAM education, The scientific method, questioning, theorytesting, …etc. 1- Write about methods and approaches to inquiry and to teaching STEM in schools and in universities, for both majors and non-majors. 2- Read than write and reflect about teaching/scholarly pursuit and philosophy of pedagogy, so that the intent in the classroom is to develop capacity, knowledge, transferability, and critical thinking skills. The focus is on the scientific method, on both qualitative and quantitative approaches to learning sciences in the classroom, review how this information can help you’d develop a lesson plan, or a unit designed to deliver particular goals and objectives. D. The multicultural classroom, look at Diversity Web, excellent resources and scholarly articles. I am particularly interested in seeing who you address diversity in the classroom, in terms of ways of learning, curriculum, students, and class experiences. How do you engage a multicultural classroom?

C. STEM / STEAM education, The scientific method, questioning, theorytesting, …etc. 1- Write about methods and approaches to inquiry and to teaching STEM in schools and in universities, for both majors and non-majors. 2- Read than write and reflect about teaching/scholarly pursuit and philosophy of pedagogy, so that the intent in the classroom is to develop capacity, knowledge, transferability, and critical thinking skills. The focus is on the scientific method, on both qualitative and quantitative approaches to learning sciences in the classroom, review how this information can help you’d develop a lesson plan, or a unit designed to deliver particular goals and objectives. D. The multicultural classroom, look at Diversity Web, excellent resources and scholarly articles. I am particularly interested in seeing who you address diversity in the classroom, in terms of ways of learning, curriculum, students, and class experiences. How do you engage a multicultural classroom?

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In this class we’re going to explore the philosophy of non-violence that Cesar Chavez followed. It’s purpose is to stand up against injustice and remain connected to your own humanity and that of the oppressor despite your anger and even rage. We will also look at a Buddhist monk’s teaching on how we can do this on a personal as well institutional level. These bear a deeper look so that we can consider how to apply them in today’s injustices and conflicts I. “Love, Law and Civil Disobedience” speech by Martin Luther King Jr. can be found at http://bigfatgenius.com/2220%20Fall%202010/King%20-%20Love%20Law%20and%20Civil%20Disobedience.html 1.) What is your gut reaction to this reading?

In this class we’re going to explore the philosophy of non-violence that Cesar Chavez followed. It’s purpose is to stand up against injustice and remain connected to your own humanity and that of the oppressor despite your anger and even rage. We will also look at a Buddhist monk’s teaching on how we can do this on a personal as well institutional level. These bear a deeper look so that we can consider how to apply them in today’s injustices and conflicts I. “Love, Law and Civil Disobedience” speech by Martin Luther King Jr. can be found at http://bigfatgenius.com/2220%20Fall%202010/King%20-%20Love%20Law%20and%20Civil%20Disobedience.html 1.) What is your gut reaction to this reading?

Dr. Martin Luther King argued the reality that those who … Read More...
“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

“No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 1 by Jennifer M. Dechaine1,2 and James E. Johnson1 1Department of Biological Sciences 2Department of Science Education Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE Part I – The Basic Question Introduction Imagine going out for a brisk winter snowshoe and suddenly stumbling upon hundreds of bat carcasses littering the forest floor. Unfortunately, this unsettling sight has become all too common in the United States (Figure 1). White-nose syndrome (WNS), first discovered in 2006, has now spread to 20 states and has led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats (as of January 2012). WNS is a disease caused by the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Bats infected with WNS develop white fuzz on their noses (Figure 2, next page) and often exhibit unnatural behavior, such as flying outside during the winter when they should be hibernating. WNS affects at least six different bat species in the United States and quickly decimates bat populations (colony mortality is commonly greater than 90%). Scientists have predicted that if deaths continue at the current rate, several bat species will become locally extinct within 20 years. Bats provide natural pest control by eating harmful insects, such as crop pests and disease carrying insect species, and losing bat populations would have devastating consequences for the U.S. economy. Researchers have sprung into action to study how bats become infected with and transmit P. destructans, but a key component of this research is determining where the fungus came from in the first place. Some have suggested that it is an invasive species from a different country while others think it is a North American fungal species that has recently become better able to cause disease. In this case study, we examine the origin of P. destructans causing WNS in North America. Some Other Important Observations • WNS was first documented at four cave sites in New York State in 2006. • The fungus can be spread among bats by direct contact or spores can be transferred between caves by humans (on clothing) or other animals. • European strains of the fungus occur in low levels across Europe but have led to few bat deaths there. • Bats with WNS frequently awake during hibernation, causing them to use important fat reserves, leading to death. No Bats in the Belfry: The Origin of White- Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats Figure 1. Many bats dead in winter from white-nose syndrome. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 2 Questions 1. What is the basic question of this study and why is it interesting? 2. What specific testable hypotheses can you develop to explain the observations and answer the basic question of this study? Write at least two alternative hypotheses. 3. What predictions about the effects of European strains of P. destructans on North American bats can you make if your hypotheses are correct? Write at least one prediction for each of your hypotheses. Figure 2. White fuzz on the muzzle of a little brown bat indicating infection by the disease. NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 3 Part II – The Hypothesis As discussed in Part I, researchers had preliminary data suggesting that the pathogen causing WNS is an invasive fungal species (P. destructans) brought to North America from Europe. They had also observed that P. destructans occurs on European bats but rarely causes their death. Preliminary research also suggested that one reason that bats have been dying from WNS is that the disorder arouses them from hibernation, causing the bats to waste fat reserves flying during the winter when food is not readily available. These observations led researchers to speculate that European P. destructans will affect North American bat hibernation at least as severely as does North American P. destructans (Warnecke et al. 2012). Questions 1. Explicitly state the researchers’ null (H0 ) and alternative hypotheses (HA) for this study. 2. Describe an experiment you could use to differentiate between these hypotheses (H0 and HA). NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 4 Part III – Experiments and Observations In 2010, Lisa Warnecke and colleagues (2012) isolated P. destructans fungal spores from Europe and North America. They collected 54 male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from the wild and divided these bats equally into three treatment groups. • Group 1 was inoculated with the North American P. destructans spores (NAGd treatment). • Group 2 was inoculated with the European P. destructans spores (EUGd treatment). • Group 3 was inoculated using the inoculation serum with no spores (Control treatment). All three groups were put into separate dark chambers that simulated the environmental conditions of a cave. All bats began hibernating within the first week of the study. The researchers used infrared cameras to examine the bats’ hibernation over four consecutive intervals of 26 days each. They then used the cameras to determine the total number of times a bat was aroused from hibernation during each interval. Questions 1. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is supported. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justifiy your predictions. 2. Use the graph below to predict what the results will look like if the null hypothesis is rejected. The total arousal counts in the control treatment at each interval is graphed for you (open bars). Justify your predictions. Null Supported Total Arousal counts Interval Null Rejected Total Arousal counts Interval NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SCIENCE “No Bats in the Belfry” by Dechaine and Johnson Page 5 2 Credits: Title block photo by David A. Riggs (http://www.flickr.com/photos/driggs/6933593833/sizes/l/), cropped, used in accordance with CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/). Figure 1 photo by Kevin Wenner/Pennsylvania Game Commision (http://www. portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/document/901415/white-nose_kills_hundreds_of_bats_in_lackawanna_county_pdf ). Figure 2 photo courtesy of Ryan von Linden/New York Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwshq/5765048289/sizes/l/in/ set-72157626818845664/, used in accordance with CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). Case copyright held by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Originally published February 6, 2014. Please see our usage guidelines, which outline our policy concerning permissible reproduction of this work. Part IV – Results Figure 3 (below) shows the real data from the study. There is no data for interval 4 bats that were exposed to the European P. destructans (gray bar) because all of the bats in that group died. Questions 1. How do your predictions compare with the experimental results? Be specific. 2. Do the results support or reject the null hypothesis? 3. If the European P. destructans is causing WNS in North America, how come European bats aren’t dying from the same disease? References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. White-Nose Syndrome. Available at: http://whitenosesyndrome.org/. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Warnecke, L., et al. 2012. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. PNAS Online Early Edition: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ doi/10.1073/pnas.1200374109. Last accessed December 20, 2013. Figure 3. Changes in hibernation patterns in M. lucifugus following inoculation with North American P. destructans (NAGd), European P. destructans (EUGd), or the control serum. Interval Total Arousal counts

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unit 6 only Part 1: Analysis of a unit of work (1000-1500) Part 1 requires you to critically evaluate a unit of work given in terms of: • the range of approaches and methodologies to language learning and teaching this unit of work encompasses. Discuss whether there is a focus on a particular approach, eg, are the students asked to memorise / rote learn/ repeat (audio-lingual); are students required to complete a task (task based learning) or an information-gap type activity (communicative language learning); is there a focus on a specific genre? 300 – 400 • the clarity of the objectives and target language/ exponents being taught 200-300 • the selection and sequencing of the activities 200 – 300 • to what extent language exponents and skills are integrated in the activities 200 -300 • the learner group, their needs and their language level for which the unit of work would be most appropriate 100 Describe the learner group this unit is designed for: ESL students, students of English as an international language etc; what language level the unit assumes and; the students language learning needs. Part 2: Extension, addition, omission and substitution (1500 – 2000) This section of the assignment requires you to focus on the unit of work: • Comment on any extensions, additions, omissions or substitutions you would make if you were teaching this unit to the learner group you identified in Part 1, above. 500 • Give reasons for your decisions. 500 • Describe how you will assess student learning. 300 • Describe how you will evaluate the success of the unit of work. 200 • Identify any problems you anticipate in carrying out the unit of work and suggest how you would go about overcoming these. 300 • For added or substituted activities, list the resources you will need for these, and reference the materials you have used or drawn on. 200

unit 6 only Part 1: Analysis of a unit of work (1000-1500) Part 1 requires you to critically evaluate a unit of work given in terms of: • the range of approaches and methodologies to language learning and teaching this unit of work encompasses. Discuss whether there is a focus on a particular approach, eg, are the students asked to memorise / rote learn/ repeat (audio-lingual); are students required to complete a task (task based learning) or an information-gap type activity (communicative language learning); is there a focus on a specific genre? 300 – 400 • the clarity of the objectives and target language/ exponents being taught 200-300 • the selection and sequencing of the activities 200 – 300 • to what extent language exponents and skills are integrated in the activities 200 -300 • the learner group, their needs and their language level for which the unit of work would be most appropriate 100 Describe the learner group this unit is designed for: ESL students, students of English as an international language etc; what language level the unit assumes and; the students language learning needs. Part 2: Extension, addition, omission and substitution (1500 – 2000) This section of the assignment requires you to focus on the unit of work: • Comment on any extensions, additions, omissions or substitutions you would make if you were teaching this unit to the learner group you identified in Part 1, above. 500 • Give reasons for your decisions. 500 • Describe how you will assess student learning. 300 • Describe how you will evaluate the success of the unit of work. 200 • Identify any problems you anticipate in carrying out the unit of work and suggest how you would go about overcoming these. 300 • For added or substituted activities, list the resources you will need for these, and reference the materials you have used or drawn on. 200

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