1. Develop a thought experiment that attempts to uncover hidden assumptions about human freedom. 2. Find a paragraph from a book, magazine, ect. First, tell whether there are claims in the paragraph. If there are, identify the types of claims (descriptive, normative, a priori, a posteriori) in the paragraph

1. Develop a thought experiment that attempts to uncover hidden assumptions about human freedom. 2. Find a paragraph from a book, magazine, ect. First, tell whether there are claims in the paragraph. If there are, identify the types of claims (descriptive, normative, a priori, a posteriori) in the paragraph

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Chapter 05 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Human Population Growth Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of agriculture is the first of the events listed here that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part B Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The Industrial Revolution was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part C Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of modern medicine is the third and most recent of the events listed here that have stimulated an increase in the population size of humans. the Industrial Revolution the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the discovery of vaccines the discovery of antibiotics the advent of agriculture the Industrial Revolution the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics the Industrial Revolution Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth’s carrying capacity for humans? ANSWER: Correct Not knowing how technological innovations will affect the human population means there is insufficient information to answer this question. Activity: Analyzing Age-Structure Pyramids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct This would mean that most individuals are in the prereproductive years. Such a population is expected to increase. Part B Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct In such a population the majority of individuals are in their postreproductive years. Such a population is expected to decrease. Part C Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape? There is insufficient information to answer this question. either at or above the carrying capacity below the carrying capacity above the carrying capacity at the carrying capacity Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid pyramid Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM ANSWER: Correct Such a population is expected to have a relatively stable size. GraphIt!: Age Pyramids and Population Growth Click here to complete the graphing activity. Then answer the questions. Part A – Question 1 The population of Greece is expected to _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: Correct Part B – Question 2 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part C – Question 3 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. inverted pyramid a rectangle tapering toward the top expand remain stable decline True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part D – Question 4 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part E – Question 5 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Part F – Question 6 Greece had more females than males in 2000. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this? Hint 1. Which sex tends to live longer in the United States, males or females? ANSWER: Correct Part G – Question 7 The population of Colombia is currently _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: True False True False True False Females generally have a shorter life span than males. More females are born than males, and this difference remains throughout all age groups. There should be an equal number of males and females in every age group, so this is likely an error in the 2000 census for Greece. Males generally have a shorter life span than females. expanding stable declining Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Correct Part H – Question 8 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part I – Question 9 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part J – Question 10 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part K – Question 11 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Demographic Transition Model Can you identify what happens in each stage of the demographic transition model? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: True False True False True False True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Answer Requested Concept Review: Demographic Characteristics of Developed and Developing Nations For each demographic characteristic described in the table below, decide whether it applies to developed nations, developing nations, or neither group. Part A Drag the correct labels onto the table. Labels may be used once, more than once, or not at all. ANSWER: Concept Review: Age Structure Diagrams Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Can you label age structure diagrams? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. Pink labels indicate what each age class represents. Blue labels indicate how the population is expected to change over time. ANSWER: Correct Current Events: Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (New York Times, 4/14/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (4/14/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com /content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A The current human population is just over _______ billion people. ANSWER: Correct Part B How are the governments of sub-Saharan Africa reacting to a rapidly increasing population? ANSWER: Part C Which of the following tends to be true? ANSWER: 6 7 8 9 They are beginning to encourage people to have fewer children. They are doing nothing. They are waiting to hear the recommendations from the United Nations. They are still encouraging people to have many children. Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D You are in the Nigerian government and are working on trying to solve the problem of a rapidly increasing population. You decide to incorporate the Latin American model as part of your plan. Which of the following do you recommend? ANSWER: Part E If nearly every adult in a society is married and polygamy is common, which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Even if global total fertility rate drops to 2.1, estimates indicate that the human population will reach ________ by 2100. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 57.9%. You received 15.06 out of a possible total of 26 points. The relationship between changing population and unemployment rates is too variable to quantify. An increase in population leads to an increase in unemployment. Population growth and unemployment are not correlated. An increase in population leads to a decrease in unemployment. There will be tax breaks for families with fewer children. Girls will be required to finish high school. The government will impose a limit of only one child. The government will provide free family planning. There are more adult women than adult men. There are equal numbers of adult men and adult women. There are more adult men than adult women. The ratio of adult men to adult women would depend on the total fertility rate. 10 billion 12 billion 14 billion 16 billion Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

Chapter 05 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Friday, May 23, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Activity: Human Population Growth Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of agriculture is the first of the events listed here that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part B Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The Industrial Revolution was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population. Part C Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population? ANSWER: Correct The advent of modern medicine is the third and most recent of the events listed here that have stimulated an increase in the population size of humans. the Industrial Revolution the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the discovery of vaccines the discovery of antibiotics the advent of agriculture the Industrial Revolution the bubonic plague the discovery of vaccines the advent of agriculture the discovery of antibiotics the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics the Industrial Revolution Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 1 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth’s carrying capacity for humans? ANSWER: Correct Not knowing how technological innovations will affect the human population means there is insufficient information to answer this question. Activity: Analyzing Age-Structure Pyramids Click here to complete this activity. Then answer the questions. Part A Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct This would mean that most individuals are in the prereproductive years. Such a population is expected to increase. Part B Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape? ANSWER: Correct In such a population the majority of individuals are in their postreproductive years. Such a population is expected to decrease. Part C Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape? There is insufficient information to answer this question. either at or above the carrying capacity below the carrying capacity above the carrying capacity at the carrying capacity Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that increases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid pyramid Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that decreases in size. a rectangle tapering toward the top inverted pyramid Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 2 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM ANSWER: Correct Such a population is expected to have a relatively stable size. GraphIt!: Age Pyramids and Population Growth Click here to complete the graphing activity. Then answer the questions. Part A – Question 1 The population of Greece is expected to _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: Correct Part B – Question 2 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part C – Question 3 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. Both an inverted pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. pyramid Both a pyramid and a rectangle tapering toward the top result in a population that remains stable in size. inverted pyramid a rectangle tapering toward the top expand remain stable decline True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 3 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part D – Question 4 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part E – Question 5 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Part F – Question 6 Greece had more females than males in 2000. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this? Hint 1. Which sex tends to live longer in the United States, males or females? ANSWER: Correct Part G – Question 7 The population of Colombia is currently _______. Hint 1. Review Step 2 of this activity. What shape does this population have? ANSWER: True False True False True False Females generally have a shorter life span than males. More females are born than males, and this difference remains throughout all age groups. There should be an equal number of males and females in every age group, so this is likely an error in the 2000 census for Greece. Males generally have a shorter life span than females. expanding stable declining Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 4 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Correct Part H – Question 8 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than reproductive-age individuals. Hint 1. What age group will today’s newborns occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part I – Question 9 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than elderly members of the population. Hint 1. What age groups will today’s reproductive-age individuals occupy in 2030? ANSWER: Correct Part J – Question 10 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more reproductive-age individuals than children. ANSWER: Correct Part K – Question 11 Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals. ANSWER: Correct Concept Review: Demographic Transition Model Can you identify what happens in each stage of the demographic transition model? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. ANSWER: True False True False True False True False Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 5 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Answer Requested Concept Review: Demographic Characteristics of Developed and Developing Nations For each demographic characteristic described in the table below, decide whether it applies to developed nations, developing nations, or neither group. Part A Drag the correct labels onto the table. Labels may be used once, more than once, or not at all. ANSWER: Concept Review: Age Structure Diagrams Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 6 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Can you label age structure diagrams? Part A Drag the labels to the appropriate targets. Pink labels indicate what each age class represents. Blue labels indicate how the population is expected to change over time. ANSWER: Correct Current Events: Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (New York Times, 4/14/2012) Read this New York Times article and then answer the questions. Nigeria Tested by Rapid Rise in Population (4/14/2012) Registration with The New York Times provides instant access to breaking news on NYTimes.com. To register, go to http://www.nytimes.com/register. Visit http://www.nytimes.com /content/help/rights/terms/terms-of-service.html to review the current NYT Terms of Service. Part A The current human population is just over _______ billion people. ANSWER: Correct Part B How are the governments of sub-Saharan Africa reacting to a rapidly increasing population? ANSWER: Part C Which of the following tends to be true? ANSWER: 6 7 8 9 They are beginning to encourage people to have fewer children. They are doing nothing. They are waiting to hear the recommendations from the United Nations. They are still encouraging people to have many children. Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 7 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM Part D You are in the Nigerian government and are working on trying to solve the problem of a rapidly increasing population. You decide to incorporate the Latin American model as part of your plan. Which of the following do you recommend? ANSWER: Part E If nearly every adult in a society is married and polygamy is common, which of the following is true? ANSWER: Part F Even if global total fertility rate drops to 2.1, estimates indicate that the human population will reach ________ by 2100. ANSWER: Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 57.9%. You received 15.06 out of a possible total of 26 points. The relationship between changing population and unemployment rates is too variable to quantify. An increase in population leads to an increase in unemployment. Population growth and unemployment are not correlated. An increase in population leads to a decrease in unemployment. There will be tax breaks for families with fewer children. Girls will be required to finish high school. The government will impose a limit of only one child. The government will provide free family planning. There are more adult women than adult men. There are equal numbers of adult men and adult women. There are more adult men than adult women. The ratio of adult men to adult women would depend on the total fertility rate. 10 billion 12 billion 14 billion 16 billion Chapter 05 Homework http://session.masteringenvironmentalscience.com/myct/assignmentPrintV… 8 of 8 5/21/2014 8:00 PM

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459 randomly selected light bulbs were tested in a laboratory, 291 lasted more than 500 hours. Find a point estimate of the true proportion of all light bulbs that last more than 500 hours.

459 randomly selected light bulbs were tested in a laboratory, 291 lasted more than 500 hours. Find a point estimate of the true proportion of all light bulbs that last more than 500 hours.

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Assessment Brief/Task The detailed requirements for this task are as follows: You are to select a PLC that has a listing on a recognised stock exchange of your choice and agree this with the module tutor. As the company accountant you are expected to produce a report for the board of directors focusing on two elements. You have been asked to produce a Financial Analysis of the company based upon the following ratios for the company for the years 2014, 2012 and 2010;- Return on Capital Employed Operating Profit Margin Asset Turnover Current Ratio Gearing Interest Cover EPS PE Ratio (you will need to show all relevant workings and supporting documentation). Your analysis will be based upon the ratios calculated but is also is to include an analysis of the company’s industry and a comparison of company performance with industry averages/competitor companies for the same years. Where the ratios cannot be calculated please advise the tutor who will agree an alternative ratio. The company you have chosen in part one is seeking to purchase land and building which represents 10% of its Net Assets Employed. As accountant you are required to make a proposal as to how the company might access the finance necessary. This might be from internal or external sources but must be based upon the company performance and capital structure. You should justify your choice. The following information is important when: • Preparing for your assessment • Checking your work before you submit it • Interpreting feedback on your work after marking. Assessment Criteria The module Learning Outcomes tested by this assessment task are indicated on page 1. The precise criteria against which your work will be marked are as follows: The proportions of the assignment should be 1. An analysis of the industry of which the company is a part (15%) 2. Comparison of company performance with industry based upon ratios calculated (40%) 3. Analysis of the different sources of finance available to your company and how it might apply to the chosen company (35%) 4. Summary and justification for choice of financing (10%)

Assessment Brief/Task The detailed requirements for this task are as follows: You are to select a PLC that has a listing on a recognised stock exchange of your choice and agree this with the module tutor. As the company accountant you are expected to produce a report for the board of directors focusing on two elements. You have been asked to produce a Financial Analysis of the company based upon the following ratios for the company for the years 2014, 2012 and 2010;- Return on Capital Employed Operating Profit Margin Asset Turnover Current Ratio Gearing Interest Cover EPS PE Ratio (you will need to show all relevant workings and supporting documentation). Your analysis will be based upon the ratios calculated but is also is to include an analysis of the company’s industry and a comparison of company performance with industry averages/competitor companies for the same years. Where the ratios cannot be calculated please advise the tutor who will agree an alternative ratio. The company you have chosen in part one is seeking to purchase land and building which represents 10% of its Net Assets Employed. As accountant you are required to make a proposal as to how the company might access the finance necessary. This might be from internal or external sources but must be based upon the company performance and capital structure. You should justify your choice. The following information is important when: • Preparing for your assessment • Checking your work before you submit it • Interpreting feedback on your work after marking. Assessment Criteria The module Learning Outcomes tested by this assessment task are indicated on page 1. The precise criteria against which your work will be marked are as follows: The proportions of the assignment should be 1. An analysis of the industry of which the company is a part (15%) 2. Comparison of company performance with industry based upon ratios calculated (40%) 3. Analysis of the different sources of finance available to your company and how it might apply to the chosen company (35%) 4. Summary and justification for choice of financing (10%)

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A pendulum has a oscillation period T which is assumed to depend upon its length L, bob mass m, angle of swing Q, and the acceleration of gravity. A pendulum 1 m long, with a bob mass of 200g, is tested on earth and found to have a period of 2.04 s when swinging at 20c (a) what is its period when is swings at 45 ? A similary constructed pendulum, with L=30 cm and m=100g is to swing on the moon . what will be its period?

A pendulum has a oscillation period T which is assumed to depend upon its length L, bob mass m, angle of swing Q, and the acceleration of gravity. A pendulum 1 m long, with a bob mass of 200g, is tested on earth and found to have a period of 2.04 s when swinging at 20c (a) what is its period when is swings at 45 ? A similary constructed pendulum, with L=30 cm and m=100g is to swing on the moon . what will be its period?

art 1: Some of the more characteristic doctrines of the Enlightenment focused on the power and goodness of human rationality: 1) Reason is the most significant and positive capacity of the human; 2) reason enables one to break free from primitive, dogmatic, and superstitious beliefs holding one in the bonds of irrationality and ignorance; 3) in realizing the liberating potential of reason, one not only learns to think correctly, but to act correctly as well; 4) through philosophical and scientific progress, reason can lead humanity as a whole to a state of earthly perfection; 5) reason makes all humans equal and, therefore, deserving of equal liberty and treatment before the law; 6) beliefs of any sort should be accepted only on the basis of reason, and not on traditional or priestly authority; and 7) all human endeavors should seek to impart and develop knowledge, not feelings or character. (pbs.com) Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson embodied the Age of Enlightenment. Use your choice of three of the seven doctrines to explain and prove these author’s philosophies. Make sure you draw on our readings to support your choices. Next, consider and discuss how these doctrines have been advanced, tested, and revised as the nation has grown and evolved. Part II: Briefly describe several, meaning more than two, of the conditions of the slave ship as experienced by Olaudah Equiano and related in his narrative. Compare his narrative to that of Phillis Wheatley’s experience. You must use selected quotes from each, but then interpret, in your own words, what the quotes mean and what their impact is on the reader.

art 1: Some of the more characteristic doctrines of the Enlightenment focused on the power and goodness of human rationality: 1) Reason is the most significant and positive capacity of the human; 2) reason enables one to break free from primitive, dogmatic, and superstitious beliefs holding one in the bonds of irrationality and ignorance; 3) in realizing the liberating potential of reason, one not only learns to think correctly, but to act correctly as well; 4) through philosophical and scientific progress, reason can lead humanity as a whole to a state of earthly perfection; 5) reason makes all humans equal and, therefore, deserving of equal liberty and treatment before the law; 6) beliefs of any sort should be accepted only on the basis of reason, and not on traditional or priestly authority; and 7) all human endeavors should seek to impart and develop knowledge, not feelings or character. (pbs.com) Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson embodied the Age of Enlightenment. Use your choice of three of the seven doctrines to explain and prove these author’s philosophies. Make sure you draw on our readings to support your choices. Next, consider and discuss how these doctrines have been advanced, tested, and revised as the nation has grown and evolved. Part II: Briefly describe several, meaning more than two, of the conditions of the slave ship as experienced by Olaudah Equiano and related in his narrative. Compare his narrative to that of Phillis Wheatley’s experience. You must use selected quotes from each, but then interpret, in your own words, what the quotes mean and what their impact is on the reader.

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All answers should be in radians not degrees. 1) (15 pts total) Conditional Probability Two integrated circuits made from the same wafer are tested. Each IC either passes the test or fails the test. The event that the first IC fails the test is called A. The event that the second IC fails the test is called B. The probability of A, P(A)=0.02. The probability of B, P(B)=0.02. The probability that both ICs fail is ?(?∩?)?? 0.01. What is the conditional probability P(B|A) the the 2nd IC fails the test given that the first IC failed the test? 2) (20 points total) Sampling with replacement The NAU student ID number is a 7-digit number. Assume all numbers are randomly generated, and all numbers are equally likely to be generated. a) (5 ???) How many possible student ID numbers are there? b) (5 ???) What is the probability of getting the ID number that is all 1s, 1111111? c) (5 ???) How many student ID numbers have a 1 as the first digit? d) (5 ???) What is the probability of getting a student ID number with a 1 as the first digit? 3) (15 pts total) Sampling without replacement A box in the EE188 lab contains 200 resistors that are labeled 100kΩ resistors. Five of these resistors are in fact 10 kΩ resistors (only 5!) Your circuit design uses 3 100 kΩ resistors. a) (5 pts) What is the probability that all 3 of the resistors you choose are 100kΩ resistors? b) (5 pts) What is the probability that one or more or the 3 resistors that you chose aren’t 100 kΩ resistors? Hint: use the answer from part a) c) (5 pts) What is the probability that all 3 resistors that you chose are not 100 kΩ resistors. 4) (20 pts total) Combinations: Arrangements where order doesn’t matter a) (3 pts) How many ways are there to draw 3 resistors from a box of 200 resistors? b) (3 pts) How many ways are there to draw 3 resistors from a group of 195 100 kΩ resistors? c) (4 pts) Calculate the probability of drawing 3 100 kΩ resistors from a box of 200 resistors, where 195 are 100 kΩ resistors and 5 are 10 kΩ resistors. Use your results from a) and b) to find this probability. d) (2 pts) Is your answer in c) the same as 3a)? e) (3 pts) How many ways are there to draw 3 resistors from a group of 5 10 kΩ resistors? f) (3 pts) Calculate the probability of drawing 3 10 kΩ resistors from a box of 200 resistors, where 195 are 100 kΩ resistors and 5 are 10 kΩ resistors. Use your results from a) and e) to find this probability. g) (2 pts) Is your answer in f) the same as your answer from 3c)? 5) (20 pts) For the following data set: 70.6, 70.9, 69.1, 71.3, 70.5, 69.7, 71.5, 69.8, 71.1, 68.9, 70.3, 69.2, 71.2, 70.4, 72.8 a) (5 pts) Draw a histogram with bin size 0.5, starting at the bin 68.45-68.95 b) (5 pts) What is the mean of the data? c) (5 pts) What is the median of the data? d) (5 pts) What is the standard deviation of the data?

All answers should be in radians not degrees. 1) (15 pts total) Conditional Probability Two integrated circuits made from the same wafer are tested. Each IC either passes the test or fails the test. The event that the first IC fails the test is called A. The event that the second IC fails the test is called B. The probability of A, P(A)=0.02. The probability of B, P(B)=0.02. The probability that both ICs fail is ?(?∩?)?? 0.01. What is the conditional probability P(B|A) the the 2nd IC fails the test given that the first IC failed the test? 2) (20 points total) Sampling with replacement The NAU student ID number is a 7-digit number. Assume all numbers are randomly generated, and all numbers are equally likely to be generated. a) (5 ???) How many possible student ID numbers are there? b) (5 ???) What is the probability of getting the ID number that is all 1s, 1111111? c) (5 ???) How many student ID numbers have a 1 as the first digit? d) (5 ???) What is the probability of getting a student ID number with a 1 as the first digit? 3) (15 pts total) Sampling without replacement A box in the EE188 lab contains 200 resistors that are labeled 100kΩ resistors. Five of these resistors are in fact 10 kΩ resistors (only 5!) Your circuit design uses 3 100 kΩ resistors. a) (5 pts) What is the probability that all 3 of the resistors you choose are 100kΩ resistors? b) (5 pts) What is the probability that one or more or the 3 resistors that you chose aren’t 100 kΩ resistors? Hint: use the answer from part a) c) (5 pts) What is the probability that all 3 resistors that you chose are not 100 kΩ resistors. 4) (20 pts total) Combinations: Arrangements where order doesn’t matter a) (3 pts) How many ways are there to draw 3 resistors from a box of 200 resistors? b) (3 pts) How many ways are there to draw 3 resistors from a group of 195 100 kΩ resistors? c) (4 pts) Calculate the probability of drawing 3 100 kΩ resistors from a box of 200 resistors, where 195 are 100 kΩ resistors and 5 are 10 kΩ resistors. Use your results from a) and b) to find this probability. d) (2 pts) Is your answer in c) the same as 3a)? e) (3 pts) How many ways are there to draw 3 resistors from a group of 5 10 kΩ resistors? f) (3 pts) Calculate the probability of drawing 3 10 kΩ resistors from a box of 200 resistors, where 195 are 100 kΩ resistors and 5 are 10 kΩ resistors. Use your results from a) and e) to find this probability. g) (2 pts) Is your answer in f) the same as your answer from 3c)? 5) (20 pts) For the following data set: 70.6, 70.9, 69.1, 71.3, 70.5, 69.7, 71.5, 69.8, 71.1, 68.9, 70.3, 69.2, 71.2, 70.4, 72.8 a) (5 pts) Draw a histogram with bin size 0.5, starting at the bin 68.45-68.95 b) (5 pts) What is the mean of the data? c) (5 pts) What is the median of the data? d) (5 pts) What is the standard deviation of the data?

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Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is correct about interpreting the results of statistical tests? Question 2 options: 1) Obtaining a probability value of .05 tells us the difference between groups is definitely not caused by chance fluctuation. 2) If a probability value falls above .05, then the results will have to be replicated before we can have confidence in them. 3) Obtaining a probability value of .05 gives us confidence that the findings are not the result of chance, but does not eliminate this possibility. 4) A .05 probability value means there is a 5 percent chance the finding reflects a real difference. Question 3 (1 point) Which of the following statements is true about theories of personality? Question 3 options: 1) They provide only a part of the picture of human personality. 2) They support the expert’s viewpoint. 3) Theories are predicted from one hypothesis or another. 4) They are directly tested using empirical methods. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following statements is correct about hypothetical constructs? Question 4 options: 1) They are useful inventions by researchers that have no physical reality. 2) They are easier to measure than personality variables. 3) They cannot be measured with personality tests. 4) They have poor reliability and validity. Question 5 (1 point) According to the “law of parsimony,” Question 5 options: 1) a good theory generates a large number of hypotheses. 2) the best theory is the one that explains a phenomenon with the fewest constructs. 3) hypotheses are generated from theories. 4) theories should require as few studies as possible to support them. ________________________________________ Question 6 (1 point) Which of the following does a correlation coefficient not tell us? Question 6 options: 1) If the difference between two means reflects a real difference or can be attributed tochancefluctuation. 2) The strength of a relationship between two measures. 3) The direction of a relationship between two measures. 4) How well a score on one measure can be predicted by a score on another measure. Question 7 (1 point) A researcher finds that males make fewer errors than females when working in a competitive situation. However, women make fewer errors than men when working in acooperative situation. This is an example of Question 7 options: 1) a confound. 2) two manipulated independent variables. 3) an interaction. 4) a failure to replicate.

Question 2 (1 point) Which of the following is correct about interpreting the results of statistical tests? Question 2 options: 1) Obtaining a probability value of .05 tells us the difference between groups is definitely not caused by chance fluctuation. 2) If a probability value falls above .05, then the results will have to be replicated before we can have confidence in them. 3) Obtaining a probability value of .05 gives us confidence that the findings are not the result of chance, but does not eliminate this possibility. 4) A .05 probability value means there is a 5 percent chance the finding reflects a real difference. Question 3 (1 point) Which of the following statements is true about theories of personality? Question 3 options: 1) They provide only a part of the picture of human personality. 2) They support the expert’s viewpoint. 3) Theories are predicted from one hypothesis or another. 4) They are directly tested using empirical methods. Question 4 (1 point) Which of the following statements is correct about hypothetical constructs? Question 4 options: 1) They are useful inventions by researchers that have no physical reality. 2) They are easier to measure than personality variables. 3) They cannot be measured with personality tests. 4) They have poor reliability and validity. Question 5 (1 point) According to the “law of parsimony,” Question 5 options: 1) a good theory generates a large number of hypotheses. 2) the best theory is the one that explains a phenomenon with the fewest constructs. 3) hypotheses are generated from theories. 4) theories should require as few studies as possible to support them. ________________________________________ Question 6 (1 point) Which of the following does a correlation coefficient not tell us? Question 6 options: 1) If the difference between two means reflects a real difference or can be attributed tochancefluctuation. 2) The strength of a relationship between two measures. 3) The direction of a relationship between two measures. 4) How well a score on one measure can be predicted by a score on another measure. Question 7 (1 point) A researcher finds that males make fewer errors than females when working in a competitive situation. However, women make fewer errors than men when working in acooperative situation. This is an example of Question 7 options: 1) a confound. 2) two manipulated independent variables. 3) an interaction. 4) a failure to replicate.

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