GEEN 160 Lab 3 Instructions: Please create two cpp files and having each of them containing one question’s solution. Please only submit the two cpp files onto Blackboard. Requirements: ? You need to put one comment on top of the main function. The comment should explain the general purpose of the main function. ? You need to make a comment whenever you define a variable (or variables). ? You need to make a comment whenever you make a computation (or computations). ? No comment is required for the code that displays something on the screen. However, the message that will be displayed on the screen must be self-explanatory. Question 1 (10 points) Write a program that uses a loop to display the characters for the ASCII codes 0 through 127. Display 16 characters on each line. Question 2 (10 points) Running on a particular treadmill you burn 3.9 calories per minute. Write a program that uses a loop to display the number of calories burned after 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes
GEEN 160 Lab 3 Instructions: Please create two cpp files … Read More...
-1- Department of Engineering ELE3DDE: Electronic Design Automation – 2015 Assignment: Traffic Light Controller: Design, Synthesis and Test DUE: Code Submission and Demonstration, Wednesday, September 9 Report, 2pm Monday, September 14 Students will work on this assignment individually – developing their own design and producing their own independent report Task: A traffic signal controller is required for an intersection of two cross roads in a busy town centre that also has considerable pedestrian traffic. All four approaches to the intersection have standard traffic lights (Red, Amber and Green) and a traffic sensor (active low), which can detect the presence of approaching traffic. Assume that when a car passes over a sensor, it produces a low signal for approximately three (3) seconds. Thus a constant stream of traffic would produce a continuous low signal (i.e. assume that debouncing for these sensors has already been performed in the sensor circuitry). The intersection also has pedestrian crossing signals (Walk, Don’t Walk (flashing), and Don’t Walk (constantly illuminated), and pedestrian call buttons (simple push button switches) at each of the four crossing points. As a digital design engineer, you have been asked to produce an FPGA prototype for the Traffic Light Controller and assigned the following tasks (i) Produce a VHDL design for the Traffic Light Controller meeting the specifications outlined below. (ii) Produce a test bench for your VHDL design and via simulation confirm that your design functions correctly. (iii) Produce a space efficient, fully tested working prototype, suitable for demonstration to the client. (i.e. implement your design in the ALTERA, Cyclone II FPGA on the ALTERA DE2 board). (iv) Produce a report of your work, including a discussion on the efficiency of your design. (v) All code generated for you design must be included in your report. If you have pages and pages of VHDL code (particularly if you generated them with HDL Designer), these should be included in your report as an appendix. Prototype. The design will be implemented using the ALTERA, Cyclone II (EP2C35F672C6) device on the ALTERA DE2 board. See Appendix or DE2 Board Manual for device I/O pins. The four traffic lights will be represented via the 7-segment displays HEX7 – HEX4, with segment ‘a’ representing a red light, segment ‘g’ representing a yellow light and segment ‘d’ representing a green light. With the traffic sensors in the road represented by four slide switches (SW17, SW15, SW13 & SW11). The emergency Amber flash switch should be connected to slide switch SW3. -2- The pedestrian call buttons will be represented by the push buttons, KEY0, KEY1, KEY2 and KEY3. With 7-segment displays HEX3 – HEX0 used to represent the pedestrian signals for the crossing of the intersection, in the following manner: Walk (segment ‘d’ on), Don’t Walk – flashing (segment ‘a’ flashing), and Don’t Walk (segment ‘a’ on continuously). For timing the development board has a 50MHz clock. Shown above is a diagram of a seven-segment display indicating how segments ‘a’, ‘g’ and ‘d’ are used to represent the red, yellow and green lights, of a traffic light, respectively on HEX7 – HEX4. While below shows seven-segment display indicating how segments ‘a’ and ‘d’ are used to indicate Don’t Walk and Walk respectively on HEX3 – HEX0. Design Specifications – Basic Design. The road traffic lights are to operate using the sequence RedGreenAmberRed according to the timing and requirements outlined below. Whenever the lights for one road are Green or Amber the crossroad must always display a red signal. All traffic lights must display a red signal for two seconds between changeovers. In their inactive state all pedestrian signals will display “Don’t Walk – continuous” (segment ‘a’ continuously on), independent of the changes in the traffic signals. The pedestrian signal can be activated following a pedestrian call being registered (by an appropriate push button(s) being pressed) and will operate in the sequence “Walk” “Don’t Walk – flash” “Don’t Walk – continuous” with the timing and requirements outlined below. As this intersection carries considerable pedestrian traffic the town planners have decided that the traffic sequence will contain a dedicated pedestrian crossing only period, where pedestrians may walk between any two points of the intersection (including through the middle of the intersection). Rather than embedding the pedestrian crossing sequences in with the road traffic sequence – as you are probably more familiar with. Thus whenever any traffic flow enabling signal is active (i.e. Green or Amber on) the pedestrian signals will be inactive (i.e. “Don’t Walk – continuous”) and vice versa, whenever the pedestrian signals are active (“Walk” or “Don’t Walk – flash”) all road traffic lights remain red. a d e f g c b a d e f g c b -3- Traffic Light sequence and timing When all automotive sensors are inactive the default sequence is: Green Road 1 14 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 14 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec For both Roads 1 & 2, if any traffic is detected after the road has been showing green for 9 seconds, then the Green time will be extended by a further 10 seconds (i.e. making the Green time 24 seconds for that road, on that sequence. The amber and red/red times remain at 4 and 2 seconds respectively – for all sequences. Thus if both Road 1 and Road 2 have heavy traffic (i.e. traffic still detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Also, should Road 1 have heavy traffic and Road 2 have only light or no traffic (i.e. no traffic detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 14 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec And alternatively, should Road 2 have heavy traffic and Road 1 have only light or no traffic (i.e. no traffic detected after 9 seconds of green signal) then the sequence will be: Green Road 1 14 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec When a pedestrian crossing sequence is required this is always inserted after the Road 2 sequence, following the 2 seconds of red in both directions. Pushing a pedestrian crossing button (outside of the “Walk” period) will register a “pedestrian call” and a pedestrian crossing sequence will be inserted as soon as the next Road 2 sequence is complete. Should a pedestrian call be registered at only one site, then the pedestrian crossing sequence will be: -4- : Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 18 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 : : Alternatively, should a pedestrian call be registered at more than one site, then the “Walk” portion of the pedestrian crossing sequence will be extended by a further 8 seconds, thus: : Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 26 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 : : All pedestrian calls will be cleared as soon as the “Walk” (‘d’ on) signal is activated, and will not register again until the “Walk” (‘d’ on) signal is no longer active. Any pedestrian calls (i.e. a pedestrian button push) made during the “Don’t Walk Flashing” signal will be registered as a call towards the next sequence and have no effect on the current length of the “Don’t Walk Flashing” signal. As an example, if the automotive traffic is “heavy” in both directions, and there is also a heavy demand on the pedestrian crossing, then the total sequence would be: : Green Road 1 24 sec Amber Road 1 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec Green Road 2 24 sec Amber Road 2 4 sec Red Roads 1/2 2 sec “Walk” (‘d’ on) 26 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk Flashing” (‘a’ flashing) 6 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) 2 sec (still Red Roads 1/2) Green Road 1 24 sec : The traffic controller system must respond to road sensor changes within one second. (Hint – The core of your design may include a state machine that is clocked at 1Hz). Although, you may need a faster clock to register the pedestrian call buttons. Incorporate an emergency Amber flash switch in your design (SW3). When activated the system should move to the ‘Red both directions’ state as soon as possible (i.e. it must go through four seconds of amber if currently green or amber, or through six seconds of “Don’t Walk Flashing” should a pedestrian sequence be active. Then after two seconds of ‘Red both directions’ plus “Don’t Walk” (‘a’ on) it should flash amber at 1Hz in both directions. In this state all pedestrian -5- signals will remain continuously showing “Don’t Walk” and no pedestrian call buttons will be registered. The design must also include an reset (active low), which will immediately place the lights on both roads in the Red state, plus all pedestrian signals showing “Don’t Walk” continuously, hold for two seconds, and then move to normal operations. You should use SW0 for the reset. For the purposes of testing and demonstrating this assignment, you should include a state clock speed modification option (i.e. x4); under “test switch” control (SW2). This will enable an option of viewing (and testing) the sequence changes more quickly. Finally, so that each design is unique, arrange for a selectable option (using SW1) where your student number is displayed on the 7-segment displays. Clearly when the student number is being displayed the traffic light status cannot be shown, although normal operations should continue in the background. That is, SW1 controls a multiplexer that selects between traffic light and student number data to be displayed. There is no need to include this section in your report, as it is not part of the Traffic Light Controller design. However, it is required for the demonstration. Design Specifications – Enhanced Design. Add additional features to enhance your design. 1. Implement the “Walk”/”Don’t Walk” on the LCD display. 2. Display a count of the current ‘seconds’ for a particular state in the sequence. i.e. count up the seconds in “green-red”, then “amber-red”, then “red-red”, then “red-green” etc. 3. Implement Green right turn arrows on the cross roads. Use the four slide switches (SW16, SW14, SW12 & SW10) for the right turn sensors. If a North or East direction road has an right turn sensors that is active prior to the intended green cycle of that road then an additional 6 seconds inserted into the sequence showing “Green Arrow” and “Green” in one direction with “Red” in the opposite direction (i.e. South or West). After the 6 seconds have elapsed the “Green Arrow” is switched off while the “Green” remains on with “Red” still showing in the opposite direction. After a further four seconds the “Red” in opposite direction changes to “green” and the sequence continues normally. Alternatively, the right turn arrow for South or East direction roads is inserted at the end of the green sequence, as follows. If a South or West has an active right turn sensor then at the end of the common “Green” time for that road then an additional ten seconds is added to the sequence to accommodate the “Green Arrow”. This consists of four seconds of “Amber” in the corresponding opposite direction, with “Green” still showing in the South or East direction, followed by “Red” in the opposite direction, and “Green Arrow” with “Green” still on for a further 6 seconds. The cycle then moves to “Amber” in the South or East direction with the “Green Arrow” off and “Red” showing in the opposite direction for four seconds. After that is the “All Red” state for two seconds and then the start of a new sequence. For the purposes of the demonstration HEX7 & HEX6 are North & South respectively, while HEX5 & HEX4 are East & West respectively. As an example the following is a heavy traffic sequence with right turns. Red All Roads 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On North Road (South Red) 6 sec Green North Road with Green Arrow off (South Red) 4 sec Green North & South Roads 24 sec -6- Amber North Road with Green South Road 4 sec Red North Road with Green South Road 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On South Road (North Red) 6 sec Amber with Green Arrow off South Road (North Red) 4 sec Red All Roads 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On East Road (West Red) 6 sec Green East Road with Green Arrow off (West Red) 4 sec Green East & West Roads 24 sec Amber East Road with Green West Road 4 sec Red East Road with Green West Road 2 sec Green and Green Arrow On West Road (East Red) 6 sec Amber with Green Arrow off West Road (East Red) 4 sec Red All Roads 2 sec Shown above is a diagram of a seven-segment display indicating how segment ‘c’ is used to indicate a green right turn arrow in a traffic light, in conjunction with ‘a’, ‘g’ and ‘d’ representing the red, yellow and green lights. Notes/Hints: (i) A pedestrian signal sequence will only occur if a pedestrian call button has been pressed (and hence registered); otherwise it will remain in the continuous “Don’t Walk” state. (ii) The decision to extend a traffic signal sequence from 14 to 24 seconds should be made between the 10 and 14 second mark (inclusive). i.e. read the traffic sensors between these times. (iii) It is recommended that you practice implementing some of the basic functions on the DE2 Board first and build on this before implementing the entire design. At the end of the day, a partially implemented prototype that works will be easier to demonstrate than an entire design that does not work at all. (iv) There are many different ways of describing timing circuits in VHDL, not all are synthesisable. (v) At this stage it may be safer to stick with the standard ieee libraries, while it is possible to set up your own libraries – great care needs to be exercised. a d e f g c b -7- (vi) If you use a package – keep it in your work library, download it to the same folder as your design files (for the Quartus II compiler) and compile it (using the Quartus II compiler) before compiling your vending machine design. (vii) MOST IMPORTANT – the Quartus II compiler does NOT like integers of different ranges being assigned to each other – even though this may compile and simulate correctly in ModelSim. For your assignment report YOU ARE REQUIRED TO SUBMIT THE FOLLOWING: (a) Block diagrams of your design, showing the hierarchy of the design and signals at each level. You can use HDL Designer or another drawing package if you wish. To assist the explanation of your design (e) it may be appropriate to embed these in the written text. (b) Printout(s) of your Traffic Light Controller design (inc. VHDL code). Key parts of the design graphics/code should be included in the main body of the report, along with the explanation of the design. With the complete design code included as an appendix. Reset Amber Flash Road 1 Lights Pedestrian Signals Pedestrian Call Buttons Display Student No. Traffic Sensors Test Road 2 Lights -8- (c) Printout(s) of your test bench (stimulus) file(s). Where key to the understanding of the testing methodology and simulation results these should included in the main body of the report. Otherwise, a complete set of testbench code must be included as an appendix. (d) Test data (i.e. annotated printouts of simulation results and summary of on board testing); <> (e) A concise (two – three pages writing) explanation of your design and your testing methodologies (i.e. how your circuit works, and why your test results demonstrate that it is functioning correctly), also include comments on any particular innovative ideas you have implemented in your design; (f) Include a summary of the FPGA resource usage of your completed design. Briefly comment on the general efficiency of your design, remember that, typically the smaller the design the lower the cost (as it may fit in a smaller/cheaper device), and the lower the power consumption. Are there any areas where you think the design could save some resources by being implemented differently? You are not required to make changes to the VHDL just brief comment(s). (Half page plus resource usage summary). Submission (by 2pm Monday, September 14): Your complete report (including code) must be converted to an OCR compatible (i.e. searchable) PDF file and submitted to the Design Assignment drop box on the LMS site for this subject. No paper copies are required. When you submit your assignment it will be checked automatically by the Turnitin software for similarity with past and present work, web sites, books etc. Any report with a high Turnitin similarity index will be scrutinised for potential plagiarism. It is highly recommended that you submit a draft copy of your assignment report, to the draft Turnitin drop box (on LMS) and check the generated Turnitin report before finalising your submission. If you submit plagiarised work (that is work copied from others – including code) it will most likely be identified and your assignment deemed unsatisfactory! YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO SUBMIT YOUR DESIGN CODE AND DEMONSTRATE YOUR DESIGN IN PRACTICAL CLASS SESSION IN THE WEEK PRIOR TO THE REPORT DUE DATE (i.e. September 9). Jim Whittington August 2015 -9- APPENDIX – Altera DE2 Board, Switch, LED, 7-Segment Display and Clock pins The following information is taken from the Altera DE2 Board Manual Signal Name FPGA Pin Description SW0 PIN_N25 Slide Switch SW1 PIN_N26 Slide Switch SW2 PIN_P25 Slide Switch SW3 PIN_AE14 Slide Switch SW4 PIN_AF14 Slide Switch SW5 PIN_AD13 Slide Switch SW6 PIN_AC13 Slide Switch SW7 PIN_C13 Slide Switch SW8 PIN_B13 Slide Switch SW9 PIN_A13 Slide Switch SW10 PIN_N1 Slide Switch SW11 PIN_P1 Slide Switch SW12 PIN_P2 Slide Switch SW13 PIN_T7 Slide Switch SW14 PIN_U3 Slide Switch SW15 PIN_U4 Slide Switch SW16 PIN_V1 Slide Switch SW17 PIN_V2 Slide Switch Table-1 Altera DE2 Board Slide Switch Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description KEY0 PIN_G26 Pushbutton KEY1 PIN_N23 Pushbutton  KEY2 PIN_P23 Pushbutton  KEY3 PIN_W26 Pushbutton  Table-2 Altera DE2 Board Push Button Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description LEDR0 PIN_AE23 Red LED LEDR1 PIN_AF23 Red LED LEDR2 PIN_AB21 Red LED LEDR3 PIN_AC22 Red LED LEDR4 PIN_AD22 Red LED LEDR5 PIN_AD23 Red LED LEDR6 PIN_AD21 Red LED LEDR7 PIN_AC21 Red LED LEDR8 PIN_AA14 Red LED LEDR9 PIN_Y13 Red LED LEDR10 PIN_AA13 Red LED LEDR11 PIN_AC14 Red LED LEDR12 PIN_AD15 Red LED -10- LEDR13 PIN_AE15 Red LED LEDR14 PIN_AF13 Red LED LEDR15 PIN_AE13 Red LED LEDR16 PIN_AE12 Red LED LEDR17 PIN_AD12 Red LED LEDG0 PIN_AE22 Green LED LEDG1 PIN_AF22 Green LED LEDG2 PIN_W19 Green LED LEDG3 PIN_V18 Green LED LEDG4 PIN_U18 Green LED LEDG5 PIN_U17 Green LED LEDG6 PIN_AA20 Green LED LEDG7 PIN_Y18 Green LED LEDG8 PIN_Y12 Green LED Table-3 Altera DE2 LED Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description HEX0 PIN_AF10 HEX0 Segment a HEX0 PIN_AB12 HEX0 Segment b HEX0 PIN_AC12 HEX0 Segment c HEX0 PIN_AD11 HEX0 Segment d HEX0 PIN_AE11 HEX0 Segment e HEX0 PIN_V14 HEX0 Segment f HEX0 PIN_V13 HEX0 Segment g HEX1  PIN_V20 HEX1 Segment a HEX1  PIN_V21 HEX1 Segment b HEX1  PIN_W21 HEX1 Segment c HEX1  PIN_Y22 HEX1 Segment d HEX1  PIN_AA24 HEX1 Segment e HEX1  PIN_AA23 HEX1 Segment f HEX1  PIN_AB24 HEX1 Segment g HEX2  PIN_AB23 HEX2 Segment a HEX2  PIN_V22 HEX2 Segment b HEX2  PIN_AC25 HEX2 Segment c HEX2  PIN_AC26 HEX2 Segment d HEX2  PIN_AB26 HEX2 Segment e HEX2  PIN_AB25 HEX2 Segment f HEX2  PIN_Y24 HEX2 Segment g HEX3  PIN_Y23 HEX3 Segment a HEX3  PIN_AA25 HEX3 Segment b HEX3  PIN_AA26 HEX3 Segment c HEX3  PIN_Y26 HEX3 Segment d HEX3  PIN_Y25 HEX3 Segment e HEX3  PIN_U22 HEX3 Segment f -11- HEX3  PIN_W24 HEX3 Segment g HEX4  PIN_U9 HEX4 Segment a HEX4  PIN_U1 HEX4 Segment b HEX4  PIN_U2 HEX4 Segment c HEX4  PIN_T4 HEX4 Segment d HEX4  PIN_R7 HEX4 Segment e HEX4  PIN_R6 HEX4 Segment f HEX4  PIN_T3 HEX4 Segment g HEX5  PIN_T2 HEX5 Segment a HEX5  PIN_P6 HEX5 Segment b HEX5  PIN_P7 HEX5 Segment c HEX5  PIN_T9 HEX5 Segment d HEX5  PIN_R5 HEX5 Segment e HEX5  PIN_R4 HEX5 Segment f HEX5  PIN_R3 HEX5 Segment g HEX6  PIN_R2 HEX6 Segment a HEX6  PIN_P4 HEX6 Segment b HEX6  PIN_P3 HEX6 Segment c HEX6  PIN_M2 HEX6 Segment d HEX6  PIN_M3 HEX6 Segment e HEX6  PIN_M5 HEX6 Segment f HEX6  PIN_M4 HEX6 Segment g HEX7  PIN_L3 HEX7 Segment a HEX7  PIN_L2 HEX7 Segment b HEX7  PIN_L9 HEX7 Segment c HEX7  PIN_L6 HEX7 Segment d HEX7  PIN_L7 HEX7 Segment e HEX7  PIN_P9 HEX7 Segment f HEX7  PIN_N9 HEX7 Segment g Table-4 Altera DE2 Board 7-Segment Display Pin Assignments Signal Name FPGA Pin Description CLOCK_27 PIN_D13 27 MHz Clock CLOCK_50 PIN_N2 50 MHz Clock EXT_CLOCK PIN_P26 External Clock Input (SMA) Table-5 Altera DE2 Board Clock Pin Assignments
The first ionization energies of the elements __________ as you go from left to right across a period of the periodic table, and __________ as you go from the bottom to the top of a group in the table. A) increase, increase B) increase, decrease C) decrease, increase D) decrease, decrease E) are completely unpredictable
Name: Lab Time: BIO 218 Experiment Paper Rubric (20 points) General Formatting: (2 pts.) • Margins should be 1 inch top, bottom, left, and right. • Font should be 12 point Times New Roman or similar font. • Double-spaced. • Pages numbered. Title page is unnumbered. Next page is numbered at the bottom right corner with a 2 followed by pages 3, 4, and 5. • All sections must be included: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited. • At least 3 pages (double spaced) but no more than five pages long. • All scientific names should be formatted correctly by italicizing and capitalizing the genus name and having the species name in lowercase (Bufo americanus). • Title page should have a specific title, student name, course, lab section time, and date. Project elements (18 pts. Total) • Abstract (2 points) o Summarize most important points using past tense. Use present tense to suggest a general conclusion which supports or refutes the hypothesis. • Introduction (3 points) o General background on topic and species (state scientific name!) o Discuss the possible tests of the hypothesis. o Reads from general to specific. o States hypothesis/hypotheses to be addressed. May discuss null and all alternative hypotheses. • Methods (2 points) o Reports how experiment was conducted and all materials used. Use enough detail so others could repeat the study. o Discuss the type(s) of data collected. o Discuss how data was to be analyzed/compared/used to test hypothesis. • Results (3 points) o Reports what happened in the experiment. o If comparisons made, discuss how they were made. o Report statistical and other data. Use “significant” only for statistical significance. o NO interpretation of data (no data analysis). o At least one original figure present and formatted correctly. Figures such as pictures and graphs are numbered and have captions underneath. o At least one table present and formatted correctly. Tables such as charts are numbered and have captions above them. • Discussion: (3 points) o Discusses the results of the experiment and ties in how the results fit with the literature. o Use past tense to discuss your results and shift to present tense to discuss previously published information. o States how results supported or refuted the original hypothesis. Hypotheses are never proven! o Ties in results with big picture within topic of biology. • Literature Cited: (2 points: .5 per citation) o At least 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (provided) + 2 peer-reviewed journal articles (found on your own). o References used in text properly. o References all listed in this section are alphabetized by author’s last name and formatted correctly. o All references listed in the Literature Cited section are cited in text. Writing Elements (3 pts.) • Grammar or spelling is error-free and excellent print quality. (1 pt) • Writing is clear and flows logically throughout paper. (1 pt) • Appropriate content in each section? (1 pt) Additional Comments:
Chapter 1 Practice Problems (Practice – no credit) Due: 11:59pm on Wednesday, February 5, 2014 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Curved Motion Diagram The motion diagram shown in the figure represents a pendulum released from rest at an angle of 45 from the vertical. The dots in the motion diagram represent the positions of the pendulum bob at eleven moments separated by equal time intervals. The green arrows represent the average velocity between adjacent dots. Also given is a “compass rose” in which directions are labeled with the letters of the alphabet. Part A What is the direction of the acceleration of the object at moment 5? Enter the letter of the arrow with this direction from the compass rose in the figure. Type Z if the acceleration vector has zero length. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again Part B What is the direction of the acceleration of the object at moments 0 and 10? Enter the letters corresponding to the arrows with these directions from the compass rose in the figure, separated by commas. Type Z if the acceleration vector has zero length. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Incorrect; Try Again PSS 1.1 Motion Diagrams Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 1.1 for motion diagram problems. A car is traveling with constant velocity along a highway. The driver notices he is late for work, so he stomps down on the gas pedal and the car begins to speed up. The car has just achieved double its directions at time step 0, time step 10 = initial velocity when the driver spots a police officer behind him and applies the brakes. The car then slows down, coming to rest at a stoplight ahead. Draw a complete motion diagram for this situation. PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY 1.1 Motion diagrams MODEL: Represent the moving object as a particle. Make simplifying assumptions when interpreting the problem statement. VISUALIZE: A complete motion diagram consists of: The position of the object in each frame of the film, shown as a dot. Use five or six dots to make the motion clear but without overcrowding the picture. More complex motions may need more dots. The average velocity vectors, found by connecting each dot in the motion diagram to the next with a vector arrow. There is one velocity vector linking each set of two position dots. Label the row of velocity vectors . The average acceleration vectors, found using Tactics Box 1.3. There is one acceleration vector linking each set of two velocity vectors. Each acceleration vector is drawn at the dot between the two velocity vectors it links. Use to indicate a point at which the acceleration is zero. Label the row of acceleration vectors . Model It is appropriate to use the particle model for the car. You should also make some simplifying assumptions. v 0 a Part A The car’s motion can be divided into three different stages: its motion before the driver realizes he’s late, its motion after the driver hits the gas (but before he sees the police car), and its motion after the driver sees the police car. Which of the following simplifying assumptions is it reasonable to make in this problem? During each of the three different stages of its motion, the car is moving with constant A. acceleration. B. During each of the three different stages of its motion, the car is moving with constant velocity. C. The highway is straight (i.e., there are no curves). D. The highway is level (i.e., there are no hills or valleys). Enter all the correct answers in alphabetical order without commas. For example, if statements C and D are correct, enter CD. ANSWER: Correct In addition to the assumptions listed above, in the rest of this problem assume that the car is moving in a straight line to the right. Visualize Part B In the three diagrams shown to the left, the position of the car at five subsequent instants of time is represented by black dots, and the car’s average velocity is represented by green arrows. Which of these diagrams best describes the position and the velocity of the car before the driver notices he is late? ANSWER: Correct Part C Which of the diagrams shown to the left best describes the position and the velocity of the car after the driver hits the gas, but before he notices the police officer? ANSWER: Correct A B C A B C Part D Which of the diagrams shown to the left best describes the position and the velocity of the car after the driver notices the police officer? ANSWER: Correct Part E Which of the diagrams shown below most accurately depicts the average acceleration vectors of the car during the events described in the problem introduction? ANSWER: A B C Correct You can now draw a complete motion diagram for the situation described in this problem. Your diagram should look like this: Measurements in SI Units Familiarity with SI units will aid your study of physics and all other sciences. Part A What is the approximate height of the average adult in centimeters? Hint 1. Converting between feet and centimeters The distance from your elbow to your fingertips is typically about 50 . A B C cm ANSWER: Correct If you’re not familiar with metric units of length, you can use your body to develop intuition for them. The average height of an adult is 5 6.4 . The distance from elbow to fingertips on the average adult is about 50 . Ten (1 ) is about the width of this adult’s little finger and 10 is about the width of the average hand. Part B Approximately what is the mass of the average adult in kilograms? Hint 1. Converting between pounds and kilograms Something that weighs 1 has a mass of about . ANSWER: Correct Something that weighs 1 has a mass of about . This is a useful conversion to keep in mind! ± A Trip to Europe 100 200 300 cm cm cm feet inches cm mm cm cm pound 1 kg 2 80 500 1200 kg kg kg pound (1/2) kg Learning Goal: To understand how to use dimensional analysis to solve problems. Dimensional analysis is a useful tool for solving problems that involve unit conversions. Since unit conversion is not limited to physics problems but is part of our everyday life, correct use of conversion factors is essential to working through problems of practical importance. For example, dimensional analysis could be used in problems involving currency exchange. Say you want to calculate how many euros you get if you exchange 3600 ( ), given the exchange rate , that is, 1 to 1.20 . Begin by writing down the starting value, 3600 . This can also be written as a fraction: . Next, convert dollars to euros. This conversion involves multiplying by a simple conversion factor derived from the exchange rate: . Note that the “dollar” unit, , should appear on the bottom of this conversion factor, since appears on the top of the starting value. Finally, since dollars are divided by dollars, the units can be canceled and the final result is . Currency exchange is only one example of many practical situations where dimensional analysis may help you to work through problems. Remember that dimensional analysis involves multiplying a given value by a conversion factor, resulting in a value in the new units. The conversion factor can be the ratio of any two quantities, as long as the ratio is equal to one. You and your friends are organizing a trip to Europe. Your plan is to rent a car and drive through the major European capitals. By consulting a map you estimate that you will cover a total distance of 5000 . Consider the euro-dollar exchange rate given in the introduction and use dimensional analysis to work through these simple problems. Part A You select a rental package that includes a car with an average consumption of 6.00 of fuel per 100 . Considering that in Europe the average fuel cost is 1.063 , how much (in US dollars) will you spend in fuel on your trip? Express your answer numerically in US dollars to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: US dollars USD 1 EUR = 1.20 USD euro US dollars USD 3600 USD 1 1.00 EUR 1.20 USD USD USD ( )( ) = 3000 EUR 3600 USD 1 1.00 EUR 1.20 USD km liters km euros/liter Part B How many gallons of fuel would the rental car consume per mile? Express your answer numerically in gallons per mile to three significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 0%. You received 0 out of a possible total of 0 points. Cost of fuel = USD gallons/mile
INFO 474 Advanced Network & Security Network Monitoring Assignment – HTTP (SSL/TLS) Messages Objective: Wireshark is a powerful Network Protocol Analyzer and is very useful in understanding data communications and networks. It was named as one of the Top 5 tools that every Network Administrator and CISO should know of and/or learn to use. At the completion of this assignment you will have a better understanding of the purpose and usefulness of Network Monitoring for HTTP messages. You will accomplish this by performing the basic tasks below. Tasks: 1. Create a filter to filter for HTTP traffic to and from your machine. (Screenshot) 2. Explain what the functions Get, Request, Response, POST and HTTP Payload are responsible for. (1 paragraph) 3. Discuss HTTP version. i.e., differences in HTTP 1.0 versus HTTP 1.1(1 paragraphs) 4. Log in to a secure website, capture TLS traffic, and discuss the packet. Pay attention to the OCSP protocol and discuss in detail what it is used for, and the client/server handshake. (Screenshot & 2 paragraphs) 5. Explain the importance of using a recognizable Certificate Authority. Explain the benefits of using an EV SSL Certificate. Steps: Download and install Wireshark Protocol Analyzer Monitoring software from the URL below. After installation, choose the correct NIC, create a new capture, and complete the tasks assigned. Wireshark http://www.wireshark.org/ To create a new capture in Wireshark, choose the adapter from the Interface List on the home page. Ensure you are using the correct adapter by viewing the IP and/or MAC address, which can be found under control panel or by using the command prompt. Deliverables: This assignment should be completed and screenshots showing packets discussed submitted. ALSO, one screenshot of your PCs IP address and network configuration information should be submitted. This assignment should be emailed to me no later than 5pm, Wednesday, February 4, 2015 and bring a hard copy to class. No late assignments accepted! Grading: This assignment will equal 1 homework grade and is worth 100pts. Resources: 5 min video for Wireshark – http://wiresharkdownloads.riverbed.com/video/wireshark/introduction-to-wireshark/ *Additional items to consider: Follow TCP streams (right click on a TCP packet), take note of bad packets (color coded), log into an unsecure site (if you can find one), capture the hexadecimal password and convert that to a string. Going above and beyond will be rewarded …and have fun. I don’t expect you to be an expert but it’s good to have an understanding of Network monitoring and troubleshooting connections, and also very useful to know.
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New York Project The assignment is to write a five paragraph paper in which you plan a theatre trip to New York City to see FOUR shows. To complete this work, use internet sources, the most thorough of which is the New York Times Theater section (see below for this and other options). The first paragraph should explain the trip’s rationale, who will be going with you (church group, theatre group, friends, etc), and a proposed budget. You should then find possible flights and hotel accommodations. In each subsequent paragraph (paragraphs 2, 3, 4, and 5), name the shows (four in total—one per paragraph) you have decided to see. Include in each paragraph the reason you have chosen to see this particular show. You will need to quote portions of reviews, both professional and reader’s, as part of your justification for your choice. Be sure to cite the name of the reviewer as well as the source from which the review was found. (Example: Ben Brantley of the New York Times calls Shrek the Musical, “Quote from review.”— or similar format.) It is not necessary to provide a “Works Cited” page, but you must reference your source within your paper as noted in the previous sentence. You must also include ticket prices and the theater where the show is playing, as well as any other pertinent information (such as a prominent actor in the cast, etc.). Be sure to follow your budget; try not to plan to see four Broadway musicals as this could eat up your budget very quickly. Mix and match with Off and Off Off Broadway, where the tickets are cheaper. Try to find at least one or two shows you have never heard of but which sound interesting because of your research into the reviews. Sources for research: New York Times page at www.nytimes.com. Select the “Arts” section (left menu). On the Arts page, select THEATER (menu near top of page). On the THEATER page, you can click on the Broadway, Off Broadway, & Off Off Broadway headings (menu near top of page), which will provide you with a list of what’s playing. Click on the show title to gain access to information such as the show’s location, ticket prices, and links to reviews, both professional and reader’s.