Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

Sex, Gender, and Popular Culture Spring 2015 Look through popular magazines, and see if you can find advertisements that objectify women in order to sell a product. Alternately, you may use an advertisement on television (but make sure to provide a link to the ad so I can see it!). Study these images then write a paper about objectification that deals with all or some of the following: • What effect(s), if any, do you think the objectification of women’s bodies has on our culture? • Jean Kilbourne states “turning a human being into a thing is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person.” What do you think she means by this? Do you agree with her reasoning? Why or why not? • Some people would argue that depicting a woman’s body as an object is a form of art. What is your opinion of this point of view? Explain your reasoning. • Why do you think that women are objectified more often than men are? • How does sexualization and objectification play out differently across racial lines? • Kilbourne explains that the consequences of being objectified are different – and more serious – for women than for men. Do you agree? How is the world different for women than it is for men? How do objectified images of women interact with those in our culture differently from the way images of men do? Why is it important to look at images in the context of the culture? • What is the difference between sexual objectification and sexual subjectification? (Ros Gill ) • How do ads construct violent white masculinity and how does that vision of masculinity hurt both men and women? Throughout your written analysis, be sure to make clear and specific reference to the images you selected, and please submit these images with your paper. Make sure you engage with and reference to at least 4 of the following authors: Kilbourne, Bordo, Hunter & Soto, Rose, Durham, Gill, Katz, Schuchardt, Ono and Buescher. Guidelines:  Keep your content focused on structural, systemic, institutional factors rather than the individual: BE ANALYTICAL NOT ANECDOTAL.  Avoid using the first person or including personal stories/reactions. You must make sure to actively engage with your readings: these essays need to be informed and framed by the theoretical material you have been reading this semester.  Keep within the 4-6 page limit; use 12-point font, double spacing and 1-inch margins.  Use formal writing conventions (introduction/thesis statement, body, conclusion) and correct grammar. Resources may be cited within the text of your paper, i.e. (Walters, 2013).

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Faculty of Science Technology and Engineering Department of Physics Senior Laboratory Faraday rotation AIM To show that optical activity is induced in a certain type of glass when it is in a magnetic field. To investigate the degree of rotation of linearly polarised light as a function of the applied magnetic field and hence determine a parameter which is characteristic of each material and known as Verdet’s constant. BACKGROUND INFORMATION A brief description of the properties and production of polarised light is given in the section labelled: Notes on polarisation. This should be read before proceeding with this experiment. Additional details may be found in the references listed at the end of this experiment. Whereas some materials, such as quartz, are naturally optically active, optical activity can be induced in others by the application of a magnetic field. For such materials, the angle through which the plane of polarisation of a linearly polarised beam is rotated () depends on the thickness of the sample (L), the strength of the magnetic field (B) and on the properties of the particular material. The latter is described by means of a parameter introduced by Verdet, which is wavelength dependent. Thus:  = V B L Lamp Polariser Solenoid Polariser Glass rod A Solenoid power supply Viewing mirror EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The experimental arrangement is shown in the diagram. Unpolarised white light is produced by a hot filament and viewed using a mirror. • The light from the globe passes through two polarisers as well as the specially doped glass rod. Select one of the colour filters provided and place in the light path. Each of these filters transmits a relatively narrow band of wavelengths centred around a dominant wavelength as listed in the table. Filter No. Dominant Wavelength 98 4350 Å 50 4500 75 4900 58 5300 72 B 6060 92 6700 With the power supply for the coil switched off, (do not simply turn the potentiometer to zero: this still allows some current to flow) adjust one of the polarisers until minimum light is transmitted to the mirror. Minimum transmission can be determined visually. • Decide which polariser you will work with and do not alter the other one during the measurements. • The magnetic field is generated by a current in a solenoid (coil) placed around the glass rod. As the current in the coil is increased, the magnitude of the magnetic field will increase as shown on the calibration curve below. The degree of optical activity will also increase, resulting in some angle of rotation of the plane of polarisation. Hence you will need to rotate your chosen polariser to regain a minimum setting. 0 1 2 3 4 5 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 I (amps) B (tesla) Magnetic field (B) produced by current (I) in solenoid • Record the rotation angle () for coil currents of 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 amps. Avoid having the current in the coil switched on except when measurements are actually being taken as it can easily overheat. If the coil becomes too hot to touch, switch it off and wait for it to cool before proceeding. • Plot  as a function of B and, given that the length of the glass rod is 30 cm, determine Verdet’s constant for this material at the wavelength () in use. • Repeat the experiment for each of the wavelengths available using the filter set provided. • Calculate the logarithm for each V and  and tabulate the results. By plotting log V against log , determine the relationship between V and . [Hint: m log(x) = log (xm) and log(xy) = log(x) + log(y)]. • Calculate the errors involved in your determination of V. The uncertainty in a value of B may be taken as the uncertainty in reading the scale of the calibration curve) • The magnetic field direction can be reversed by reversing the direction of current flow in the coil. Describe the effect of this reversal and provide an explanation. Reference Optics Hecht.

Faculty of Science Technology and Engineering Department of Physics Senior Laboratory Faraday rotation AIM To show that optical activity is induced in a certain type of glass when it is in a magnetic field. To investigate the degree of rotation of linearly polarised light as a function of the applied magnetic field and hence determine a parameter which is characteristic of each material and known as Verdet’s constant. BACKGROUND INFORMATION A brief description of the properties and production of polarised light is given in the section labelled: Notes on polarisation. This should be read before proceeding with this experiment. Additional details may be found in the references listed at the end of this experiment. Whereas some materials, such as quartz, are naturally optically active, optical activity can be induced in others by the application of a magnetic field. For such materials, the angle through which the plane of polarisation of a linearly polarised beam is rotated () depends on the thickness of the sample (L), the strength of the magnetic field (B) and on the properties of the particular material. The latter is described by means of a parameter introduced by Verdet, which is wavelength dependent. Thus:  = V B L Lamp Polariser Solenoid Polariser Glass rod A Solenoid power supply Viewing mirror EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The experimental arrangement is shown in the diagram. Unpolarised white light is produced by a hot filament and viewed using a mirror. • The light from the globe passes through two polarisers as well as the specially doped glass rod. Select one of the colour filters provided and place in the light path. Each of these filters transmits a relatively narrow band of wavelengths centred around a dominant wavelength as listed in the table. Filter No. Dominant Wavelength 98 4350 Å 50 4500 75 4900 58 5300 72 B 6060 92 6700 With the power supply for the coil switched off, (do not simply turn the potentiometer to zero: this still allows some current to flow) adjust one of the polarisers until minimum light is transmitted to the mirror. Minimum transmission can be determined visually. • Decide which polariser you will work with and do not alter the other one during the measurements. • The magnetic field is generated by a current in a solenoid (coil) placed around the glass rod. As the current in the coil is increased, the magnitude of the magnetic field will increase as shown on the calibration curve below. The degree of optical activity will also increase, resulting in some angle of rotation of the plane of polarisation. Hence you will need to rotate your chosen polariser to regain a minimum setting. 0 1 2 3 4 5 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 I (amps) B (tesla) Magnetic field (B) produced by current (I) in solenoid • Record the rotation angle () for coil currents of 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 amps. Avoid having the current in the coil switched on except when measurements are actually being taken as it can easily overheat. If the coil becomes too hot to touch, switch it off and wait for it to cool before proceeding. • Plot  as a function of B and, given that the length of the glass rod is 30 cm, determine Verdet’s constant for this material at the wavelength () in use. • Repeat the experiment for each of the wavelengths available using the filter set provided. • Calculate the logarithm for each V and  and tabulate the results. By plotting log V against log , determine the relationship between V and . [Hint: m log(x) = log (xm) and log(xy) = log(x) + log(y)]. • Calculate the errors involved in your determination of V. The uncertainty in a value of B may be taken as the uncertainty in reading the scale of the calibration curve) • The magnetic field direction can be reversed by reversing the direction of current flow in the coil. Describe the effect of this reversal and provide an explanation. Reference Optics Hecht.

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Please answer questions and then submit them in the assignment. Put your name in the document’s title. Eight points for questions 1-10, ten points each for questions 11 and 12. 1. What were the crusades, how did they begin, and how were they justified? 2. Describe the 1348 plague in Europe and how it changed human behavior. 3. What other calamities besides the plague occurred during the 14th century? What were the results? 4. What inventions during the middle ages and the Renaissance had the biggest impact on human culture in Western Europe? 5. What was a pilgrimage? Why did people go on them? 6. Describe what is happening in this image? Who is the central figure? Where might this image be located? How does it exemplify the era in which it was made? 7. Why was Socrates condemned to death? How did he handle his death sentence? What was the impact of his death for Athenians and the Western Heritage? 8. Name three Western legacies from ancient Egypt. How did the ancient Egyptians have a lasting impact on Western civilization? 9. How did Themistocles and the Greeks keep the Persians under Xerxes from invading? How did the trireme help? 10. Compare these two buildings. Identify them and say how they are alike and different and why we might want to know what they are. Where are they located? When were they constructed? What purposes did they serve? (5 points) 11. Compare ancient Rome and the contemporary United States. In what ways are the two superpowers similar? What are the similarities between their military strength, their colonization, the division of wealth, and their ways of appeasing the masses? In what ways did the Romans assume that assimilation to the Roman way would work for everyone they colonized? Has the U.S. done the same thing? In what ways is the Roman history different from the U.S. history of revolution against the British? Is the United States doomed to fail in the way ancient Rome did? 12. Compare the work of art you viewed in a museum with a work of text that we read in class or a work if art or architecture in the textbook. In what ways do they inform one another? In what ways can you connect the image with the text?

Please answer questions and then submit them in the assignment. Put your name in the document’s title. Eight points for questions 1-10, ten points each for questions 11 and 12. 1. What were the crusades, how did they begin, and how were they justified? 2. Describe the 1348 plague in Europe and how it changed human behavior. 3. What other calamities besides the plague occurred during the 14th century? What were the results? 4. What inventions during the middle ages and the Renaissance had the biggest impact on human culture in Western Europe? 5. What was a pilgrimage? Why did people go on them? 6. Describe what is happening in this image? Who is the central figure? Where might this image be located? How does it exemplify the era in which it was made? 7. Why was Socrates condemned to death? How did he handle his death sentence? What was the impact of his death for Athenians and the Western Heritage? 8. Name three Western legacies from ancient Egypt. How did the ancient Egyptians have a lasting impact on Western civilization? 9. How did Themistocles and the Greeks keep the Persians under Xerxes from invading? How did the trireme help? 10. Compare these two buildings. Identify them and say how they are alike and different and why we might want to know what they are. Where are they located? When were they constructed? What purposes did they serve? (5 points) 11. Compare ancient Rome and the contemporary United States. In what ways are the two superpowers similar? What are the similarities between their military strength, their colonization, the division of wealth, and their ways of appeasing the masses? In what ways did the Romans assume that assimilation to the Roman way would work for everyone they colonized? Has the U.S. done the same thing? In what ways is the Roman history different from the U.S. history of revolution against the British? Is the United States doomed to fail in the way ancient Rome did? 12. Compare the work of art you viewed in a museum with a work of text that we read in class or a work if art or architecture in the textbook. In what ways do they inform one another? In what ways can you connect the image with the text?

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Lab 5 Math 551 Fall 2015 Goal: In this assignment we will look at two fractals, namely the Sierpinski fractal and the Barnsley Fern. During the lab session, your lab instructor will teach you the necessary MATLAB code to complete the assignment, which will be discussed in the lab on Thursday October 8th or Friday October 9th in the lab (CW 144 or CW 145). What you have to submit: An m- le containing all of the commands necessary to perform all the tasks described below. Submit this le on Canvas. Click: \Assignments”, click \MATLAB Project 5″, click \Submit Assignment”, then upload your .m le and click \Submit Assignment” again. Due date: Friday October 16, 5pm. No late submission will be accepted. TASKS A fractal can be de ned as a self-similar detailed pattern repeating itself. Some of the most well know fractals (the Mandelbrot set and Julia set) can be viewed here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ The Sierpinski Fractal The program srnpnski(m,dist,n) gets its name from the mathematician W. Sierpinski. The only parameter that must be speci ed is m which determines the number of vertices that will be part of a regular polygon. For larger m it produces a graph which is similar to a snow ake. The program starts with a randomly chosen seed position given by the internal variable s. At each stage one of the vertices is chosen at random and a new point is produced which is dist away from the old point to the vertex. The value of dist should be between 0 and 1. The default value is 0.5. This process is repeated n times. The default value of n is 1500. 1. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on s rpns k i (m, di s t , n) %This c r e a t e s a snowf lake from m v e r t i c e s us ing n i t e r a t i o n s . i f nargin <3, n=1500; end i f nargin <2, d i s t =0.5; end c l f a x i s ( [ ?1 ,1 , ?1 ,1] ) p=exp (2 pi  i  ( 1 :m)/m) ; pl o t (p , '  ' ) hold s=rand+i  rand ; f o r j =1:n r=c e i l (m rand ) ; s=d i s t  s+(1?d i s t )p( r ) ; pl o t ( s , ' . ' ) end 2. Try out the following commands s rpns k i ( 3 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 2 5 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 5 0 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 4 ) 1 s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 2 ) s rpns k i ( 5 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 4 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 6 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 8 , 0 . 3 , 5 0 0 0 ) The Barnsley Fern The following program is the famous Barnsley Fern. The only external parameter is n, the number of iterations. 3. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on f e r n (n) A1=[ 0 . 8 5 , 0 . 0 4 ; ?0 . 0 4 , 0 . 8 5 ] ; A2=[ ?0 . 1 5 , 0 . 2 8 ; 0 . 2 6 , 0 . 2 4 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 2 , ?0 . 2 6 ; 0 . 2 3 , 0 . 2 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 6 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 4 4 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 ] ; P1=0.85; P2=0.07; P3=0.07; P4=0.01; c l f ; s=rand ( 2 , 1 ) ; pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) hold f o r j =1:n r=rand ; i f r<=P1 , s=A1 s+T1 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2 , s=A2 s+T2 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2+P3 , s=A3 s+T3 ; e l s e s=A4 s ; end pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) end 4. Try the following commands: f e r n (100) f e r n (500) f e r n (1000) f e r n (3000) f e r n (5000) f e r n (10000) 2 5. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; T1=[ 1 ; 1 ] ; T2=[ 1 ; 5 0 ] ; T3=[ 5 0 ; 5 0 ] ; P1=0.33; P2=0.33; P3=0.34; Call the new program srptri.m. Try the command s r p t r i (5000) You should see a familiar looking result. 6. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 4 2 , ?0 . 4 2 ; 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ; ?0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 . 1 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 0 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 . 2 ] ; P1=0.05; P2=0.4; P3=0.4; P4=0.15; Call the new program srptree.m. Try the command s r p t r e e (5000) This is an example of a fractal tree. Some nice animations of fractal trees can be seen here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ MATLAB commands to learn: Cl f , c e i l , imaginary uni t I , i f . . e l s e i f . . e l s e . . end 3

Lab 5 Math 551 Fall 2015 Goal: In this assignment we will look at two fractals, namely the Sierpinski fractal and the Barnsley Fern. During the lab session, your lab instructor will teach you the necessary MATLAB code to complete the assignment, which will be discussed in the lab on Thursday October 8th or Friday October 9th in the lab (CW 144 or CW 145). What you have to submit: An m- le containing all of the commands necessary to perform all the tasks described below. Submit this le on Canvas. Click: \Assignments”, click \MATLAB Project 5″, click \Submit Assignment”, then upload your .m le and click \Submit Assignment” again. Due date: Friday October 16, 5pm. No late submission will be accepted. TASKS A fractal can be de ned as a self-similar detailed pattern repeating itself. Some of the most well know fractals (the Mandelbrot set and Julia set) can be viewed here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ The Sierpinski Fractal The program srnpnski(m,dist,n) gets its name from the mathematician W. Sierpinski. The only parameter that must be speci ed is m which determines the number of vertices that will be part of a regular polygon. For larger m it produces a graph which is similar to a snow ake. The program starts with a randomly chosen seed position given by the internal variable s. At each stage one of the vertices is chosen at random and a new point is produced which is dist away from the old point to the vertex. The value of dist should be between 0 and 1. The default value is 0.5. This process is repeated n times. The default value of n is 1500. 1. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on s rpns k i (m, di s t , n) %This c r e a t e s a snowf lake from m v e r t i c e s us ing n i t e r a t i o n s . i f nargin <3, n=1500; end i f nargin <2, d i s t =0.5; end c l f a x i s ( [ ?1 ,1 , ?1 ,1] ) p=exp (2 pi  i  ( 1 :m)/m) ; pl o t (p , '  ' ) hold s=rand+i  rand ; f o r j =1:n r=c e i l (m rand ) ; s=d i s t  s+(1?d i s t )p( r ) ; pl o t ( s , ' . ' ) end 2. Try out the following commands s rpns k i ( 3 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 2 5 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 5 , 5 0 0 0 ) s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 4 ) 1 s rpns k i ( 3 , 0 . 2 ) s rpns k i ( 5 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 4 ) s rpns k i ( 5 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 6 , 0 . 3 ) s rpns k i ( 8 , 0 . 3 , 5 0 0 0 ) The Barnsley Fern The following program is the famous Barnsley Fern. The only external parameter is n, the number of iterations. 3. Create a new Matlab function: func t i on f e r n (n) A1=[ 0 . 8 5 , 0 . 0 4 ; ?0 . 0 4 , 0 . 8 5 ] ; A2=[ ?0 . 1 5 , 0 . 2 8 ; 0 . 2 6 , 0 . 2 4 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 2 , ?0 . 2 6 ; 0 . 2 3 , 0 . 2 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 6 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 4 4 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 1 . 6 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 ] ; P1=0.85; P2=0.07; P3=0.07; P4=0.01; c l f ; s=rand ( 2 , 1 ) ; pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) hold f o r j =1:n r=rand ; i f r<=P1 , s=A1 s+T1 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2 , s=A2 s+T2 ; e l s e i f r<=P1+P2+P3 , s=A3 s+T3 ; e l s e s=A4 s ; end pl o t ( s ( 1 ) , s ( 2 ) , ' . ' ) end 4. Try the following commands: f e r n (100) f e r n (500) f e r n (1000) f e r n (3000) f e r n (5000) f e r n (10000) 2 5. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 5 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; T1=[ 1 ; 1 ] ; T2=[ 1 ; 5 0 ] ; T3=[ 5 0 ; 5 0 ] ; P1=0.33; P2=0.33; P3=0.34; Call the new program srptri.m. Try the command s r p t r i (5000) You should see a familiar looking result. 6. Change the parameters in the fern program: A1=[ 0 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 5 ] ; A2=[ 0 . 4 2 , ?0 . 4 2 ; 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A3=[ 0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ; ?0 . 4 2 , 0 . 4 2 ] ; A4=[ 0 . 1 , 0 ; 0 , 0 . 1 ] ; T1=[ 0 ; 0 ] ; T2=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T3=[ 0 ; 0 . 2 ] ; T4=[ 0 , 0 . 2 ] ; P1=0.05; P2=0.4; P3=0.4; P4=0.15; Call the new program srptree.m. Try the command s r p t r e e (5000) This is an example of a fractal tree. Some nice animations of fractal trees can be seen here: http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/ MATLAB commands to learn: Cl f , c e i l , imaginary uni t I , i f . . e l s e i f . . e l s e . . end 3

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Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/death-sentences-and-executions-2013>. D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/07/economist-explains-16>. Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/05/us-murder-rate-track-be-lowest-century>. Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://lawstreetmedia.com/blogs/crime/safest-and-most-dangerous-states-2014/#slideshow>. Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/04/17/remarkable-declines-in-global-poverty-but-major-challenges-remain>. Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304066504576345553135009870>.

Fact Debate Brief Introduction Crime doesn’t pay; it should be punished. Even since childhood, a slap on the hand has prevented possible criminals from ever committing the same offense; whether it was successful or not depended on how much that child wanted that cookie. While a slap on the wrist might or might not be an effective deterrent, the same can be said about the death penalty. Every day, somewhere in the world, a criminal is stopped permanently from committing any future costs, but this is by the means of the death. While effective in stopping one person permanently, it does nothing about the crime world as a whole. While it is necessary to end the career of a criminal, no matter what his or her crime is, we must not end it by taking a life. Through this paper, the death penalty will be proven ineffective at deterring crime by use of other environmental factors. Definition: The death penalty is defined as the universal punishment of death as legally applied by a fair court system. It is important for it to be a fair legal system, as not to confuse it with genocide, mob mentality, or any other ruling without trial. Claim 1: Use of the death penalty is in decline Ground 1: According to the book The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective by Roger Hood and Carolyn Hoyle, published Dec. 8th, 2014, the Oxford professors in criminology say “As in most of the rest of the world, the death penalty in the US is in decline and distributed unevenly in frequency of use” even addressing that, as of April 2014, 18 states no longer have a death penalty, and even Oregon and Washington are considering removing their death penalty laws. Furthermore, in 2013, only 9 of these states still retaining the death penalty actually executed someone. Warrant 1: The death penalty can be reinstated at any time, but so far, it hasn’t been. At the same time, more states consider getting rid of it altogether. Therefore, it becomes clear that even states don’t want to be involved with this process showing that this is a disliked process. Claim 2: Even states with death penalty in effect still have high crime rates. Ground 2: With the reports gathered from fbi.gov, lawstreetmedia.com, a website based around political expertise and research determined the ranking of each state based on violent crime, published September 12th, 2014. Of the top ten most violent states, only three of which had the death penalty instituted (Maryland #9, New Mexico #4, Alaska #3). The other seven still had the system in place, and, despite it, still have a high amount of violent crime. On the opposite end of the spectrum, at the bottom ten most violent states, four of which, including the bottom-most states, do not have the death penalty in place. Warrant 2: With this ranking, it literally proves that the death penalty does not deter crime, or that there is a correlation between having the death penalty and having a decrease in the crime rate. Therefore, the idea of death penalty deterring crime is a null term in the sense that there is no, or a flawed connection. Claim 3: Violent crime is decreasing (but not because if the death penalty) Ground 3 A: According to an article published by The Economist, dated July 23rd, 2013, the rate of violent crime is in fact decreasing, but not because of the death penalty, but rather, because we have more police. From 1995 to 2010, policing has increased one-fifth, and with it, a decline in crime rate. In fact, in cities such as Detroit where policing has been cut, an opposite effect, an increase in crime, has been reported. Ground 3 B: An article from the Wall Street Journal, dated May 28th, 2011, also cites a decline in violent, only this time, citing the reason as a correlation with poverty levels. In 2009, at the start of the housing crisis, crime rates also dropped noticeably. Oddly enough, this article points out the belief that unemployment is often associated with crime; instead, the evidence presented is environmental in nature. Warrant 3: Crime rate isn’t deterred by death penalty, but rather, our surroundings. Seeing as how conditions have improved, so has the state of peace. Therefore, it becomes clear that the death penalty is ineffective at deterring crime because other key factors present more possibility for improvement of society. Claim 4: The death penalty is a historically flawed system. Ground 4A: According to the book The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs by Scott Vollum, published in 2005, addresses how the case of the death penalty emerged to where it is today. While the book is now a decade old, it is used for historical context, particularly, in describing the first execution that took place in 1608. While it is true that most of these executions weren’t as well-grounded as the modern ones that take place now, they still had no effect in deterring crime. Why? Because even after America was established and more sane, the death penalty still had to be used because criminals still had violent behaviors. Ground 4B: According to data from Mother Jones, published May 17th, 2013, the reason why the crime rate was so high in the past could possibly be due to yet another environmental factor (affected by change over time), exposure to lead. Since the removal of lead from paint started over a hundred years ago, there has been a decline in homicide. Why is this important? Lead poisoning in child’s brain, if not lethal, can affect development and lead to mental disability, lower IQ, and lack of reasoning. Warrant 4: By examining history as a whole, there is a greater correlation between other factors that have resulted in a decline in violent crime. The decline in the crime rate has been an ongoing process, but has shown a faster decline due to other environmental factors, rather than the instatement of the death penalty. Claim 5: The world’s violent crime rate is changing, but not due to the death penalty. Ground 5A: According to article published by Amnesty USA in March of 2014, the number of executions under the death penalty reported in 2013 had increased by 15%. However, the rate of violent crime in the world has decreased significantly in the last decade. But, Latvia, for example, has permanently banned the death penalty since 2012. In 2014, the country was viewed overall as safe and low in violent crime rate. Ground 5B: However, while it is true that there is a decline in violent crime rate worldwide, The World Bank, April 17, 2013, reports that the rate of global poverty is decreasing. In a similar vein to the US, because wealth is being distributed better and conditions are improving overall, there is a steady decline in crime rate. Warrant 5: By examining the world as a whole, it becomes clear that it doesn’t matter if the death penalty is in place, violent crime will still exist. However, mirroring the US, as simple conditions improve, so does lifestyle. The death penalty does not deter crime in the world, rather a better quality of life is responsible for that. Works Cited “Death Sentences and Executions 2013.” Amnesty International USA. Amnesty USA, 26 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . D. K. “Why Is Crime Falling?” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 23 July 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Drum, Kevin. “The US Murder Rate Is on Track to Be Lowest in a Century.”Mother Jones. Mother Jones, 17 May 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. . Hood, Roger, and Carolyn Hoyle. The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. 45. Print. Rizzo, Kevin. “Slideshow: America’s Safest and Most Dangerous States 2014.”Law Street Media. Law Street TM, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. . Vollum, Scott. The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2005. 2. Print. Theis, David. “Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, But Major Challenges Remain.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 17 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. . Wilson, James Q. “Hard Times, Fewer Crimes.” WSJ. The Wall Street Journal, 28 May 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2015. .

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ield ENGL 2110-01 Midterm You must write an essay for each of the following prompts. Part I: Write a 1500 word essay (you may go over this word count, but you should not fall short of this word count) on the following prompt: Many of the readings that we have covered up to this point in the class have considered the native population that explorers encountered when they came to the “New World.” For this essay, you should examine the readings from any two of the explorers that we have encountered to this point to compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the ways that these two explorers interacted with the indigenous peoples. The thesis for this essay should make an argumentative claim as to which approach was/is more effective, and the writer should use quotations in each body paragraph (formatted correctly according to MLA style guidelines, with attributive tags to introduce the quotations and in-text citations following each quotation) to support the argument the writer is making. Please note that you should avoid summarizing the texts. Instead, your focus should be on making an argument about the ways that these explorers deal with the indigenous populations. Part II: Write a 1000 word essay (you may go over this word count, but you should not fall short of this word count) on the following prompt: Now that you have considered how the explorers interacted with the indigenous populations that they encountered, it then becomes necessary to examine how the native population viewed the explorers. Choose one of the readings that we covered in the creation/emergence accounts from Native American authors. You will then make an argumentative claim for your thesis statement about the way that this writer presents the relationship between the indigenous peoples and the European explorers. Is this a positive relationship, according to this writer? Does the writer think this is a negative relationship? You should also use quotations in each body paragraph (formatted correctly according to MLA style guidelines, with attributive tags to introduce the quotations and in-text citations following each quotation) to support the argument you are making. Please note that you should only discuss one text, and that you should avoid summarizing the text and instead focus on building and supporting an argument about the way that the author views the effect that the explorers have had or will have on the native population. Due: A typed Midterm Exam is due at the beginning of class on Wednesday, September 30th. Format: The exam should be formatted according to MLA guidelines, and it should be stapled in the upper left hand corner. It has to be from the book: The Concise Health Anthology of American Literature!!!!!!

ield ENGL 2110-01 Midterm You must write an essay for each of the following prompts. Part I: Write a 1500 word essay (you may go over this word count, but you should not fall short of this word count) on the following prompt: Many of the readings that we have covered up to this point in the class have considered the native population that explorers encountered when they came to the “New World.” For this essay, you should examine the readings from any two of the explorers that we have encountered to this point to compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the ways that these two explorers interacted with the indigenous peoples. The thesis for this essay should make an argumentative claim as to which approach was/is more effective, and the writer should use quotations in each body paragraph (formatted correctly according to MLA style guidelines, with attributive tags to introduce the quotations and in-text citations following each quotation) to support the argument the writer is making. Please note that you should avoid summarizing the texts. Instead, your focus should be on making an argument about the ways that these explorers deal with the indigenous populations. Part II: Write a 1000 word essay (you may go over this word count, but you should not fall short of this word count) on the following prompt: Now that you have considered how the explorers interacted with the indigenous populations that they encountered, it then becomes necessary to examine how the native population viewed the explorers. Choose one of the readings that we covered in the creation/emergence accounts from Native American authors. You will then make an argumentative claim for your thesis statement about the way that this writer presents the relationship between the indigenous peoples and the European explorers. Is this a positive relationship, according to this writer? Does the writer think this is a negative relationship? You should also use quotations in each body paragraph (formatted correctly according to MLA style guidelines, with attributive tags to introduce the quotations and in-text citations following each quotation) to support the argument you are making. Please note that you should only discuss one text, and that you should avoid summarizing the text and instead focus on building and supporting an argument about the way that the author views the effect that the explorers have had or will have on the native population. Due: A typed Midterm Exam is due at the beginning of class on Wednesday, September 30th. Format: The exam should be formatted according to MLA guidelines, and it should be stapled in the upper left hand corner. It has to be from the book: The Concise Health Anthology of American Literature!!!!!!

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a sample of smoke is viewed through a microscope and the black specks are seen to move in a zig-zag manner. Give the name of the black specks and explain what is happening

a sample of smoke is viewed through a microscope and the black specks are seen to move in a zig-zag manner. Give the name of the black specks and explain what is happening

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Question 1 1. When the rules of perspective are applied in order to represent unusual points of view, we call this ________. a. foreshortening b. chiaroscuro c. convergence d. highlight e. overlapping 10 points Question 2 1. A flat work of art has two dimensions: ________ and width. a. breadth b. depth c. size d. mass e. height 10 points Question 3 1. Méret Oppenheim was part of an art movement that rejected rational, conscious thought. Her fur-lined teacup and saucer, Object, conjures an unexpected and illogical sensation for the viewer by using ________ texture. a. smooth b. familiar c. expected d. subversive e. silky 10 points Question 4 1. In James Allen’s etching The Connectors, an image of workers erecting the Empire State Building, the artist created a feeling of great height by using ________ line to lead the viewer’s eye diagonally downward. a. horizontal b. communicative c. regular d. directional e. implied 10 points Question 5 1. Because it is three-dimensional, a form has these three spatial measurements: height, width, and ________. a. mass b. length c. size d. depth e. strength 10 points Question 6 1. The ancient Egyptian depiction of the journey of the Sun god Re (0.1) was painted on ________. a. stone b. a coffin c. the wall of a tomb d. copper e. a vase 10 points Question 7 1. The area covered by a pattern is called the ________. a. field b. motif c. background d. size e. foreground 10 points Question 8 1. ________ balance is achieved when two halves of a composition are not mirror images of each other. a. unified b. radial c. varied d. asymmetrical e. symmetrical 10 points Question 9 1. In Audrey Flack’s Marilyn Monroe, the burning candle, the flower, and the hourglass are typical of a kind of symbolism in art that reminds us of death. This kind of symbolism is known as ________. a. vanitas b. feminism c. abstract d. eternal e. none of the other answers 10 points Question 10 1. Tibetan Buddhist monks create colored sand images with a radial design. This representation of the universe is called a ________. a. prayer wheel b. rotunda c. mandala d. prayer flag e. lotus 10 points Question 11 1. In The School of Athens, Raphael focused our attention on two Greek philosophers positioned in the center of the work. They are ________ and ________. a. Plato . . . Aristotle b. Aristotle . . . Socrates c. Diogenes . . . Socrates d. Diogenes . . . Aristotle e. Socrates . . . Plato 10 points Question 12 1. In his Obey campaign poster Shepard Fairey used a striking contrast between positive and ________ shapes to attract the attention of the public. a. figure–ground reversal b. implied c. geometric d. organic e. negative 10 points Question 13 1. The Italian architect Andrea Palladio created a radial design in his plan for the Villa Capra. This building is also called the ________. a. Colosseum b. Pantheon c. Villa Rotonda d. Villa Caprese e. Parthenon 10 points Question 14 1. The French artist Georges Seurat employed a new technique to create a jewel-like diffusion of light and vibration of color in his work The Circus. This type of painting, made up of small dots of color, is known as ________. a. Fauvism b. Luminism c. pointillism d. Pop art e. Impressionism 10 points Question 15 1. The rarity of an artwork, and its value, are often closely related. True False 10 points Question 16 1. By orienting lines so that they attract attention to a specific area of a work of art the artist is using ________. a. actual line b. implied line c. directional line d. measured line e. chaotic line 10 points Question 17 1. Kindred Spirits by Asher Brown Durand uses the effects of ________ to give a sense of the vastness of the American landscape. a. pencil drawing b. geometry c. atmospheric perspective d. foreshortening e. color 10 points Question 18 1. The opposite of emphasis is ________. a. subordination b. tone c. focal point d. color e. proportion 10 points Question 19 1. Gustav Klimt’s portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer was typical of his portraits of the wives and sisters of ________. a. foreign tourists b. Nazi rulers c. German scientists d. Austrian businessmen e. important politicians 10 points Question 20 1. The combination of jarring vertical and diagonal lines in Vincent van Gogh’s The Bedroom creates an atmosphere of ________. a. happiness b. rest c. anxiety d. expectation e. calm 10 points Question 21 1. If the clothing of the saint was the only light area in The Funeral of St. Bonaventure, the viewer’s eye would not be easily drawn to any other areas of the composition. True False 10 points Question 22 1. Miriam Schapiro’s collage Baby Blocks combines two different kinds of shape. ________ is the term used to describe a shape that suggests the natural world, while the term geometric suggests mathematical regularity. a. conceptual b. implied c. organic d. regular e. artificial 10 points Question 23 1. Any of the ________ of art can help focus our interest on specific areas of a work of art. a. styles b. elements c. periods d. tones e. themes 10 points Question 24 1. An artwork can be described as non-objective if its subject matter is ________. a. three-dimensional b. difficult c. unrecognizable d. recognizable e. animals 10 points Question 25 1. Match the methodological approach with its definition: biographical analysis feminist analysis formal analysis contextual analysis 2. iconographical analysis a. analyzes the use of formal elements in a work. b. considers the role of women in an artwork c. interprets objects and figures in the artwork as symbols d. considers the artist’s personal experiences e. considers the religious, political, and social environment in which the artwork was made and viewed 10 points Question 26 1. Alexander Calder invented the ________, a type of suspended, balanced sculpture that uses air currents to power its movement. a. mime b. relief c. mobile d. stabile e. zoetrope 10 points Question 27 1. Louise Nevelson’s work White Vertical Water is a realistic depiction of fish in a river. True False 10 points Question 28 1. William G. Wall’s Fort Edward was published as a ________. a. print b. watercolor c. photograph d. oil painting e. newspaper article 10 points Question 29 1. Artemisia Gentileschi worked during this stylistic and historical period. a. Surrealism b. Impressionism c. Baroque d. Renaissance e. Pop art 10 points Question 30 1. The process of using a series of parallel lines set close to one another to differentiate planes of value in a work of art is called ________. a. highlight b. core shadow c. perspective d. hatching e. palette 10 points Question 31 1. The artist Canaletto, in his drawing of the Ducal Palace in Venice, created an impression of three dimensions by using line to show the division between ________. a. planes b. two figures c. colors d. time periods e. mountains 10 points Question 32 1. Marisol’s work Father Damien was created to memorialize the heroism of a priest who lost his life helping the victims of leprosy. This sculpture stands in front of the State Capitol Building in the U.S. State of ________. a. Arizona b. Pennsylvania c. Utah d. Tennessee e. Hawaii 10 points Question 33 1. The medium of Marc Quinn’s Self is: a. clay b. the artist’s toenail clippings c. wood d. real human hair e. the artist’s own blood 10 points Question 34 1. The work now known as the Watts Towers was in fact given a different title by its creator. That title was ________. a. Nuestro Pueblo b. LA Towers c. Found Objects d. it had no title originally e. Skyscrapers 1 and 2 10 points Question 35 1. Why do we presume that the head of a woman from Benin (0.18) was made for someone wealthy? a. because it was made to be shown in a museum b. because it strongly resembles the Queen c. because it has a price carved on the back d. because it was made from rare ivory e. it was definitely not made for anyone wealthy 10 points Question 36 1. Shahzia Sikander’s art is best described as Abstract Expressionism Naturalist sculpture Pop Art Miniature Painting 10 points Question 37 1. A sunset is a work of art. True False 10 points Question 38 1. A mens’ urinal became a well known artwork in the 20th century. True False 10 points Question 39 1. Which artist has torn out people’s lawns to design and build edible gardens across the country? Andrea Zittel Fritz Haeg Ruben Ortiz Torres Mark Newport

Question 1 1. When the rules of perspective are applied in order to represent unusual points of view, we call this ________. a. foreshortening b. chiaroscuro c. convergence d. highlight e. overlapping 10 points Question 2 1. A flat work of art has two dimensions: ________ and width. a. breadth b. depth c. size d. mass e. height 10 points Question 3 1. Méret Oppenheim was part of an art movement that rejected rational, conscious thought. Her fur-lined teacup and saucer, Object, conjures an unexpected and illogical sensation for the viewer by using ________ texture. a. smooth b. familiar c. expected d. subversive e. silky 10 points Question 4 1. In James Allen’s etching The Connectors, an image of workers erecting the Empire State Building, the artist created a feeling of great height by using ________ line to lead the viewer’s eye diagonally downward. a. horizontal b. communicative c. regular d. directional e. implied 10 points Question 5 1. Because it is three-dimensional, a form has these three spatial measurements: height, width, and ________. a. mass b. length c. size d. depth e. strength 10 points Question 6 1. The ancient Egyptian depiction of the journey of the Sun god Re (0.1) was painted on ________. a. stone b. a coffin c. the wall of a tomb d. copper e. a vase 10 points Question 7 1. The area covered by a pattern is called the ________. a. field b. motif c. background d. size e. foreground 10 points Question 8 1. ________ balance is achieved when two halves of a composition are not mirror images of each other. a. unified b. radial c. varied d. asymmetrical e. symmetrical 10 points Question 9 1. In Audrey Flack’s Marilyn Monroe, the burning candle, the flower, and the hourglass are typical of a kind of symbolism in art that reminds us of death. This kind of symbolism is known as ________. a. vanitas b. feminism c. abstract d. eternal e. none of the other answers 10 points Question 10 1. Tibetan Buddhist monks create colored sand images with a radial design. This representation of the universe is called a ________. a. prayer wheel b. rotunda c. mandala d. prayer flag e. lotus 10 points Question 11 1. In The School of Athens, Raphael focused our attention on two Greek philosophers positioned in the center of the work. They are ________ and ________. a. Plato . . . Aristotle b. Aristotle . . . Socrates c. Diogenes . . . Socrates d. Diogenes . . . Aristotle e. Socrates . . . Plato 10 points Question 12 1. In his Obey campaign poster Shepard Fairey used a striking contrast between positive and ________ shapes to attract the attention of the public. a. figure–ground reversal b. implied c. geometric d. organic e. negative 10 points Question 13 1. The Italian architect Andrea Palladio created a radial design in his plan for the Villa Capra. This building is also called the ________. a. Colosseum b. Pantheon c. Villa Rotonda d. Villa Caprese e. Parthenon 10 points Question 14 1. The French artist Georges Seurat employed a new technique to create a jewel-like diffusion of light and vibration of color in his work The Circus. This type of painting, made up of small dots of color, is known as ________. a. Fauvism b. Luminism c. pointillism d. Pop art e. Impressionism 10 points Question 15 1. The rarity of an artwork, and its value, are often closely related. True False 10 points Question 16 1. By orienting lines so that they attract attention to a specific area of a work of art the artist is using ________. a. actual line b. implied line c. directional line d. measured line e. chaotic line 10 points Question 17 1. Kindred Spirits by Asher Brown Durand uses the effects of ________ to give a sense of the vastness of the American landscape. a. pencil drawing b. geometry c. atmospheric perspective d. foreshortening e. color 10 points Question 18 1. The opposite of emphasis is ________. a. subordination b. tone c. focal point d. color e. proportion 10 points Question 19 1. Gustav Klimt’s portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer was typical of his portraits of the wives and sisters of ________. a. foreign tourists b. Nazi rulers c. German scientists d. Austrian businessmen e. important politicians 10 points Question 20 1. The combination of jarring vertical and diagonal lines in Vincent van Gogh’s The Bedroom creates an atmosphere of ________. a. happiness b. rest c. anxiety d. expectation e. calm 10 points Question 21 1. If the clothing of the saint was the only light area in The Funeral of St. Bonaventure, the viewer’s eye would not be easily drawn to any other areas of the composition. True False 10 points Question 22 1. Miriam Schapiro’s collage Baby Blocks combines two different kinds of shape. ________ is the term used to describe a shape that suggests the natural world, while the term geometric suggests mathematical regularity. a. conceptual b. implied c. organic d. regular e. artificial 10 points Question 23 1. Any of the ________ of art can help focus our interest on specific areas of a work of art. a. styles b. elements c. periods d. tones e. themes 10 points Question 24 1. An artwork can be described as non-objective if its subject matter is ________. a. three-dimensional b. difficult c. unrecognizable d. recognizable e. animals 10 points Question 25 1. Match the methodological approach with its definition: biographical analysis feminist analysis formal analysis contextual analysis 2. iconographical analysis a. analyzes the use of formal elements in a work. b. considers the role of women in an artwork c. interprets objects and figures in the artwork as symbols d. considers the artist’s personal experiences e. considers the religious, political, and social environment in which the artwork was made and viewed 10 points Question 26 1. Alexander Calder invented the ________, a type of suspended, balanced sculpture that uses air currents to power its movement. a. mime b. relief c. mobile d. stabile e. zoetrope 10 points Question 27 1. Louise Nevelson’s work White Vertical Water is a realistic depiction of fish in a river. True False 10 points Question 28 1. William G. Wall’s Fort Edward was published as a ________. a. print b. watercolor c. photograph d. oil painting e. newspaper article 10 points Question 29 1. Artemisia Gentileschi worked during this stylistic and historical period. a. Surrealism b. Impressionism c. Baroque d. Renaissance e. Pop art 10 points Question 30 1. The process of using a series of parallel lines set close to one another to differentiate planes of value in a work of art is called ________. a. highlight b. core shadow c. perspective d. hatching e. palette 10 points Question 31 1. The artist Canaletto, in his drawing of the Ducal Palace in Venice, created an impression of three dimensions by using line to show the division between ________. a. planes b. two figures c. colors d. time periods e. mountains 10 points Question 32 1. Marisol’s work Father Damien was created to memorialize the heroism of a priest who lost his life helping the victims of leprosy. This sculpture stands in front of the State Capitol Building in the U.S. State of ________. a. Arizona b. Pennsylvania c. Utah d. Tennessee e. Hawaii 10 points Question 33 1. The medium of Marc Quinn’s Self is: a. clay b. the artist’s toenail clippings c. wood d. real human hair e. the artist’s own blood 10 points Question 34 1. The work now known as the Watts Towers was in fact given a different title by its creator. That title was ________. a. Nuestro Pueblo b. LA Towers c. Found Objects d. it had no title originally e. Skyscrapers 1 and 2 10 points Question 35 1. Why do we presume that the head of a woman from Benin (0.18) was made for someone wealthy? a. because it was made to be shown in a museum b. because it strongly resembles the Queen c. because it has a price carved on the back d. because it was made from rare ivory e. it was definitely not made for anyone wealthy 10 points Question 36 1. Shahzia Sikander’s art is best described as Abstract Expressionism Naturalist sculpture Pop Art Miniature Painting 10 points Question 37 1. A sunset is a work of art. True False 10 points Question 38 1. A mens’ urinal became a well known artwork in the 20th century. True False 10 points Question 39 1. Which artist has torn out people’s lawns to design and build edible gardens across the country? Andrea Zittel Fritz Haeg Ruben Ortiz Torres Mark Newport

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GEOGRAPHY 325V – “Take Home Exam” 5 LIST/SHORT ANSWER – Worth 10 points each: 50 points. 1) List the 8 eras of New Mexico geography: name three Athabaskan Nations and three Pueblo Nations 2) List and briefly explain the 6 factors that made Spanish settlement in New Mexico successful 3) List and briefly explain 4 types of land grants given by Spain and Mexico: explain three ways land grants were lost during the American Period, and say how many acres of the original grants were retained. 4) Briefly explain how the Manhattan Project happened in New Mexico. In your view, was dropping the atomic bombs on Japan the right thing to do – explain your opinion using facts. How has this history affected New Mexico’s economy today? 5) List and briefly explain 6 landscape traits created by the Laws of the Indies 10 EXPANDED DEFINITIONS – Define and explain each term. 4 points each: 40 points. Chihuahuan Desert: where is it, what season does it rain, and what is a typical plant found here? Don Juan de Oñate: who was he, what year did he come to NM, and what was his significance in the history of New Mexico? El Camino Real: what was it and why was it important? Repartimento: what was this system and how did cause anger in the early Spanish colony? Pueblo Revolt: when and what was it, and what was its outcome? Santuario de Chimayo: write a paragraph explaining its history and religious importance Mayordomo: who is this and what is their importance in the New Mexico landscape? US/Mexico Border Fence/Wall: what are the arguments for and against this project. What is your view? La Llorona: what is this basic story and what is its importance in NM culture? Pancho Villa’s raid on Columbus: what was this, why did it occur, and what was its importance in U.S. military history? ONE ANALYSIS QUESTION: Explain why there was so much resistance in Washington, DC to New Mexico becoming a state. Use two quotes from politicians of the time who were against statehood. Do you think New Mexico is still viewed with suspicion in the USA? Explain why or why not? 10 points.

GEOGRAPHY 325V – “Take Home Exam” 5 LIST/SHORT ANSWER – Worth 10 points each: 50 points. 1) List the 8 eras of New Mexico geography: name three Athabaskan Nations and three Pueblo Nations 2) List and briefly explain the 6 factors that made Spanish settlement in New Mexico successful 3) List and briefly explain 4 types of land grants given by Spain and Mexico: explain three ways land grants were lost during the American Period, and say how many acres of the original grants were retained. 4) Briefly explain how the Manhattan Project happened in New Mexico. In your view, was dropping the atomic bombs on Japan the right thing to do – explain your opinion using facts. How has this history affected New Mexico’s economy today? 5) List and briefly explain 6 landscape traits created by the Laws of the Indies 10 EXPANDED DEFINITIONS – Define and explain each term. 4 points each: 40 points. Chihuahuan Desert: where is it, what season does it rain, and what is a typical plant found here? Don Juan de Oñate: who was he, what year did he come to NM, and what was his significance in the history of New Mexico? El Camino Real: what was it and why was it important? Repartimento: what was this system and how did cause anger in the early Spanish colony? Pueblo Revolt: when and what was it, and what was its outcome? Santuario de Chimayo: write a paragraph explaining its history and religious importance Mayordomo: who is this and what is their importance in the New Mexico landscape? US/Mexico Border Fence/Wall: what are the arguments for and against this project. What is your view? La Llorona: what is this basic story and what is its importance in NM culture? Pancho Villa’s raid on Columbus: what was this, why did it occur, and what was its importance in U.S. military history? ONE ANALYSIS QUESTION: Explain why there was so much resistance in Washington, DC to New Mexico becoming a state. Use two quotes from politicians of the time who were against statehood. Do you think New Mexico is still viewed with suspicion in the USA? Explain why or why not? 10 points.

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