TEXT The sole text is Daniel Bonevac’s Today’s Moral Issues. This is an extremely accessible work that organizes the subject matter of ethics into well-structured units involving both general principles and focused ethical dilemmas. The instructor will guide the students through the pertinent readings and discussion topics. Exam #3: WAR ECONOMIC EQUALITY 1. Aquinas 5. Mill 2. Grotius 6. Hospers 3. Clausewitz 7. Anderson 4. Gandhi CONCERNING THE SHORT PAPER Choose one of our dilemma topics from our book as the focus of your short paper. If you have another topic in mind, please consult with me for permission. —length: 4 to 5 pages — format: typed —number of points: 10 — submission via Bb, under “Assignments” — Format: Microsoft Word — Line Spacing: Double-Spaced —Print: Black The following is merely a suggestion for the organization of the paper, but it might be useful as an indication of how it could look: a) Initial statement of your position concerning the moral dilemma; how to resolve it, how you plan to argue for/against it. b) Amplification of your position; your main points or position. c) Backup: some cited references and supporting evidence for your position. d) Your criticisms of alternative or contrary points of view. e) Your conclusion/summing up. Plagiarism is a serious breach of academic integrity. If you submit plagiarized materials you will receive a zero on the assignment. If you need an extension of the due date for the paper, please consult with me.

TEXT The sole text is Daniel Bonevac’s Today’s Moral Issues. This is an extremely accessible work that organizes the subject matter of ethics into well-structured units involving both general principles and focused ethical dilemmas. The instructor will guide the students through the pertinent readings and discussion topics. Exam #3: WAR ECONOMIC EQUALITY 1. Aquinas 5. Mill 2. Grotius 6. Hospers 3. Clausewitz 7. Anderson 4. Gandhi CONCERNING THE SHORT PAPER Choose one of our dilemma topics from our book as the focus of your short paper. If you have another topic in mind, please consult with me for permission. —length: 4 to 5 pages — format: typed —number of points: 10 — submission via Bb, under “Assignments” — Format: Microsoft Word — Line Spacing: Double-Spaced —Print: Black The following is merely a suggestion for the organization of the paper, but it might be useful as an indication of how it could look: a) Initial statement of your position concerning the moral dilemma; how to resolve it, how you plan to argue for/against it. b) Amplification of your position; your main points or position. c) Backup: some cited references and supporting evidence for your position. d) Your criticisms of alternative or contrary points of view. e) Your conclusion/summing up. Plagiarism is a serious breach of academic integrity. If you submit plagiarized materials you will receive a zero on the assignment. If you need an extension of the due date for the paper, please consult with me.

Non-violence as a rule of love   The mainly essential … Read More...
Describe and discuss: how your study of special education has informed your professional identity

Describe and discuss: how your study of special education has informed your professional identity

The force on culture variety and linguistic diversity in special … Read More...
Before brain surgery, Elliott was a good father and held a responsible job. After removal of portions of his frontal lobe, what prediction about Elliott’s personality is likely to come true? He will experience visual hallucinations. He will experience auditory hallucinations. His emotional reactions and decision-making abilities will be impaired. He will be even more driven and focused on his work.

Before brain surgery, Elliott was a good father and held a responsible job. After removal of portions of his frontal lobe, what prediction about Elliott’s personality is likely to come true? He will experience visual hallucinations. He will experience auditory hallucinations. His emotional reactions and decision-making abilities will be impaired. He will be even more driven and focused on his work.

Before brain surgery, Elliott was a good father and held … Read More...
1. The reaction time of a driver to visual stimulus is normally distributed with a mean of 0.2 seconds and a standard deviation of 0.1 seconds. 1‐1. (2 points) What is the probability that a reaction requires more than 0.5 seconds? 1‐2. (2 points) What is the probability that a reaction requires between 0.4 and 0.5 seconds? 1‐3. (2 points) What is the reaction time that is exceeded 95% of the time? 2. Spherical Uniform Distribution (Google! You do not have to explain why): 2‐1. (2 points) How can we pick a set of random points uniformly distributed on the unit circle x12 + x 2=1? 2‐2. (2 points) How can we pick a set of random points uniformly distributed on the 4‐dimensional unit 2 2 2 2 2 sphere x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 =1? 3. The random variable X has a binomial distribution with n = 19 and p = 0.4. Determine the following probabilities. (You may use computer. But, you have to show the formula.) 3‐1. (2 points) P(X ≤ 12) 3‐2. (2 points) P(X ≥ 18) 3‐3. (2 points) P(13 ≤ X < 15) 4. (2 points) Show the mean and the variance of the triangular distribution with lower limit a, upper limit b and mode c, where a < b and a ≤ c ≤ b. (You must show why.) 5. (2 points) An electronic office product contains 5000 electronic components. Assume that the probability that each component operates without failure during the useful life of the product is 0.999, and assume that the components fail independently. Approximate the probability that 10 or more of the original 5000 components fail during the useful life of the product. 6. Consider the following system made up of functional components in parallel and series. C2 0.80 C1 0.90 C4 0.95 C3 0.85 6‐1. (2 points) What is the probability that the system operates? 6‐2. (2 points) What is the probability that the system fails due to the components in series? Assume parallel components do not fail. 6‐3. (2 points) What is the probability that the system fails due to the components in parallel? Assume series components do not fail. 6‐4. (2 points) Compute and compare the probabilities that the system fails when the probability that component C1 functions is improved to a value of 0.95 and when the probability that component C2 functions is improved to a value of 0.85. Which improvement increases the system reliability more? 7. (2 points) Suppose that the joint distribution of X and Y has probability density function f(x, y) = 0.25xy for 0 < x < 2 and 0 < y < 2. Compute V(2X + 3Y). (Show all your work.)

1. The reaction time of a driver to visual stimulus is normally distributed with a mean of 0.2 seconds and a standard deviation of 0.1 seconds. 1‐1. (2 points) What is the probability that a reaction requires more than 0.5 seconds? 1‐2. (2 points) What is the probability that a reaction requires between 0.4 and 0.5 seconds? 1‐3. (2 points) What is the reaction time that is exceeded 95% of the time? 2. Spherical Uniform Distribution (Google! You do not have to explain why): 2‐1. (2 points) How can we pick a set of random points uniformly distributed on the unit circle x12 + x 2=1? 2‐2. (2 points) How can we pick a set of random points uniformly distributed on the 4‐dimensional unit 2 2 2 2 2 sphere x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 =1? 3. The random variable X has a binomial distribution with n = 19 and p = 0.4. Determine the following probabilities. (You may use computer. But, you have to show the formula.) 3‐1. (2 points) P(X ≤ 12) 3‐2. (2 points) P(X ≥ 18) 3‐3. (2 points) P(13 ≤ X < 15) 4. (2 points) Show the mean and the variance of the triangular distribution with lower limit a, upper limit b and mode c, where a < b and a ≤ c ≤ b. (You must show why.) 5. (2 points) An electronic office product contains 5000 electronic components. Assume that the probability that each component operates without failure during the useful life of the product is 0.999, and assume that the components fail independently. Approximate the probability that 10 or more of the original 5000 components fail during the useful life of the product. 6. Consider the following system made up of functional components in parallel and series. C2 0.80 C1 0.90 C4 0.95 C3 0.85 6‐1. (2 points) What is the probability that the system operates? 6‐2. (2 points) What is the probability that the system fails due to the components in series? Assume parallel components do not fail. 6‐3. (2 points) What is the probability that the system fails due to the components in parallel? Assume series components do not fail. 6‐4. (2 points) Compute and compare the probabilities that the system fails when the probability that component C1 functions is improved to a value of 0.95 and when the probability that component C2 functions is improved to a value of 0.85. Which improvement increases the system reliability more? 7. (2 points) Suppose that the joint distribution of X and Y has probability density function f(x, y) = 0.25xy for 0 < x < 2 and 0 < y < 2. Compute V(2X + 3Y). (Show all your work.)

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Which is NOT a association of brain structures and functions? Select one: a. midbrain—reflex centers for visual, auditory, and tactile responses b. cerebellum—coordinates smooth and coordinated motions c. cerebrum—higher thought processes including learning, memory, and speech d. pons—regulates breathing rate e. thalamus—regulates heartbeat and blood pressure

Which is NOT a association of brain structures and functions? Select one: a. midbrain—reflex centers for visual, auditory, and tactile responses b. cerebellum—coordinates smooth and coordinated motions c. cerebrum—higher thought processes including learning, memory, and speech d. pons—regulates breathing rate e. thalamus—regulates heartbeat and blood pressure

Info@checkyourstudy.com                                                                                                                                                                                       : thalamus—regulates heartbeat and blood pressure
Which communication method can be effective both during the day and at night? Select one: a. All of these can be effective both during the day and at night. b. tactile c. visual d. auditory e. chemical

Which communication method can be effective both during the day and at night? Select one: a. All of these can be effective both during the day and at night. b. tactile c. visual d. auditory e. chemical

Info@checkyourstudy.com                                                                                                                                                                                       : All of these can be effective both during … Read More...
BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

BI 102 Lab 1 Writing Assignment How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? This assignment requires you to evaluate a hypothesis and communicate the results of your experiment on the rate of osmosis into sucrose solutions of varying concentrations. The questions below are meant to guide you to reporting the key findings of your experiment and help you think through how to explain the findings and draw conclusions from them in a scientific manner. ASSIGNMENT: Please respond to the following questions to complete your laboratory write up. For this assignment you will only focus on the osmosis of water into sucrose concentrations of varying concentration. Make sure that your write up is accurate, and clearly written so that it is easily readable. A grading rubric is provided on the second page of this assignment. To earn full points on your write up, you must provide answers that align to the “meets” column of your grading rubric as well as meeting all “Quality of Writing and Mechanics” elements described in the rubric. There are also some tips on pages 3-4 of this assignment to help you succeed. FORMAT: • Type your responses, using 1.5 or double spacing. • Include the section headings (Hypothesis, Results, Analysis) and question number (example: 1, 2, 3, etc) in your answers but do not rewrite the question. • Graphs may be made with a computer program (example: Microsoft excel, Mac numbers, etc) or may be neatly produced with a ruler on graphing paper. • Print out the cover sheet on page 2 of this assignment, read and sign the academic honesty statement, and submit it with your write up. Your instructor WILL NOT accept a write up without the signed cover sheet. DUE DATE: Your write up is due at the beginning of class next week. Late assignments will have 1 point deducted per day up to 5 days, at which point the assignment will be assigned 0 points. Hypothesis and Prediction – Part 1 of Rubric 1. What did you think was going to happen in this experiment and why? You may find it helpful to state your answers to these questions as an “if-then” hypothesis-prediction. Be sure you have included a biological rationale that explains WHY you made this hypothesis/prediction. (You worked on this in question 2 on page 10 of this lab activity) Results – Part 2 of Rubric 2. How did the different concentrations of sucrose impact osmotic rate? Answer this question by creating a line graph that shows the results of your experiment. If you need assistance building a graph, there is a Guide to Graphing resource available on your Moodle lab course site. Analysis- Part 3 of Rubric 3. Explain why you think that the results shown in your graph support or refute your hypothesis (remember we never “prove” anything in science). Consider all your data and the overall data pattern as you answer this question. Don’t ignore unusual data that may not seem to fit into a specific patterns (“outliers”). Explain what you think might be behind these unusual data points. 4. What is the biological significance of your results? What biological concepts explain completely why these events happened in the experiment? How do these results help you understand the biology of the cell and how materials move back and forth across the cell membrane? (A hint: refer back to questions 1A-1F on page 10 of this lab activity). Think about giving a specific example. References- Mechanics Checklist 5. Provide at least one full citation (make sure you include an in-text citation that pinpoints where you used this resource) for a resource you made use of in performing the experiment, understanding the concepts and writing this assignment. (Perhaps your lab manual? Your textbook? A website?) If you used more than one resource, you need to cite each one! If you need help with citations, a Guide to Citing References is available on your Moodle lab course site. Please print out and submit this cover sheet with your lab writeup! Lab Writeup Assignment (1) Assessment Rubric-­‐ 10 points total Name: ________________________________________ Element Misses (1 point) Approaches (2 points) Meets (3 points) Hypothesis Clarity/Specificity Testability Rationale ___Hypothesis is unclear and hardto- understand ___Hypothesis is not testable ___No biological rationale for hypothesis or rationale is fully inaccurate ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated, but not specific or lacks specific details __Hypothesis is testable, but not in a feasible way in this lab ___Some foundation for hypothesis, but based in part on biological inaccuracy ___Hypothesis included is clearly stated and very specific ___Hypothesis is testable and could be tested within lab parameters ___Rationale for hypothesis is grounded in accurate biological information Graph Title Axes Variables Key Graph clarity Data accuracy ___Graph lacks a title ___Axes are not labeled ___Variables not addressed in graph ___No key or way to tell data points apart ___Graph is hard to read and comparisons cannot be made: Inappropriate graph type or use of scale ___Data graphed is inaccurate or does not relate to experiment ___Graph has a title that is not very descriptive ___Axes are either unlabeled, or units are unclear or wrong ___Variables addressed in graph, but not on correct axes ___Key included, but is hard to understand ___Graph is somewhat readable, comparisons can be made with difficulty: Appropriate graph type, but not scaled well ___Data graphed is partially accurate; some data is missing ___Graph has a concise, descriptive title ___Axes are labeled, including clarification of units used ___Variables on correct axes ___A clear, easy-to-use key to data points is included ___Graph is clearly readable and comparisons between treatments are easy to make: Graph type and scale are appropriate to data ___Data graphed is accurate and includes all relevant data, including controls (if needed) Analysis Hypothesis Scientific language Data addressed Explanation ___Hypothesis is not addressed ___Hypothesis is described using language like proven, true, or right ___No explanations for data patterns observed in graph or data does not support conclusions. ___No biological explanation for data trends or explanations are completely inaccurate ___Hypothesis is mentioned, but not linked well to data ___Hypothesis is not consistently described as supported or refuted ___Some data considered in conclusions but other data is ignored. Any unusual “outliers” are ignored ___Explanations include minimal or some inaccurate biological concepts ___Hypothesis is evaluated based upon data ___Hypothesis is consistently described as supported or refuted ___All data collected is considered and addressed by conclusions, including presence of outliers, ___Explanations include relevant and accurate biological concepts Quality of Writing and Mechanics: Worth 1 point. Writeup should meet all of the following criteria! Yes No ☐ ☐ Write up includes your name, the date, and your lab section ☐ ☐ Write up is free from spelling and grammatical errors (make sure you proofread!!) ☐ ☐ Write up is clear and easy-to-understand ☐ ☐ Write up includes full citation for at least one reference with corresponding in-text citation ☐ ☐ All portions of write up are clearly labeled, and question numbers are included Plagiarism refers to the use of original work, ideas, or text that are not your own. This includes cut-and-paste from websites, copying directly from texts, and copying the work of others, including fellow students. Telling someone your answers to the questions (including telling someone how to make their graph, question #2), or asking for the answers to any question, is cheating. (Asking someone how to make the graph for this assignment is NOT the same as asking for help learning excel or some other software). All forms of cheating, including plagiarism and copying of work will result in an immediate zero for the exam, quiz, or assignment. In the case of copying, all parties involved in the unethical behavior will earn zeros. Cheating students will be referred to the Student Conduct Committee for further action. You also have the right to appeal to the Student Conduct Committee. I have read and understand the plagiarism statement. ____________________________________________________ Signature Guidelines for Good Quality Scientific Reports Hypothesis and Prediction: The hypothesis is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon. Remember that: • A good hypothesis and prediction is testable (and should be testable under the conditions of our lab environment; For example, if your hypothesis requires shooting a rocket into space, then its not really testable under our laboratory conditions). • Your explanation can be ruled out through testing, or falsified. • A good hypothesis and prediction is detailed and specific in what it is testing. • A good hypothesis provides a rationale or explanation for why you think your prediction is reasonable and this rationale is based on what we know about biology. • A good prediction is specific and can be tested with a specific experiment. Examples*: I think that diet soda will float and regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis misses the goal. It is not specific as we don’t know where the sodas are floating and sinking, and it does not provide any explanation to explain why the hypothesis makes sense} Because diet soda does not contain sugar and regular soda does, the diet soda will float in a bucket of water, while regular soda will sink. {This hypothesis approaches the goal. It is more specific about the conditions, and it provides a partial explanation about why the hypothesis makes sense, but the connection between sugar and sinking is unclear} If diet soda does not contain sugar, then its density (mass/volume) is lower than that of regular soda which does contain sugar, and so diet soda will float in a bucket of water while regular soda sinks. {This hypothesis meets the goal. It is specific and the rationale- sugar affects density and density is what determines floating or sinking in water- is clearly articulated} *Note that these examples are for different experiments and investigations and NOT about your osmosis lab. They are provided only to help you think about what you need to include in your write up. Graph: The graph is a visual representation of the data you gathered while testing your hypothesis. Remember that: • A graph needs a concise title that clearly describes the data that it is showing. • Data must be put on the correct axes of the graph. In general, the data you collected (representing what you are trying to find out about) goes on the vertical (Y) axis. The supporting data that that describes how, when or under what conditions you collected your data goes on the horizontal (X) axis. (For this reason time nearly always goes on the X-axis). • Axes must be labeled, including the units in which data were recorded • Data points should be clearly marked and identified; a key is helpful if more than one group of data is included in the graph. • The scale of a graph is important. It should be consistent (there should be no change in the units or increments on a single axis) and appropriate to the data you collected Examples: {This graph misses the goal. There is no title, nor is there a key to help distinguish what the data points mean. The scale is too large- from 0 to 100 with an increment of 50, when the maximum number in the graph is 25- and makes it hard to interpret this graph. The x-axis is labeled, but without units (the months) and the y-axis has units, but the label is incomplete- number of what?} {This graph meets the goal. There is a descriptive title, and all of the axes are clearly labeled with units. There is a key so that we can distinguish what each set of data points represent. The dependent variable (number of individuals) is correctly placed on the y-axis with the independent variable of time placed on the x-axis. The scale of 0-30 is appropriate to the data, with each line on the x-axis representing an increment of 5.} 0 50 100 Number Month 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 March April May June July Number of individuals Month (2011) Population size of three different madtom catiCish in the Marais de Cygnes River in Spring/Summer 2011 Brindled madtom Neosho madtom Slender madtom Analysis: You need to evaluate your hypothesis based on the data patterns shown by your graph. Remember that: • You use data to determine support or refute your hypothesis. It is only possible to support a hypothesis, not to “prove” one (that would require testing every possible permutation and combination of factors). Your evaluation of your hypothesis should not be contradicted by the pattern shown by your data. • Refer back to the prediction you made as part of your hypothesis and use your data to justify your decision to support or refute your hypothesis. • In the “if” part of your hypothesis you should have provided a rationale, or explanation for the prediction you made in your hypothesis (“then” part of hypothesis”). Use this to help you explain why you think you observed the specific pattern of data revealed in your graph. • You should consider all of the data you collected in examining the support (or lack of support for your hypothesis). If there are unusual data points or “outliers” that don’t seem to fit the general pattern in your graph, explain what you think those mean. Examples: I was right. Diet Pepsi floated and so did Apricot Nectar. Regular Pepsi sank. Obviously the regular Pepsi was heavier. This helps us understand the concept of density, which is a really important one. {This analysis misses the goal. The hypothesis isn’t actually mentioned and the data is only briefly described. There is no explanation of the importance of the Apricot Nectar results. Finally, there is no connection to how these results help understand density or why it is biologically important} I hypothesized that diet soda would float, and all three cans of diet Pepsi did float while the regular Pepsi sank. This supports my hypothesis. Both types of Pepsi were 8.5 fluid ounces in volume, but the regular Pepsi also contained 16 grams of sugar. This means that the regular Pepsi had 16 more grams of mass provided by the sugar in the same amount of volume. This would lead to an increase in density, which explains why the regular soda cans sank. When we put in a can of Apricot Nectar, which had 19 grams of sugar, it floated. This was unexpected, but I think it is explained by the fact that an Apricot Nectar can had a volume of 7 fluid ounces, but the dimensions of the can are the same as that of a Pepsi can. A same-sized can with less liquid probably has an air space that helped it float. The results of this experiment help us understand how the air bladder of a fish, which creates an air space inside the fish, helps it float in the water and also how seaweeds and other living things with air spaces or other factors that decrease their density keep from sinking to the bottom of the water. {This analysis meets the goal. It clearly ties the hypothesis to the results and outlines what they mean. It describes how the results support the hypothesis, but also explains a possible reason behind the unusual results of the Apricot Nectar. Finally, there is a link to how this experiment helps us understand biology}

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or your final theme reflection you will need to select one or more human rights violation(s) and create a hypothetical non-profit organization that serves to eradicate this violation. You must present your work in front of the class using visual (poster, PowerPoint, brochures). When creating your organization, you must consider the following: • How would this organization address this issue? • Where would it be located? • Who would the staff consist of? • Where would the funding come from? • What types of programs would they support? • What does the website/brochures look like? • Will you use social media?

or your final theme reflection you will need to select one or more human rights violation(s) and create a hypothetical non-profit organization that serves to eradicate this violation. You must present your work in front of the class using visual (poster, PowerPoint, brochures). When creating your organization, you must consider the following: • How would this organization address this issue? • Where would it be located? • Who would the staff consist of? • Where would the funding come from? • What types of programs would they support? • What does the website/brochures look like? • Will you use social media?

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SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENTS Directions: Given the following situations, make assessments of how to prepare for each presentation. Include in your assessment the following: a) topic, b) length, c) amount of detail needed, d) appropriate room set up, e) equipment needs, f) visual aids needed, g) type of presentation to me made, and other pertinent information. Also, identify those things that need to be answered prior to the presentation and how you would go about finding it out. Situation 1: Dr. Jenson has called to have you speak to his college class about job opportunities in your field. His class meets from 1-4pm. He has asked you to speak for about 30 minutes. Situation 2: Ms. Jenkins, the office manager for one of the larger companies in town, has asked you to do a “Dress for Success” workshop for her employees. She wants to improve the image of her employees. She would like you to present your workshop in next month. Situation 3: You have been asked to speak to the local Toastmasters. The group of professionals meets weekly at the a local restaurant. You have been asked to talk for about 10 minutes at this week’s meeting. Situation 4: Your boss has left a message for you, letting you know he wants you to talk to the plant supervisors next week about ways to improve productivity.

SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENTS Directions: Given the following situations, make assessments of how to prepare for each presentation. Include in your assessment the following: a) topic, b) length, c) amount of detail needed, d) appropriate room set up, e) equipment needs, f) visual aids needed, g) type of presentation to me made, and other pertinent information. Also, identify those things that need to be answered prior to the presentation and how you would go about finding it out. Situation 1: Dr. Jenson has called to have you speak to his college class about job opportunities in your field. His class meets from 1-4pm. He has asked you to speak for about 30 minutes. Situation 2: Ms. Jenkins, the office manager for one of the larger companies in town, has asked you to do a “Dress for Success” workshop for her employees. She wants to improve the image of her employees. She would like you to present your workshop in next month. Situation 3: You have been asked to speak to the local Toastmasters. The group of professionals meets weekly at the a local restaurant. You have been asked to talk for about 10 minutes at this week’s meeting. Situation 4: Your boss has left a message for you, letting you know he wants you to talk to the plant supervisors next week about ways to improve productivity.

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