Another method called “Turkish bath” or “sauna”, which uses hot water steam to improve health, please explains the possible benefits and possible problems of Turkish bath with the information you learned.

Another method called “Turkish bath” or “sauna”, which uses hot water steam to improve health, please explains the possible benefits and possible problems of Turkish bath with the information you learned.

Benefits: Sessions in a hot, dry sauna or hot, moist … Read More...
English 1 Professor Nielsen Essay One Topic and Guidelines The Context You are a non-profit organization Director of Fundraising, and your goal is to convince a wealthy individual to make a substantial donation to your cause. Choose from one of the following projects derived from the social issues from the course readings below: 1. The Prison Project: Reducing the incarceration rate and numbers in the U.S. 2. Birth Control Advocacy and Access: Supporting a birth control education and free product distribution in the U.S and/or internationally. 3. LGBT Advocacy: Funding education, campaigning, and lobbying for LGBT rights in the U.S. 4. Equality in Education: Supporting funding and scholarships for schools and individuals from less advantaged populations. 5. Migrant Welfare and Protection: Creating safe housing, food, and education for refugees. 6. Something else related to social justice?????? (See me if you have your own project idea). (animal welfare, women’s advocacy, housing, student loans and tuition affordability, etc.) Make a case for a donation of $2 million dollars to your cause by writing a funding request letter to the potential donor. This request is essentially a persuasive essay designed to convince your reader to support your cause. Below is a suggested format for organizing your letter, as well as guidelines for your work. I. The Basics Due: Tuesday, September 29, at Start of Class (Rough Draft). And Tuesday, October 6, at Start of Class (Final Draft) Length: 3-4 Pgs., double spaced in the correct format (see sample paper format template at the end of this document for format.) Font: Times New Roman, 12PT. Margins: 1 inch all around. See sample format at the end of this document for further formatting information. You are required to submit using this format. Check the sample on page five of this document carefully. Editing: Be sure to use the proofreading guide. In particular, avoid the big five errors. Revising: Read over your draft carefully several times. We will work toward revision together in class, but you will also need to revise on your own. Visit the Learning center if you need extra support. II. Organization and Content (Sample Outline Follows.) Use an organized format for your essay. The best way to ensure strong organization is to map out a plan for the content of your essay, using an outline, clustering, or other graphic representation of your key ideas. One potential format follows. Sample Method of Organizing Your Funding Letter: A. The Opening Paragraph 1. Start with some brief striking details to provide the initial background to your letter: facts, figures, brief description of one aspect of the problem- something compelling. 2. End your paragraph with a statement that briefly announces/introduces your organization without yet going into detail about your mission. State that you are requesting a donation and that your letter will describe the need for this donation. (Your Thesis) B. Body of the Letter: The Problem Make a stronger case for the problem your organization seeks to address by describing several aspects of it, using examples and details, as well as quotes from relevant class readings (be sure to cite these correctly). C. Body of the Letter: What Your Organization Will Do Describe some points of actions your group will take and ways that you will spend donor funds to address aspects of the problem you have already described. Choose three to five specific courses of action. Do not make these two extensive. They should be manageable and practical. D. Your Summary and Conclusion: Asking for Money 1. Briefly restate the problem and your organization’s goals using new wording when possible. 2. Connect the funds you need to your organization’s goals 3. Make your request for money. 4. End with a final compelling statement of why the donor should give. III. Strategies and Guidelines 1. Use the writing process steps to help you through your letter. 2. Use the proofreading guide to help you edit and the Learning Center on campus for support. 5. Cite all quotes with the author and page number. Create a works cited page at the end of your essay for the works you discuss. (See the MLA guide and sample student essays in your textbook for examples and step-by-step help with MLA. You may also pick up a guide at the campus writing center and ask them for extra help.) 6. This is NOT a research essay. Most background information should come from common knowledge, your own prior knowledge and experience, and the readings from class/the text. However, you may choose to include up one additional research source if necessary, provided this is a reliable source that you can cite correctly. Please visit OWL at Purdue University for a complete MLA citation guide. You text also has a chapter on MLA citation. 7. Follow the correct essay format for font, spacing, margins, heading, etc. (SEE sample in this document.) IV. Formatting: You are required to format your essay in the way that follows to receive full credit. • Page number in upper right-hand corner (Use “Insert” and “Pg. #”) • Times New Roman 12 Pt. font • Heading in left corner with title, student name, essay 1 (or 2, etc.), Eng 2, and date • Heading is single spaced • Skip two lines to start typing body of text • Body of text is double spaced • Margins remain at 1 inch all around. • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs • Indent each paragraph five lines • Use MLA format for citation Continue to the next page for format sample. Title of Your Campaign Project (Choose something compelling.) Student Name Essay 1 English 1 Date Dear _______, Start typing your essay here, two lines down from heading. The body of your essay is double spaced, but the heading is only single spaced. Note the page number in the upper right-hand corner. Note the exact content of the heading. There is no title page for short essays, nor is there a title across the top. For short essays of just a few pages, this format is standard. The title goes at the top of the heading. All words in the title are capitalized except pronouns, prepositions, and articles. Do not make your margins greater that one inch. Make sure you use Times New Roman 12 Point font. Do not include graphics or images of any kind in most essays for this class (see me if you think you have an exception). When you reach the end of your paragraph, just hit return and continue typing. Do not skip lines between your paragraphs or over-indent your paragraphs; indent only five lines as marked in the ruler. Do not attempt to write less for your essay by enlarging the font, margins, or spacing. This paragraph demonstrates a good length for an introduction. You next paragraph should start here. This is the way your essay should look. You may use this template to help you format your essay by saving it to your desktop and keeping the settings. You will, of course, have two to three pages when you finish, but this is what the first page would look like roughly. If you include a quote, be sure to cite the author and page number and to include a works cited page at the end of your essay.

English 1 Professor Nielsen Essay One Topic and Guidelines The Context You are a non-profit organization Director of Fundraising, and your goal is to convince a wealthy individual to make a substantial donation to your cause. Choose from one of the following projects derived from the social issues from the course readings below: 1. The Prison Project: Reducing the incarceration rate and numbers in the U.S. 2. Birth Control Advocacy and Access: Supporting a birth control education and free product distribution in the U.S and/or internationally. 3. LGBT Advocacy: Funding education, campaigning, and lobbying for LGBT rights in the U.S. 4. Equality in Education: Supporting funding and scholarships for schools and individuals from less advantaged populations. 5. Migrant Welfare and Protection: Creating safe housing, food, and education for refugees. 6. Something else related to social justice?????? (See me if you have your own project idea). (animal welfare, women’s advocacy, housing, student loans and tuition affordability, etc.) Make a case for a donation of $2 million dollars to your cause by writing a funding request letter to the potential donor. This request is essentially a persuasive essay designed to convince your reader to support your cause. Below is a suggested format for organizing your letter, as well as guidelines for your work. I. The Basics Due: Tuesday, September 29, at Start of Class (Rough Draft). And Tuesday, October 6, at Start of Class (Final Draft) Length: 3-4 Pgs., double spaced in the correct format (see sample paper format template at the end of this document for format.) Font: Times New Roman, 12PT. Margins: 1 inch all around. See sample format at the end of this document for further formatting information. You are required to submit using this format. Check the sample on page five of this document carefully. Editing: Be sure to use the proofreading guide. In particular, avoid the big five errors. Revising: Read over your draft carefully several times. We will work toward revision together in class, but you will also need to revise on your own. Visit the Learning center if you need extra support. II. Organization and Content (Sample Outline Follows.) Use an organized format for your essay. The best way to ensure strong organization is to map out a plan for the content of your essay, using an outline, clustering, or other graphic representation of your key ideas. One potential format follows. Sample Method of Organizing Your Funding Letter: A. The Opening Paragraph 1. Start with some brief striking details to provide the initial background to your letter: facts, figures, brief description of one aspect of the problem- something compelling. 2. End your paragraph with a statement that briefly announces/introduces your organization without yet going into detail about your mission. State that you are requesting a donation and that your letter will describe the need for this donation. (Your Thesis) B. Body of the Letter: The Problem Make a stronger case for the problem your organization seeks to address by describing several aspects of it, using examples and details, as well as quotes from relevant class readings (be sure to cite these correctly). C. Body of the Letter: What Your Organization Will Do Describe some points of actions your group will take and ways that you will spend donor funds to address aspects of the problem you have already described. Choose three to five specific courses of action. Do not make these two extensive. They should be manageable and practical. D. Your Summary and Conclusion: Asking for Money 1. Briefly restate the problem and your organization’s goals using new wording when possible. 2. Connect the funds you need to your organization’s goals 3. Make your request for money. 4. End with a final compelling statement of why the donor should give. III. Strategies and Guidelines 1. Use the writing process steps to help you through your letter. 2. Use the proofreading guide to help you edit and the Learning Center on campus for support. 5. Cite all quotes with the author and page number. Create a works cited page at the end of your essay for the works you discuss. (See the MLA guide and sample student essays in your textbook for examples and step-by-step help with MLA. You may also pick up a guide at the campus writing center and ask them for extra help.) 6. This is NOT a research essay. Most background information should come from common knowledge, your own prior knowledge and experience, and the readings from class/the text. However, you may choose to include up one additional research source if necessary, provided this is a reliable source that you can cite correctly. Please visit OWL at Purdue University for a complete MLA citation guide. You text also has a chapter on MLA citation. 7. Follow the correct essay format for font, spacing, margins, heading, etc. (SEE sample in this document.) IV. Formatting: You are required to format your essay in the way that follows to receive full credit. • Page number in upper right-hand corner (Use “Insert” and “Pg. #”) • Times New Roman 12 Pt. font • Heading in left corner with title, student name, essay 1 (or 2, etc.), Eng 2, and date • Heading is single spaced • Skip two lines to start typing body of text • Body of text is double spaced • Margins remain at 1 inch all around. • DO NOT skip lines between paragraphs • Indent each paragraph five lines • Use MLA format for citation Continue to the next page for format sample. Title of Your Campaign Project (Choose something compelling.) Student Name Essay 1 English 1 Date Dear _______, Start typing your essay here, two lines down from heading. The body of your essay is double spaced, but the heading is only single spaced. Note the page number in the upper right-hand corner. Note the exact content of the heading. There is no title page for short essays, nor is there a title across the top. For short essays of just a few pages, this format is standard. The title goes at the top of the heading. All words in the title are capitalized except pronouns, prepositions, and articles. Do not make your margins greater that one inch. Make sure you use Times New Roman 12 Point font. Do not include graphics or images of any kind in most essays for this class (see me if you think you have an exception). When you reach the end of your paragraph, just hit return and continue typing. Do not skip lines between your paragraphs or over-indent your paragraphs; indent only five lines as marked in the ruler. Do not attempt to write less for your essay by enlarging the font, margins, or spacing. This paragraph demonstrates a good length for an introduction. You next paragraph should start here. This is the way your essay should look. You may use this template to help you format your essay by saving it to your desktop and keeping the settings. You will, of course, have two to three pages when you finish, but this is what the first page would look like roughly. If you include a quote, be sure to cite the author and page number and to include a works cited page at the end of your essay.

How will you improve, change, add to or in some way enhance the way you now address the teaching of comprehension for works of fiction and non-fiction.

How will you improve, change, add to or in some way enhance the way you now address the teaching of comprehension for works of fiction and non-fiction.

Other plan comprises: creation predictions: One technique is the concentrating … Read More...
1181 Assignment #8 Parallel Arrays For this application, you will use parallel arrays to compare grades of a list of students. 1. Rename the form to frmGrades and give the form an appropriate title. 2. Add the following variables as global (class level) variables. String namesString = “Aaron Ben Carmelina Dorthey Erinn Karin ” + “Lester Mitsue Nichol Ria Sherie Zachary”; String assignmentsString = “44 92 100 100 100 97 100 95 100 0 100 100|” + “95 95 97 90 100 95 100 100 100 100 100 75|” + “98 100 65 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 75|” + “85 100 0 50 100 95 90 0 80 100 100 100”; 3. Create three global (class level) arrays. a. One will hold all of the names of your students. b. One will be a 2D array to hold each of the grades for each assignment. c. One will hold the calculated grade for each student for all of their assignments. 4. Add a ListBox to the form to display all of the student names and assignment grades in your arrays. 5. Add a button to do the following: a. Fill the name and assignment grades 2D global arrays from these two strings. The arrays will be ran in parallel. i. Remember Split(). b. DataTypes on the arrays must be appropriate. c. After filling the arrays, call a method to fill the ListBox with student names and grades. i. Remember to use a mono-spaced font. 6. Add a button that will calculate the grade of each student: a. A method to calculate the grade for each student will be called from this event to fill the grades array. 7. Add 3 Labels to display the Name, Grade, and Letter grade of a selected student. 8. Add a Button that will fill the three previously mentioned Labels from the name and grade arrays. a. You will need to make sure the code cannot run until all appropriate arrays have been filled. b. You will need to use the arrays to fill the Labels. c. A method to calculate and return the appropriate letter grade for the student will need to be called from this event method. i. Hint: there is a .SelectedIndex property on a ListBox to get which item in a ListBox is selected. 9. Add a four Labels for the average grade of each assignment. 10. Add a button to display the average of each assignment in the four Labels. a. This event method will need to call a method that calculates the average grade of an assignment from a given index relating to the assignment in the assignment array. 11. You will need a method for each of the following: a. Fill the arrays from the strings provided. i. Hint: the .Split() method is on a string. However, you will not be able to use this directly to fill the assignment array. b. Display the names and assignment grades of each students in the ListBox i. Hint: the .PadLeft() and .PadRight() methods are on a string. c. Get an array of student average across all assignments. i. This is calculated by iterating across the appropriate index of the 2D assignment array for each student and calculating the average of the four assignment grades. This array will be ran in parallel with the student names array. d. Display the name, grade, and letter grade for a given index in the labels. e. Letter grade is returned for a given grade (use +/- system) f. Get the average grade of an assignment using the index of that assignment in the assignments array. Structure Chart Scoring 1. 5% – Form contains controls necessary for assignment. 2. 10% – Validation as needed as described in the assignment. a. This can be either pre-checking or hiding of controls. 3. 5% – Proper datatypes used for each array to include 2D and parallel arrays. 4. 10% – Method used that correctly fills arrays from strings provided. 5. 10% – Method used that displays all students and grades in ListBox. 6. 10% – Method used to return grades for each student based on assignment grades. 7. 10% – Method used to correctly fill name, grade and letter grade to the form using parallel arrays. 8. 5% – Method used that returns the correct letter grade using +/- system. 9. 10% – Method used that returns the correct average of the grades from a given assignment index. 10. 5% – Parallel arrays use indexes correctly. 11. 15% – Meaningful comments; Correct formatting (indentation, braces, whitespace, etc). This should be done automatically if you set up your preferences correctly as described at the beginning of this document. a. Form, TextBoxes, and Buttons are named properly. b. Form and controls have proper titles and labels. 12. 5% – Wow Factor: do something more to the assignment that shows creativity. (Make sure to document it and that it works.) ButtonAverages_Click getAssgnAverageGrade fillArrays displayNames ButtonShow_Click assgnIndex showStudentDetails ButtonSelected_Click selectedIndex getLetterGrade gradeAvg letterGrade Letter Grade Range A 93 – 100 A – 90 – 92.9 B + 87 – 89.9 B 83 – 86.9 B – 80 – 82.9 C + 77 – 79.9 C 73 – 76.9 C – 70 – 72.9 D + 67 – 69.9 D 63 – 66.9 D – 60 – 62.9 F < 60 avgGrade ButtonGrades_Click getStudentGrades studGrades

1181 Assignment #8 Parallel Arrays For this application, you will use parallel arrays to compare grades of a list of students. 1. Rename the form to frmGrades and give the form an appropriate title. 2. Add the following variables as global (class level) variables. String namesString = “Aaron Ben Carmelina Dorthey Erinn Karin ” + “Lester Mitsue Nichol Ria Sherie Zachary”; String assignmentsString = “44 92 100 100 100 97 100 95 100 0 100 100|” + “95 95 97 90 100 95 100 100 100 100 100 75|” + “98 100 65 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 75|” + “85 100 0 50 100 95 90 0 80 100 100 100”; 3. Create three global (class level) arrays. a. One will hold all of the names of your students. b. One will be a 2D array to hold each of the grades for each assignment. c. One will hold the calculated grade for each student for all of their assignments. 4. Add a ListBox to the form to display all of the student names and assignment grades in your arrays. 5. Add a button to do the following: a. Fill the name and assignment grades 2D global arrays from these two strings. The arrays will be ran in parallel. i. Remember Split(). b. DataTypes on the arrays must be appropriate. c. After filling the arrays, call a method to fill the ListBox with student names and grades. i. Remember to use a mono-spaced font. 6. Add a button that will calculate the grade of each student: a. A method to calculate the grade for each student will be called from this event to fill the grades array. 7. Add 3 Labels to display the Name, Grade, and Letter grade of a selected student. 8. Add a Button that will fill the three previously mentioned Labels from the name and grade arrays. a. You will need to make sure the code cannot run until all appropriate arrays have been filled. b. You will need to use the arrays to fill the Labels. c. A method to calculate and return the appropriate letter grade for the student will need to be called from this event method. i. Hint: there is a .SelectedIndex property on a ListBox to get which item in a ListBox is selected. 9. Add a four Labels for the average grade of each assignment. 10. Add a button to display the average of each assignment in the four Labels. a. This event method will need to call a method that calculates the average grade of an assignment from a given index relating to the assignment in the assignment array. 11. You will need a method for each of the following: a. Fill the arrays from the strings provided. i. Hint: the .Split() method is on a string. However, you will not be able to use this directly to fill the assignment array. b. Display the names and assignment grades of each students in the ListBox i. Hint: the .PadLeft() and .PadRight() methods are on a string. c. Get an array of student average across all assignments. i. This is calculated by iterating across the appropriate index of the 2D assignment array for each student and calculating the average of the four assignment grades. This array will be ran in parallel with the student names array. d. Display the name, grade, and letter grade for a given index in the labels. e. Letter grade is returned for a given grade (use +/- system) f. Get the average grade of an assignment using the index of that assignment in the assignments array. Structure Chart Scoring 1. 5% – Form contains controls necessary for assignment. 2. 10% – Validation as needed as described in the assignment. a. This can be either pre-checking or hiding of controls. 3. 5% – Proper datatypes used for each array to include 2D and parallel arrays. 4. 10% – Method used that correctly fills arrays from strings provided. 5. 10% – Method used that displays all students and grades in ListBox. 6. 10% – Method used to return grades for each student based on assignment grades. 7. 10% – Method used to correctly fill name, grade and letter grade to the form using parallel arrays. 8. 5% – Method used that returns the correct letter grade using +/- system. 9. 10% – Method used that returns the correct average of the grades from a given assignment index. 10. 5% – Parallel arrays use indexes correctly. 11. 15% – Meaningful comments; Correct formatting (indentation, braces, whitespace, etc). This should be done automatically if you set up your preferences correctly as described at the beginning of this document. a. Form, TextBoxes, and Buttons are named properly. b. Form and controls have proper titles and labels. 12. 5% – Wow Factor: do something more to the assignment that shows creativity. (Make sure to document it and that it works.) ButtonAverages_Click getAssgnAverageGrade fillArrays displayNames ButtonShow_Click assgnIndex showStudentDetails ButtonSelected_Click selectedIndex getLetterGrade gradeAvg letterGrade Letter Grade Range A 93 – 100 A – 90 – 92.9 B + 87 – 89.9 B 83 – 86.9 B – 80 – 82.9 C + 77 – 79.9 C 73 – 76.9 C – 70 – 72.9 D + 67 – 69.9 D 63 – 66.9 D – 60 – 62.9 F < 60 avgGrade ButtonGrades_Click getStudentGrades studGrades

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In case the body stay in lower temperature for short period (less than 20 minutes), explain how the body response to it.

In case the body stay in lower temperature for short period (less than 20 minutes), explain how the body response to it.

Sweat stops being formed. The minute muscles under the exterior … Read More...
PAPER 1- Pick from ONE of the questions below and answer in essay form. 1. Write out and answer the question. Check all spelling and grammar in MLA format. 2. Cite all sources, direct quotes or indirect ideas using elliptic giving author AND page numbers, i.e. (Soccio 26). Failure here could result in a 0%! 3. Include a Works Cited page at the end. 4. Make sure you submit the work in Turn It In in a single Word document in doc. or docx. or richtext format. 7. Your essay is to be between 1000-1600 words. Extensive quotes (more than 20%) do not count toward this. If you cannot answer a question in these parameters, use another question. Minimum word count DOES NOT insure an excellent grade. Questions and Works Cited do not count towards the word count. You may not use Wikipedia as a source, nor recycle a previous paper from another class. 4 pages answering one question out of many questions

PAPER 1- Pick from ONE of the questions below and answer in essay form. 1. Write out and answer the question. Check all spelling and grammar in MLA format. 2. Cite all sources, direct quotes or indirect ideas using elliptic giving author AND page numbers, i.e. (Soccio 26). Failure here could result in a 0%! 3. Include a Works Cited page at the end. 4. Make sure you submit the work in Turn It In in a single Word document in doc. or docx. or richtext format. 7. Your essay is to be between 1000-1600 words. Extensive quotes (more than 20%) do not count toward this. If you cannot answer a question in these parameters, use another question. Minimum word count DOES NOT insure an excellent grade. Questions and Works Cited do not count towards the word count. You may not use Wikipedia as a source, nor recycle a previous paper from another class. 4 pages answering one question out of many questions

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3. Starting with a hot air balloon, figure out how to make the balloon float. What factors affect the balloon floating or sinking? Explain three of these factors and your understanding of why this works as it does.

3. Starting with a hot air balloon, figure out how to make the balloon float. What factors affect the balloon floating or sinking? Explain three of these factors and your understanding of why this works as it does.

When the air is heated in the balloon, it causes … Read More...
1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs and compensation. True False 2-The goal of tort law is to put a defendant in the position that he or she would have been in had the tort occurred to the defendant. True False 3-Hayley is injured in an accident precipitated by Isolde. Hayley files a tort action against Isolde, seeking to recover for the damage suffered. Damages that are intended to compensate or reimburse a plaintiff for actual losses are: compensatory damages. reimbursement damages. actual damages. punitive damages. 4-Ladd throws a rock intending to hit Minh but misses and hits Nasir instead. On the basis of the tort of battery, Nasir can sue: Ladd. Minh. the rightful owner of the rock. no one. 4-Luella trespasses on Merchandise Mart’s property. Through the use of reasonable force, Merchandise Mart’s security guard detains Luella until the police arrive. Merchandise Mart is liable for: assault. battery. false imprisonment. none of the choice 6-The extreme risk of an activity is a defense against imposing strict liability. True False 7-Misrepresentation in an ad is enough to show an intent to induce the reliance of anyone who may use the product. True False 8-Luke is playing a video game on a defective disk that melts in his game player, starting a fire that injures his hands. Luke files a suit against Mystic Maze, Inc., the game’s maker under the doctrine of strict liability. A significant application of this doctrine is in the area of: cyber torts. intentional torts. product liability. unintentional torts 9-More than two hundred years ago, the Declaration of Independence recognized the importance of protecting creative works. True False 10-n 2014, Cloud Computing Corporation registers its trademark as provided by federal law. After the first renewal, this registration: is renewable every ten years. is renewable every twenty years. runs for life of the corporation plus seventy years. runs forever. 11-Wendy works as a weather announcer for a TV station under the character name Weather Wendy. Wendy can register her character’s name as: a certification mark. a trade name. a service mark. none of the choices 12-Much of the material on the Internet, including software and database information, is not copyrighted. True False 13-In a criminal case, the state must prove its case by a preponderance of the evidence. True False 14-Under the Fourth Amendmentt, general searches through a person’s belongings are permissible. True False 15-Maura enters a gas station and points a gun at the clerk Nate. She then forces Nate to open the cash register and give her all the money. Maura can be charged with: burglary. robbery. larceny. receiving stolen property. 16-Reno, driving while intoxicated, causes a car accident that results in the death of Santo. Reno is arrested and charged with a felony. A felony is a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for: any period of time. more than one year. more than six months. more than ten days. 17-Corporate officers and directors may be held criminally liable for the actions of employees under their supervision. True False 18-Sal assures Tom that she will deliver a truckload of hay to his cattle ranch. A person’s declaration to do a certain act is part of the definition of: an expectation. a moral obligation. a prediction. a promise. 19-Lark promises to buy Mac’s used textbook for $60. Lark is: an offeror. an offeree a promisee. a promisor. 20-Casey offers to sell a certain used forklift to DIY Lumber Outlet, but Casey dies before DIY accepts. Most likely, Casey’s death: did not affect the offer. shortened the time of the offer but did not terminated it. extended the time of the offer. terminated the offer.

1-Two notions serve as the basis for all torts: wrongs … Read More...
Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Read this article and answer this question in 2 pages : Answers should be from the below article only. What is the difference between “standards-based” and “standards-embedded” curriculum? what are the curricular implications of this difference? Article: In 2007, at the dawn of 21st century in education, it is impossible to talk about teaching, curriculum, schools, or education without discussing standards . standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum We are in an age of accountability where our success as educators is determined by individual and group mastery of specific standards dem- onstrated by standardized test per- formance. Even before No Child Left Behind (NCLB), standards and measures were used to determine if schools and students were success- ful (McClure, 2005). But, NCLB has increased the pace, intensity, and high stakes of this trend. Gifted and talented students and their teach- ers are significantly impacted by these local or state proficiency stan- dards and grade-level assessments (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2006). This article explores how to use these standards in the develop- ment of high-quality curriculum for gifted students. NCLB, High-Stakes State Testing, and Standards- Based Instruction There are a few potentially positive outcomes of this evolution to public accountability. All stakeholders have had to ask themselves, “Are students learning? If so, what are they learning and how do we know?” In cases where we have been allowed to thoughtfully evaluate curriculum and instruction, we have also asked, “What’s worth learning?” “When’s the best time to learn it?” and “Who needs to learn it?” Even though state achievement tests are only a single measure, citizens are now offered a yardstick, albeit a nar- row one, for comparing communities, schools, and in some cases, teachers. Some testing reports allow teachers to identify for parents what their chil- dren can do and what they can not do. Testing also has focused attention on the not-so-new observations that pov- erty, discrimination and prejudices, and language proficiency impacts learning. With enough ceiling (e.g., above-grade-level assessments), even gifted students’ actual achievement and readiness levels can be identi- fied and provide a starting point for appropriately differentiated instruc- tion (Tomlinson, 2001). Unfortunately, as a veteran teacher for more than three decades and as a teacher-educator, my recent observa- tions of and conversations with class- room and gifted teachers have usually revealed negative outcomes. For gifted children, their actual achievement level is often unrecognized by teachers because both the tests and the reporting of the results rarely reach above the student’s grade-level placement. Assessments also focus on a huge number of state stan- dards for a given school year that cre- ate “overload” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) and have a devastating impact on the development and implementation of rich and relevant curriculum and instruction. In too many scenarios, I see teachers teach- ing directly to the test. And, in the worst cases, some teachers actually teach The Test. In those cases, The Test itself becomes the curriculum. Consistently I hear, “Oh, I used to teach a great unit on ________ but I can’t do it any- more because I have to teach the standards.” Or, “I have to teach my favorite units in April and May after testing.” If the outcomes can’t be boiled down to simple “I can . . .” state- ments that can be posted on a school’s walls, then teachers seem to omit poten- tially meaningful learning opportunities from the school year. In many cases, real education and learning are being trivial- ized. We seem to have lost sight of the more significant purpose of teaching and learning: individual growth and develop- ment. We also have surrendered much of the joy of learning, as the incidentals, the tangents, the “bird walks” are cut short or elimi- nated because teachers hear the con- stant ticking clock of the countdown to the state test and feel the pressure of the way-too-many standards that have to be covered in a mere 180 school days. The accountability movement has pushed us away from seeing the whole child: “Students are not machines, as the standards movement suggests; they are volatile, complicated, and paradoxical” (Cookson, 2001, p. 42). How does this impact gifted chil- dren? In many heterogeneous class- rooms, teachers have retreated to traditional subject delineations and traditional instruction in an effort to ensure direct standards-based instruc- tion even though “no solid basis exists in the research literature for the ways we currently develop, place, and align educational standards in school cur- ricula” (Zenger & Zenger, 2002, p. 212). Grade-level standards are often particularly inappropriate for the gifted and talented whose pace of learning, achievement levels, and depth of knowledge are significantly beyond their chronological peers. A broad-based, thematically rich, and challenging curriculum is the heart of education for the gifted. Virgil Ward, one of the earliest voices for a differen- tial education for the gifted, said, “It is insufficient to consider the curriculum for the gifted in terms of traditional subjects and instructional processes” (Ward, 1980, p. 5). VanTassel-Baska Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum gifted child today 45 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum and Stambaugh (2006) described three dimensions of successful curriculum for gifted students: content mastery, pro- cess and product, and epistemological concept, “understanding and appre- ciating systems of knowledge rather than individual elements of those systems” (p. 9). Overemphasis on testing and grade-level standards limits all three and therefore limits learning for gifted students. Hirsch (2001) concluded that “broad gen- eral knowledge is the best entrée to deep knowledge” (p. 23) and that it is highly correlated with general ability to learn. He continued, “the best way to learn a subject is to learn its gen- eral principles and to study an ample number of diverse examples that illustrate those principles” (Hirsch, 2001, p. 23). Principle-based learn- ing applies to both gifted and general education children. In order to meet the needs of gifted and general education students, cur- riculum should be differentiated in ways that are relevant and engaging. Curriculum content, processes, and products should provide challenge, depth, and complexity, offering multiple opportunities for problem solving, creativity, and exploration. In specific content areas, the cur- riculum should reflect the elegance and sophistication unique to the discipline. Even with this expanded view of curriculum in mind, we still must find ways to address the current reality of state standards and assess- ments. Standards-Embedded Curriculum How can educators address this chal- lenge? As in most things, a change of perspective can be helpful. Standards- based curriculum as described above should be replaced with standards- embedded curriculum. Standards- embedded curriculum begins with broad questions and topics, either discipline specific or interdisciplinary. Once teachers have given thoughtful consideration to relevant, engaging, and important content and the con- nections that support meaning-making (Jensen, 1998), they next select stan- dards that are relevant to this content and to summative assessments. This process is supported by the backward planning advocated in Understanding by Design by Wiggins and McTighe (2005) and its predecessors, as well as current thinkers in other fields, such as Covey (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). It is a critical component of differenti- ating instruction for advanced learners (Tomlinson, 2001) and a significant factor in the Core Parallel in the Parallel Curriculum Model (Tomlinson et al., 2002). Teachers choose from standards in multiple disciplines at both above and below grade level depending on the needs of the students and the classroom or program structure. Preassessment data and the results of prior instruc- tion also inform this process of embed- ding appropriate standards. For gifted students, this formative assessment will result in “more advanced curricula available at younger ages, ensuring that all levels of the standards are traversed in the process” (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2003, p. 3). Once the essential questions, key content, and relevant standards are selected and sequenced, they are embedded into a coherent unit design and instructional decisions (grouping, pacing, instructional methodology) can be made. For gifted students, this includes the identification of appropri- ate resources, often including advanced texts, mentors, and independent research, as appropriate to the child’s developmental level and interest. Applying Standards- Embedded Curriculum What does this look like in practice? In reading the possible class- room applications below, consider these three Ohio Academic Content Standards for third grade: 1. Math: “Read thermometers in both Fahrenheit and Celsius scales” (“Academic Content Standards: K–12 Mathematics,” n.d., p. 71). 2. Social Studies: “Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people who have lived in the local community including artistic expression, religion, language, and food. Compare the cultural practices and products of the local community with those of other communities in Ohio, the United States, and countries of the world” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Social Studies, n.d., p. 122). 3. Life Science: “Observe and explore how fossils provide evidence about animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time” (Academic Content Standards: K–12 Science, n.d., p. 57). When students are fortunate to have a teacher who is dedicated to helping all of them make good use of their time, the gifted may have a preassessment opportunity where they can demonstrate their familiarity with the content and potential mastery of a standard at their grade level. Students who pass may get to read by them- selves for the brief period while the rest of the class works on the single outcome. Sometimes more experienced teachers will create opportunities for gifted and advanced students Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum to work on a standard in the same domain or strand at the next higher grade level (i.e., accelerate through the standards). For example, a stu- dent might be able to work on a Life Science standard for fourth grade that progresses to other communities such as ecosystems. These above-grade-level standards can provide rich material for differentiation, advanced problem solving, and more in-depth curriculum integration. In another classroom scenario, a teacher may focus on the math stan- dard above, identifying the standard number on his lesson plan. He creates or collects paper thermometers, some showing measurement in Celsius and some in Fahrenheit. He also has some real thermometers. He demonstrates thermometer use with boiling water and with freezing water and reads the different temperatures. Students complete a worksheet that has them read thermometers in Celsius and Fahrenheit. The more advanced students may learn how to convert between the two scales. Students then practice with several questions on the topic that are similar in structure and content to those that have been on past proficiency tests. They are coached in how to answer them so that the stan- dard, instruction, formative assess- ment, and summative assessment are all aligned. Then, each student writes a statement that says, “I can read a thermometer using either Celsius or Fahrenheit scales.” Both of these examples describe a standards-based environment, where the starting point is the standard. Direct instruction to that standard is followed by an observable student behavior that demonstrates specific mastery of that single standard. The standard becomes both the start- ing point and the ending point of the curriculum. Education, rather than opening up a student’s mind, becomes a series of closed links in a chain. Whereas the above lessons may be differentiated to some extent, they have no context; they may relate only to the next standard on the list, such as, “Telling time to the nearest minute and finding elapsed time using a cal- endar or a clock.” How would a “standards-embed- ded” model of curriculum design be different? It would begin with the development of an essential ques- tion such as, “Who or what lived here before me? How were they different from me? How were they the same? How do we know?” These questions might be more relevant to our con- temporary highly mobile students. It would involve place and time. Using this intriguing line of inquiry, students might work on the social studies stan- dard as part of the study of their home- town, their school, or even their house or apartment. Because where people live and what they do is influenced by the weather, students could look into weather patterns of their area and learn how to measure temperature using a Fahrenheit scale so they could see if it is similar now to what it was a century ago. Skipping ahead to consideration of the social studies standard, students could then choose another country, preferably one that uses Celsius, and do the same investigation of fossils, communities, and the like. Students could complete a weather comparison, looking at the temperature in Celsius as people in other parts of the world, such as those in Canada, do. Thus, learning is contextualized and connected, dem- onstrating both depth and complexity. This approach takes a lot more work and time. It is a sophisticated integrated view of curriculum devel- opment and involves in-depth knowl- edge of the content areas, as well as an understanding of the scope and sequence of the standards in each dis- cipline. Teachers who develop vital single-discipline units, as well as inter- disciplinary teaching units, begin with a central topic surrounded by subtopics and connections to other areas. Then they connect important terms, facts, or concepts to the subtopics. Next, the skilled teacher/curriculum devel- oper embeds relevant, multileveled standards and objectives appropriate to a given student or group of stu- dents into the unit. Finally, teachers select the instructional strategies and develop student assessments. These assessments include, but are not lim- ited to, the types of questions asked on standardized and state assessments. Comparing Standards- Based and Standards- Embedded Curriculum Design Following is an articulation of the differences between standards-based and standards-embedded curriculum design. (See Figure 1.) 1. The starting point. Standards- based curriculum begins with the grade-level standard and the underlying assumption that every student needs to master that stan- dard at that moment in time. In standards-embedded curriculum, the multifaceted essential ques- tion and students’ needs are the starting points. 2. Preassessment. In standards- based curriculum and teaching, if a preassessment is provided, it cov- ers a single standard or two. In a standards-embedded curriculum, preassessment includes a broader range of grade-level and advanced standards, as well as students’ knowledge of surrounding content such as background experiences with the subject, relevant skills (such as reading and writing), and continued on page ?? even learning style or interests. gifted child today 47 Standards-Based v. Standards-Embedded Curriculum Standards Based Standards Embedded Starting Points The grade-level standard. Whole class’ general skill level Essential questions and content relevant to individual students and groups. Preassessment Targeted to a single grade-level standard. Short-cycle assessments. Background knowledge. Multiple grade-level standards from multiple areas connected by the theme of the unit. Includes annual learning style and interest inventories. Acceleration/ Enrichment To next grade-level standard in the same strand. To above-grade-level standards, as well as into broader thematically connected content. Language Arts Divided into individual skills. Reading and writing skills often separated from real-world relevant contexts. The language arts are embedded in all units and themes and connected to differentiated processes and products across all content areas. Instruction Lesson planning begins with the standard as the objective. Sequential direct instruction progresses through the standards in each content area separately. Strategies are selected to introduce, practice, and demonstrate mastery of all grade-level standards in all content areas in one school year. Lesson planning begins with essential questions, topics, and significant themes. Integrated instruction is designed around connections among content areas and embeds all relevant standards. Assessment Format modeled after the state test. Variety of assessments including questions similar to the state test format. Teacher Role Monitor of standards mastery. Time manager. Facilitator of instructional design and student engagement with learning, as well as assessor of achievement. Student Self- Esteem “I can . . .” statements. Star Charts. Passing “the test.” Completed projects/products. Making personal connections to learning and the theme/topic. Figure 1. Standards based v. standards-embedded instruction and gifted students. and the potential political outcry of “stepping on the toes” of the next grade’s teacher. Few classroom teachers have been provided with the in-depth professional develop- ment and understanding of curric- ulum compacting that would allow them to implement this effectively. In standards-embedded curricu- lum, enrichment and extensions of learning are more possible and more interesting because ideas, top- ics, and questions lend themselves more easily to depth and complex- ity than isolated skills. 4. Language arts. In standards- based classrooms, the language arts have been redivided into sepa- rate skills, with reading separated from writing, and writing sepa- rated from grammar. To many concrete thinkers, whole-language approaches seem antithetical to teaching “to the standards.” In a standards-embedded classroom, integrated language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, speak- ing, presenting, and even pho- nics) are embedded into the study of every unit. Especially for the gifted, the communication and language arts are essential, regard- less of domain-specific talents (Ward, 1980) and should be com- ponents of all curriculum because they are the underpinnings of scholarship in all areas. 5. Instruction. A standards-based classroom lends itself to direct instruction and sequential pro- gression from one standard to the next. A standards-embedded class- room requires a variety of more open-ended instructional strate- gies and materials that extend and diversify learning rather than focus it narrowly. Creativity and differ- entiation in instruction and stu- dent performance are supported more effectively in a standards- embedded approach. 6. Assessment. A standards-based classroom uses targeted assess- ments focused on the structure and content of questions on the externally imposed standardized test (i.e., proficiency tests). A stan- dards-embedded classroom lends itself to greater use of authentic assessment and differentiated 3. Acceleration/Enrichment. In a standards-based curriculum, the narrow definition of the learning outcome (a test item) often makes acceleration or curriculum compact- ing the only path for differentiating instruction for gifted, talented, and/ or advanced learners. This rarely happens, however, because of lack of materials, knowledge, o

Standard based Curriculum In standard based curriculum, the initial point … Read More...